Malesian Euphorbiaceae Descriptions

1. ACALYPHA

 

V.G. Sagun, G.A. Levin & P.C. van Welzen

 

V.G. Sagun, G.A. Levin & P.C. van Welzen. 2010. Revision and Phylogeny of Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia. Blumea 55: 21—66.

 

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Genus description

Key to the species

Subgenus Linostachys

Species descriptions subgen. Linostachys

Subgenus Acalypha

Species descriptions subgen. Acalypha

Doubtful species

Excluded species

 

Acalypha L.

 

    Acalypha L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1003;  Gen. Pl. (1754) 436; A.Juss., Euph. Gen. (1824) 45; Baill., Ιtude Gιn. Euph. (1858) 440; Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 799; Benth., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 13 (1879) Pl.13, t.1291; in Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 3 (1880) 311; Pax in Engl. &, Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 5 (1890) 60; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 12; in Engl. & Harms, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 2nd ed., 19c (1931) 134; Hurus., J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Secti. III, Bot. 6 (1954) 295; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 489; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 205; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 51; Airy Shaw, Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 38 (1974) Pl. 38, t. 3719; Kew Bull, Addit. Ser. 4 (1975) 23; Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 13; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 246; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 2; Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philipp. Isl. (1983) 2; Radcl.-Sm., Kew Bull. 45 (1990) 677; P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 4 (1994) 209; G.L.Webster, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 81 (1994) 90; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 43; Radcl.-Sm., Gen. Euphorbiacearum (2001) 234; Ngerns. & Chayamarit in Chayamarit & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 23; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 25; G.L.Webster in Kubitzki, Fam. & Gen. Vasc. Pl. 11 (2014) 124. — Acalyphes Hassk., Tijdschr. Nat. Geschied. Phys. 11 (1844) 235, orth. var. — Lectotype (designated by: J.K.Small in N.L.Britton & A.Br., Illustr. Fl. North. U.S., 1913. 452–477): Acalypha virginica L.

    Mercuriastrum Heist. ex Fabr., Enum. Meth. Pl. (1759) 202; fide Dandy, Regnum Veg. 51 (1967) 64. — Typus: none designated.

    Cupameni Adans., Fam. Pl. 2 (1763) 356, nom. illeg., later synonym. — Lectotype (designated by Vαczy in Manilal, Bot. Hist. Hortus Malabaricus, 1980, 24–34): A. indica L. (Radcliffe-Smith 2001, mentions A. chamaedrifolia as lectotype, but no evidence was found for this selection).

    Caturus L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 19. — Galurus Spreng., Anleit. Kenntn. Gew. 2 (1817) 364, nom. illeg. — Type: Caturus spiciflora L. [= Acalypha hispida Burm.f.].

    Cupamenis Raf., Sylva Tell (1838) 67, nom. illeg., later synonym, non Cupameni Adans. (Nicolson, Suresh &, Manilal, Interpr. Hort. Malab., 1988). — Lectotype (designated by Vαczy in Manilal, Bot. Hist. Hortus Malabaricus, 1980, 24–34): Acalypha indica L.

    Linostachys Klotzsch ex Schltdl., Linnaea 19 (1847) 235. — Type: Linostachys padifolia Schltdl. [= Acalypha schlechtendahliana Mόll.Arg.].

    Odonteilema Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou 11 (1848) 587. — Type: Odonteilema clausseni Turcz. [= Acalypha clausseni (Turcz.) Baill.].

    Calyptrospatha Klotzsch ex Baill., Ιtude Gιn. Euph. (1858) 440. — Type: Calyptrospatha pubiflora Klotzsch [= Acalypha pubiflora (Klotzch) Baill.].

    Gymnalypha Griseb., Bonplandia 6 (1858) 2. — Type: Gymnalypha jacquinii Griseb. [= Acalypha villosa Jacq.].

    Corythea S.Watson, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 22 (1887) 451. — Type: Corythea filipes S.Watson [= Acalypha filipes (S.Watson) McVaugh].

