Euphorbiaceae Infrafamily Keys

Keys

 

Subtribe Chrozophorinae (subfam. Acalyphoideae; tribe Chrozophoreae)

Tribe Erismantheae (subfam. Acalyphoideae)

Malesian genera of Hippomaneae

Subtribe Lasiococcinae (subfam. Acalyphoideae; tribe Acalypheae)

Subtribe Scepinae (subfam. Phyllanthoideae; tribe Antidesmae)

 

 

Key to the genera of subtribe Chrozophorinae (Acalyphoideae)

 

Welzen, P.C. van. 1999. Revision and phylogeny of subtribes Chrozophorinae and Doryxylinae (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia and Thailand. Blumea 44: 411--436.

 

1a.

Stamens free or united, connective without gland. Leaves peltate or not, basally with or without an adaxial group of glands; when glands present: leaves 2.8--12 by 2.2--12 cm, and the petiole basally and apically somewhat pulvinate.

2

1b.

Stamens free, connective with apicidorsal gland. Leaves not peltate, basally with an adaxial group of glands, 5--38 by 5--34 cm; petiole not pulvinate, usually basally constricted when dry.

70. Melanolepis

2a.

Shrub or tree. Leaves not lobed; margin entire or dentate and then with glands; without abaxial glands near petiole insertion. Stamens 40--250, united or free. Pistillate flowers without petals. Fruit lacking red dye.

3

2b.

Herb or shrub. Leaves usually 3-lobed; margin entire, without glands; with 2 abaxial glands near petiole insertion. Stamens 3--16, united. Pistillate flowers with petals. Fruit producing red dye.

27. Chrozophora

3a.

Leaves usually peltate; margin subentire to dentate, with glandular teeth; petiole basally and apically somewhat pulvinate. Stamens free; staminate disc absent.

4

3b.

Leaves not peltate; margin entire, without glandular teeth; petiole not pulvinate. Stamens united; staminate disc present.

Thyrsanthera

4a.

Thorns often present (modified axillary buds). Leaves often peltate, 2.8--12 by 2.2--12 cm, without yellow glands on lower surface. Staminate flowers without torus; stamens 110--130. Pistillate disc present

40. Doryxylon

4b.

Thorns absent. Leaves always peltate, 6.8--47 by 3.2--19 cm, with yellow glands on lower surface. Staminate flowers with torus; stamens c. 75. Pistillate disc absent.

97. Sumbaviopsis

 

 

Key to the genera of tribe Erismantheae (Acalyphoideae)

 

welzen, P.C. van. 1995. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Euphorbiaceae tribe Erismantheae G.L.Webster (Erismanthus, Moultonianthus, and Syndyophyllum). Blumea 40: 375--396.

 

1a.

Staminate inflorescences thyrses with short-pedicelled flowrs (pedicel less than 1.5 cm long). Stamens 4--11. Pistillate inflorescences or mixed inflorescences with several pistillate flowers.

2

1b.

Staminate inflorescences catkin-like with long-pedicelled flowers (flowers more than 1.5 cm long). Stamens 12--15. Pistillate inflorescences with one flowers.

45. Erismanthus

2a.

Stipules long persistent, ovate, 0.8--4.5 by 0.5--3.6 cm, base cordate. Pedicels of the staminate flowers 2.8--13.3 mm long; of the pistillate flowers and fruits 3--8.2 cm long. Staminate and pistillate flowers in separate inflorescences. Petals longer than sepals.

74. Moultonianthus

2b.

Stipules early caducous, triangular, 3.2--4.9 by 1--1.2 mm, base broad. Pedicels of the staminate flowers less than 1 mm long; of the pistillate flowers and fruits up to 7 m long. Staminate and pistillate flowers present in the same inflorescences. Petals if present shorter than sepals.

99. Syndyophyllum

 

 

Key to the Malesian genera of Hippomaneae

 

1a.