    Ricinocarpus Burm., Thes. Zeylan. (1737) 202, ex Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 615, non Desf. (Mιm. Mus. Hist. Nat. 3, 1817) 459. — Type species: maxina thes. zeyl. 203/5 t. 93 f. 1, p.p., non t. 92 (Burman 1737) [= Acalypha lanceolata Willd. var. lanceolata].

    Schizogyne Ehrenb. ex Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 98, pro syn. — Type: Schizogyne ciliata Ehrenb. [= Acalypha ciliata Forssk.].

    Acalyphopsis Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 178. — Type: Acalyphopsis celebica Pax & K.Hoffm., nom. dub. [= Acalypha hoffmanniana Hurus.].

 

 Herbs, shrubs and rarely trees, monoecious or dioecious. Indumentum of dense velvety hairs, sparse simple straight or recurved hairs, stellate hairs, capitate trichomes, sessile glands or absent. Stipules persistent or caducous, narrow to broadly triangular, elliptic or ovate. Leaves alternate, simple, symmetric; petioles short to exceeding blade length, blade surface without glands; base acute, obtuse or cordate, sometimes with a pair of glands; margin serrate, crenate or subentire; apex acute to acuminate; venation distinct, penninerved or palminerved at base, looped and closed near margin (semicraspedodromous), tertiary veins and veinlets scalariform to reticulate. Inflorescences unisexual or bisexual, axillary, terminal or both, solitary or less commonly fasciculate, spicate or paniculate; bisexual inflorescences usually pistillate below and staminate above; staminate flowers in groups per node, pistillate ones generally single. Flowers petals and disc absent. Staminate flowers: pedicel short, elongating on maturity; calyx 4-lobed, midrib usually verrucate on upper half; stamens 8, thecae 2, pendulous and vermiform at anthesis; pollen small, oblate-spheroidal to suboblate in meridional outline, apertures 2–8-colporate, ectocolpi 1–5 μm; pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers: pedicel present or absent, subtended by a bract, latter either chartaceous and non-accrescent or foliaceous and accrescent, if foliaceous then with minute bract stipules; calyx 3- (or 4-) or 5-lobed; ovary 2- or 3- (or 4-)locular; stigmas 2, 3 (or 4), smooth, usually laciniate; ovules 1 per locule. Allomorphic flowers sometimes present, ebracteate, ovary 1-locular, variously fringed, styles subbasal. Fruits capsules, lobed, thin-walled, dehiscing partly loculicidal and completely septicidal and leaving a persistent columella. Allomorphic fruits nutlets. Seeds carunculate or not, caruncle if present covering up to basal half of seed, seed coat patterning indistinct. (This description pertains to the Malesian species only).

    Distribution — A pantropical genus of 450 species, with centres of diversity in Central America and Africa, and including 28 species in Malesia. The infrageneric classification follows Pax & Hoffmann (1924), with subg. Linostachys represented by 1 species in Malesia and subg. Acalypha by 27 species.

 

Key to the species

 

Notes

1. The staminate inflorescence technically is a spike-like thyrse in which the staminate flowers are shortly pedicellate and clustered in cymes along a rachis. However, for simplicity the term ‘spicate’ is used here to describe the staminate inflorescence.

2. The term ‘dots’ is used to refer to small light-coloured circular patches in the epidermis, less than 0.1 mm, that may represent druse crystals, but this was not confirmed anatomically.

3. Paired appendages flank the base of each foliaceous pistillate bract. Because the bracts are modified leaves, the subtending paired appendages appear to be homologous to stipules; hence the term ‘bract stipules’ is used for these structures.

4. Pistillate flowers in subg. Acalypha generally are subtended by two orders of bracts, first order ‘bracts’ and second order ‘bracteoles’. Bracteoles in subg. Acalypha are usually minute, bifid, membranous structures. In subg. Linostachys the pistillate flowers are subtended only by a single order of bracts. These are minute, bifid, membranaceous organs that structurally

appear to be homologous to the bracteoles of subg. Acalypha. Despite this homology, we consistently refer to first order bracts in both subgenera as bracts. Bracteoles are difficult to observe in subg. Acalypha and are not included in the descriptions of species in that subgenus.

5. The following abbreviations are used for the floristic areas in Malesia: Bor. = Borneo, Jav. = Java, LSI. = Lesser Sunda Islands, Mal. = Malay Peninsula, Mol. = Mollucas, NG = New Guinea, Phil. = Philippines, Sul. = Sulawesi, Sum. = Sumatra.

 

1a.

Pistillate inflorescences racemose or paniculate; pistillate flowers with pedicels 0.5–1 mm long; pistillate bracts 0.5 by 0.5 mm, bifid; pistillate calyx 5-lobed; herbaceous perennials. — Jav., LSI. (Flores) (Subg. Linostachys)

1. A. paniculata

1b.

Pistillate inflorescences spicate (or sometimes branched and the branches spicate) or the flowers solitary (A. spectabilis); pistillate flowers with pedicels < 0.5 mm long; pistillate bracts at least 1–1.5 by 1.5–2 mm and generally much larger (if smaller (A. hispida) then entire), entire or with 3 or more teeth or lobes; pistillate calyx 3- (or 4-)lobed; habit various (Subg. Acalypha)

2

2a.

Annual or perennial herbs

3

2b.

Shrubs or trees

7

3a.

Pistillate bracts deeply lobed, lobes ≤ 5, 3 – 6 mm long. — Sum., Jav., LSI

7. A. brachystachya

3b.

Pistillate bracts shallowly toothed, teeth > 5, 0.5–2 mm long

4

4a.

Leaf blades narrowly elliptic, at least 3 times longer than wide; pistillate bracts glabrous throughout. — Phil.

5. A. australis

4b.

Leaf blades ovate to elliptic, no more than 2 times longer than wide; pistillate bracts with hairs at least along the margins

5

5a.

Pistillate bracts glabrous on their surfaces, hairy only on the margins, teeth obtuse. — Malesia

16. A. indica

5b.

Pistillate bracts hairy on their surfaces and margins, teeth acute

6

6a.

Pistillate bracts 5.5–6 by 6–7 mm; staminate portion of inflorescences 20–35 by c. 2 mm; inflorescences sometimes branched. — Sul.

4. A. argentii

6b.

6. Pistillate bracts 2–3 by 4–6 mm; staminate portion of inflorescences 3–7 by 1—2 mm; inflorescences unbranched. — Malesia

17. A. lanceolata var. lanceolata

7a.

Leaves and pistillate bracts bearing sessile yellowish refringent glands; stems with stellate hairs. — LSI.

28. A. zollingeri

7b.

Leaves and pistillate bracts without refringent glands; stems with simple hairs or glabrous

8

8a.

Pistillate inflorescences extremely densely flowered, rachises usually hidden by flowers; stigmas 5–8 mm long; exotic plants (usually cultivated). — Malesia (cult.)

15. A. hispida

8b.

Pistillate inflorescences laxly flowered, rachises visible; stigmas up to 5 mm long; native plants growing outside cultivation (except A. wilkesiana)

9

9a.

Fruits with elongate spiny processes 1–2 by 0.2–0.5 mm. — Sum., Mal., Jav., Sul.

23. A. siamensis var. siamensis

9b.

Fruits verrucate, hairy or glabrous, but without spines (fruits unknown for Malesian A. capillipes, A. spectabilis, A. stenophylla)

10

10a.

Leaf blade upper surfaces bullate (with blister-like swellings between the veinlets). Pistillate bracts entire, ovate to obovate. — NG

24. A. spectabilis

10b.

Leaf blade upper surfaces flat or slightly sunken between the veinlets. Pistillate bracts toothed or lobed, ovate to orbicular

11

11a.

Pistillate inflorescence pseudoscorpioid, bent at each node; a few staminate flowers sometimes present as a cluster in same axil as pistillate inflorescence. — Mol.

6. A. balgooyi

11b.

Pistillate inflorescence straight, not bent at the nodes. Staminate flowers (unknown for A. floresensis, A. hispida) absent from the same axil as pistillate inflorescence, or if present then forming an elongate spicate inflorescence (A. capillipes, A. phyllonomifolia)

12

12a.

Pistillate bracts 1 or 2 per inflorescence

13

12b.

Pistillate bracts 3 or more per inflorescence

14

13a.