Herbs to small shrubs up to 90 cm tall. Leaves minutely serrate, up to 12 mm wide. Fruits with 6 rows of spiny appendages

73. Microstachys

1b.

Shrubs to trees. Leaves entire or distinctly serrate, at least 15 mm wide. Fruits without rows of spiny appendages, smooth or rarely with 6 pairs of hooks ('muricate' )

2

2a.

Leaves shallowly to distinctly serrate, not whitish beneath

3

2b.

Leaves entire, beneath whitish or not

7

3a.

Young leaves and inflorescences with yellowish hairs. Staminate flowers distinctly (1-3 mm) pedicellate. Fruits with pedicel of 8-30 mm, with massive pericarp at least 2 mm thick

93. Shirakiopsis

3b.

Plants completely glabrous. Staminate flowers sessile to shortly (less than 1 mm) pedicellate. Fruits with pedicel of less than 5 mm, with thin (sometimes fleshy) pericarp less than 2 mm thick

4

4a.

Pistillate and staminate flowers in separate, elongate thyrses, often flowering on leafless twigs. Pistillate flowers/fruits at least 20 per inflorescence/ infructescence. Fruits irregularly dehiscent; seeds with pale fleshy structure

48. Falconeria

4b.

Pistillate and staminate flowers in one elongate thyrse (although sometimes only one sex present), flowering on leafy twigs. Pistillate flowers/fruits less than 20 per inflorescence/ infructescence. Fruits regularly dehiscent; seeds with dry or reddish-fleshy structure

5

5a.

Leaves without glands on petiole apex or lamina base visible from above. Staminate flowers 1-3 per bract, with free sepals and 3 stamens. Seeds dry, carunculate; caruncle separating from seed, remaining at central columella and leaving a thiny scar on seed top

47. Excoecaria

5b.

Leaves with glands on petiole apex of lamina base visible from above. Staminate flowers 4-18 per bract, with fused sepals and 2 stamens. Seeds with reddish-fleshy structure or dry and carunculate, caruncle not separating from seed

6

6a.

Plants with succulent stems. Petiole with a quite inconspicuous pair of glands on the junction with the lamina base. Fruits with woody, indehiscent base that remains as a tricornute structure after dehiscence; seeds dry. Indigenous

95. Stillingia

6b.

Plants not succulent. Lamina base adaxially glandless, but petiole apex with a pair of glands usually separated from the lamina. Fruits without woody indehiscent base, leaving an alate columella without a tricornute base; seeds with reddish arilloid. Only in cultivation

91. Sapium

7a.

Leaves with gland(s) on petiole apex or lamina base visible from above

8

7b.

Leaves without gland(s) on petiole apex or lamina base visible from above

10

8a.

Stipules 5-200 mm long. Leaf blades with tertiary venation usually percurrent, only in narrow leaves rarely reticulate. Staminate flowers bilateral or zygomorphic with (4-)6-20 stamens. Fruits 2- (or 3)-locular; seeds with reddish arilloid

55. Homalanthus

8b.

Stipules up to 2 mm long. Leaf blades with tertiary venation reticulate. Staminate flowers radially symmetric with 2 or 3 stamens. Fruits 3-locular; seeds dry and brownish or whitish with sarcotesta

9

9a.

Leaf blades with lowermost pair of veins originating at lamina base. Monoecious. Staminate flowers (3-)5-8 per bract. Seeds with whitish sarcotesta

102. Triadica

9b.

Leaf blades with lowermost pair of veins originating above lamina base. Dioecious. Staminate flowers 1-3 per bract. Seeds dry and brownish

47. Excoecaria agallocha

10a.

Stipules up to 2 mm long. Leaf blades with tertiary venation reticulate to rarely percurrent. Inflorescences and infructescences terminal and compound or axillary and simple to compound. Fruits regularly dehiscent or indehiscent; if dehiscent with dry seeds

11

10b.