Plants with axillary spines. Leaves without drip-tips. — Sul.

8. A. capillipes

13b.

Plants without axillary spines; leaves with drip-tips. — NG

21. A. phyllonomifolia

14a.

Pistillate bracts distinctly petiolate, bract petiole 1–2 mm long. — LSI. (Flores)

11. A. floresensis

14b.

Pistillate bracts sessile to subsessile, bract petiole < 0.25 mm long

15

15a.

Pistillate bracts 3-lobed, chartaceous, non-accrescent

16

15b.

Pistillate bracts with more than 3 lobes or teeth, foliaceous, accrescent

18

16a.

Ovaries/fruits bilocular, styles 2. — Malesia

10. A. caturus

16b.

Ovaries/fruits trilocular, styles 3

17

17a.

Stipules usually recurved, ovate to broad elliptic, apex obtuse. Stigmas each 4–6 times divided. Fruits without densely hairy longitudinal ridges. — Mol., NG

18. A. longispica

17b.

Stipules straight, broadly ovate to elliptic, apex acute. Stigmas each > 20 times divided. Fruits with a densely hairy longitudinal ridge on each locule. — Bor., Phil.

9. A. cardiophylla var. cardiophylla

18a.

Leaf blades narrowly elliptic, length/width ratio 4–7. — NG

25. A. stenophylla

18b.

Leaf blades ovate to (broadly) elliptic to cordate, length/width ratio 1–3.5

19

19a.

Leaf venation penninerved (1-nerved at base). — NG

19. A. nervulosa

19b.

Leaf venation palminerved (3- or 5-nerved at base)

20

20a.

Leaves 5-nerved at base

21

20b.

Leaves 3-nerved at base

24

21a.

Stipule width 1.5–5 mm. Fertile portion of pistillate inflorescences 6–9 cm long, always less than length of leaf blade — Phil.

12. A. grandibracteata

21b.

Stipule width 0.5–1.5 mm. Fertile portion of pistillate inflorescences 9–30 cm, often exceeding the leaf blade length

22

22a.

Fruits with both straight hairs and hairs with enlarged bases. Pistillate bracts 2–3.5 by 1.5–4 mm. — NG

20. A. novoguineensis

22b.

Fruits with straight hairs only; pistillate bracts 4–12 by 4–11 mm

23

23a.

Leaf blades serrate. Pistillate inflorescences laxly flowered, internodes usually visible; staminate inflorescences of constant width. Pistillate bract teeth 9–11. — NG

13. A. grandis

23b.

Leaf blades subentire to weakly crenate. Pistillate inflorescences densely flowered, internodes usually not visible; staminate inflorescences with bulbous apex when young. Pistillate bract teeth 11–15. — NG

26. A. subintegra

24a.

Leaves variegated or brown-coloured, often twisted and aberrant. — Malesia (cult.)

27. A. wilkesiana

24b.

Leaves green, not variegated, flat and normal

25

25a.

Stipules 1–1.5 mm wide, linear or needle-like. — NG

14. A. hellwigii

25b.

Stipules 2–5 mm wide, ovate to narrowly elliptic

26

26a.

Leaves with dense velvety indumentum; stipules densely hairy inside and outside. — Phil.

3. A. angatensis

26b.

Leaves sparsely pubescent to nearly glabrous; stipules hairy only on outside of midrib

27

27a.

Leaf blade margins serrate on both staminate and pistillate branches; bases with a pair of glands and scattered glandular trichomes. — Bor., Mol., NG, Phil., Sul.

2. A. amentacea var. amentacea

27b.

Leaf blade margins crenate to undulate on pistillate branches and serrate on staminate branches; leaf without glands or glandular trichomes. — Phil.

22. A. pulogensis

 

Acalypha subgenus Linostachys (Klotzsch) Pax & K.Hoffm.

 

    Acalypha L. subg. Linostachys (Klotzsch) Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 13; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 27. — Linostachys Klotzsch ex Schltdl., Linnaea 19 (1847) 235. — Acalypha L. sect. Linostachys (Klotzsch ex Schltdl.) Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 8. — Type: Linostachys padifolia Schltdl. [= Acalypha schlechtendahliana Mόll.Arg.].

 

Perennial herbs. Stipules persistent or caducous. Leaves petiolate, margin serrate. Staminate inflorescences axillary, spicate. Pistillate inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemose or paniculate in Malesian species; bracts minute, non-accrescent in fruit. Pistillate flowers pedicellate, calyx 5-partite. Bisexual inflorescences (in Malesian species) like pistillate inflorescences, but with clusters of staminate flowers at lower nodes.

 

1. Acalypha paniculata Miq.

 

    Acalypha paniculata Miq., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ: 1, 2 (1859) 406; Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 8; in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 802; Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5 (1887) 415; Boerl., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ 1 (1900) 286; J.J.Sm. in Koord. & Val., Meded. Depart. Landb. Nederl.-Ind. 10  (1910) 509; Koord., Exkursionsfl. Java 2 (1912) 497; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 14; De Wild., Pl. Bequaert. 3 (1926) 493; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 489; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 84, pro syn.; Rani & N.P. Balakr., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 31 (2007) 96; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 27, map 1. — Type: Zollinger 2991 (holo U barcode U0001842; iso A), Indonesia, Java, Bandung (Bandong).

    [Acalypha racemosa B.Heyne in Wall., Num. list (1828) no. 7784C, nom. nud.; Baill., Ιtude Gιn. Euph. (1858) 443, nom. nud.; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 4; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 84.] — Acalypha wallichii Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (1861) 271. — Ricinocarpus villosus (Jacq.) Kuntze var. racemosus B.Heyne ex Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 616. — Lectotype (Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, 2010): Wallich Cat. 7784C (holo K), India, Madras? See note 2.

    Acalypha paniculata Miq. forma depauperata Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 8. — Type: G. Thomson 120 (holo G-DC; iso K), India, Madras.

 

Herbaceous perennials, c. 1 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 15–28 cm long, 2–5 mm diam. Indumentum sparsely hairy, denser on young parts, with simple recurved hairs, 0.3– 0.5 mm long. Stipules persistent, elliptic, 1.5–2.5 by c. 0.5 mm, densely hairy, without capitate trichomes. Leaves: petiole 1.5–10 cm long, with dense straight hairs c. 1 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, 3.5–8.5 by 2–5.5 cm, length/width ratio 1.5–1.8, chartaceous; base obtuse to cordate; margin serrate to crenate, teeth 1–3 by 3–8 mm, with a gland on tooth tips; apex acute to acuminate; upper surface sparsely hairy; lower surface glabrous to sparsely hairy, denser on midrib and veins; veins at base 3, upper secondaries c. 5 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate, in different axils than pistillate ones; peduncle 10–12 mm long, indumentum of simple recurved hairs, 0.1–0.5 mm long; fertile portion 15–95 by 1–1.5 mm; internodes 1–3 mm long. Staminate flowers: bract elliptic, c. 0.5 by 1 mm, hairy outside with straight hairs of c. 0.25 mm long; pedicel 0.25–0.5 mm long, glabrous; calyx 0.5–0.75 mm diam, sepals ovate, c. 0.25 by 0.2 mm, with straight hairs to 0.25 mm long, midrib verrucate in distal half, apex acute; filaments c. 0.2 mm long, thecae c. 0.25 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate inflorescences axillary or terminal, solitary, racemose or paniculate, in different axils than staminate ones; peduncle 13–15 mm long, indumentum dense with simple recurved hairs, 0.5–0.75 mm long; fertile portion 7–9 by 2–4 cm, internodes 2–5 mm long. Pistillate flowers 0.5–1 mm diam; 2 or 3 per node; bract stipules none; bracts 0.5 by 0.5 mm, bifid; bracteoles conspicuous; pedicel 0.5–1 mm long; calyx 0.5–1 mm diam, sepals 5, ovate, c. 0.5 by 0.25 mm, hairy on margins with verrucae in distal half, and with capitate trichomes of c. 0.1 mm long, glabrous inside; ovary globose, c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 0.5–0.75 mm long, each divided 5 times, base verrucate. Bisexual inflorescences like pistillate inflorescences, but with clusters of staminate flowers at lower nodes. Fruits globose to oblate, 0.75–1.75 by 1–2.5 mm, verrucate, covered with bulbous-based trichomes, columella c. 1 mm long. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds prolate, c. 1 by 0.75 mm.