Stipules 5-200 mm long. Leaf blades with tertiary venation usually percurrent, only in narrow leaves rarely reticulate. Inflorescences and infructescences terminal, simple. Fruits tardily dehiscent; seeds with reddish arilloid

55. Homalanthus

11a.

Staminate flowers 5-9 per bract. Fruits 1- or 2-seeded, fleshy-indehiscent

13. Balakata

11b.

Staminate flowers 1-3 per bract. Fruits 3-seeded, dry, dehiscent

53. Gymnanthes

 

 

Key to the genera of subtribe Lasiococcinae (Acalyphoideae, Acalypheae)

 

Welzen, P.C. van. 1998. Revisions and phylogenies of Malesian Euphorbiaceae: Subtribe Lasiococcinae (Homonoia, Lasiococca, Spathiostemon) and Clonostylus, Ricinus, and Wetria. Blumea 43: 131--164.

 

1a.

Plant not rheophytic. Leaves below without scale hairs. Stamens united into several androphores. Ovaries echinate (or smooth). Fruits larger, 9--12 by 6--7 mm; column after dehiscence with a broadened apex, obtriangular in longitudinal section.

2

1b.

Plant rheophytic. Leaves below with scale hairs. Stamens united into a single androphore. Ovaries smooth. Fruits small, 3.2--4.5 by 2.7--4 mm; column after deshicens apically tapering.

56. Homonoia

2a.

Leaves in pseudowhorls or subopposite, base narrowly cordate.

62. Lasiococca

2b.

Leaves alternate, base rounded to truncate.

94. Spathiostemon

 

 

Key to the genera of subtribe Scepinae (Phyllanthoideae)

 

Haegens, R.M.A.P. 2000. Taxonomy, Phylogeny, and Biogeography of Baccaurea, Distichirhops, and Nothobaccaurea (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea Suppl. 12: 1--216.

 

1a.

Pistillate disc entire (cup-shaped), or absent.

2

1b.

Pistillate disc divided; styles dilated, entire to slightly lobed. Africa.

Protomegabaria

2a.

Staminate disc present (unknown for Distichirhops).

3

2b.

Staminate disc absent (unknown for Distichirhops).

7

3a.

Pistillate disc absent.

4

3b.

Pistillate disc present.

5

4a.

Monoecious. Styles not lobed. Africa.

Apodiscus

4b.

Dioecious. Styles bid. Asia.

39. Distichirhops

5a.

Dioecious. Inflorescences racemose. Stipules deciduous.

6

5b.

Monoecious. Inflorescences with axillary glomerules. Stipules persistent. America.

Jablonskia

6a.

Capsule loculicidal. Staminate flowers mostly one per bract. Africa.

Maesobotrya

6b.

Capsule septicidal. Staminate flowers mostly several per bract. America.

Richeria

7a.

Pistillode small. Style with (nearly) sessile stigmas.

8

7b.

Pistillode massive. Stigmas not sessile, style mushroom-shaped. Asia.

10. Ashtonia

8a.

Terminalia branching pattern absent (leaves regularly along branches). Leaf arrangement often distichous.

9

8b.

Terminalia branching pattern present (long leafless internodes and several - very - short leaf-rich interneodes: leaves clustered). Leaf arrangement usually spiral.

10

9a.

One bract per pistillate flower; pistillate disc present (but obscure), pedicel without abscission zone. Asia, Pacic.

9. Aporosa

9b.

Three bracts per pistillate flower, pistillate disc absent, pedicel with abscission zone. Asia.

39. Distichirhops

10a.

Stamens shorter than sepals. Staminate inflorescences densely hairy. Sepals slightly fused at base. Leaf arrangement always spiral; glands situated along the margins as well as on the lower surface of the blade. Stipules triangular. Asia, Pacic.

12. Baccaurea

10b.

Stamens longer than sepals. Staminate inflorescences glabrous to sparsely hairy. Sepals fused at base. Leaf arrangement spiral to opposite; glands exclusively along the margins. Stipules leaf-like to triangular. Pacic.   

77. Nothobaccaurea