    Distribution — Africa, India, Sri Lanka, in Malesia: Java, Lesser Sunda Islands (Flores).

    Habitat & Ecology — Unknown. Altitude: 300–600 m. Flowering: March–July.

    Vernacular names — Lesser Sunda Is.: Flores: Masu Kedhi; Wunu paka-do.

    Notes — 1. The leaves of A. paniculata are similar to the leaves of herbaceous annuals like A. indica or A. lanceolata var. lanceolata. However, it is easily distinguished by its racemose or paniculate pistillate inflorescences, pedicellate pistillate flowers without foliaceous pistillate bracts, 5-partite pistillate calyx and fruits with capitate trichomes. The staminate inflorescences are also notably thin (1–1.5 mm wide), which also adds to its distinct appearance. This is the sole Malesian species from subg. Linostachys and could hardly be confused with other Malesian Acalypha species.

2. The name Acalypha racemosa was published twice without description (Wallich 1828, Baillon 1858). Thwaites (1861) cited Wallich’s name when he validly described A. wallichii (often incorrectly spelled ‘wallichiana’), apparently as a substitute for A. racemosa. Thwaites cited several specimens as syntypes, but the selection of the Wallich collection as lectotype is the most logical choice.

3. The name Usteria racemosa Dennst. (1818: 31), usually interpreted as A. paniculata, has been determined to be Symplocos cochinchinensis S.Moore (Nicolson, Suresh &, Manilal, Interpr. Hort. Malab., 1988).

4. The specific epithet refers to the paniculate pistillate inflorescences.

 

Acalypha  L. subgenus Acalypha

 

    Acalypha L. subg. Acalypha: Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 30. — Acalypha L. subg. Euacalypha Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 8, nom. inval. — Type: as genus.

 

Small trees, shrubs or perennial/annual herbs. Stipules persistent or caducous. Indumentum of simple or stellate hairs. Leaves petiolate, margin serrate, crenate or subentire. Staminate inflorescences spicate, always axillary in Malesian species, or unknown. Pistillate inflorescences spicate; bracts foliaceous or not, serrate, lobed or entire, non-accrescent or accrescent in fruit. Pistillate flowers (sub)sessile, calyx 3- (or 4-)partite. Bisexual inflorescences spicate, sometimes branched and the fertile portions spicate, usually pistillate below and staminate above, if staminate below then with a solitary terminal pistillate flower; pistillate bracts as in the pistillate inflorescences.

 

2. Acalypha amentacea Roxb. var. amentacea

 

    Acalypha amentacea Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 2 (1832) 676; Miq., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ: 1, 2 (1859) 406; Merr., Interpr. Rumph. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 322; Bibliogr. Enum. Born. Pl. (1921) 343; Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 2 (1923) 444; Holth. & H.J.Lam, Blumea 5 (1942) 199; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 15 in obs.; Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philipp. Isl. (1983) 2. — Acalypha amentacea Roxb. subsp. amentacea: Fosberg in Fosberg & Sachet, Smithson. Contrib. Bot. 45 (1980) 8; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 47. — Acalypha amentacea Roxb. var. amentacea: Fosberg in Fosberg & Sachet, Smithson. Contrib. Bot. 45 (1980) 8; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 30, Fig. 2a, 3a, 6a1-a2; Map 2. — Type: Herbarium Roxburghii /Herbarium Martii 2615 (holo BR; probable iso BM barcode BM000926683).

    Acalypha amboynensis Benth., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 233; Miq., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ: 1, 2 (1859) 406. — Acalypha grandis Benth. var. amboinensis (Benth.) Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 10; in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 806; Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. 4 (1880) 193; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 150. — Type: Barclay s.n. (holo K), Indonesia, Maluku, Ambon (Amboyna).

    Acalypha stipulacea Klotzsch in Mayen, Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Car. Nat. Curios. 19, suppl. 1 (1843) 416; Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 10; in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 807; Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. 4 (1880) 193; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 143; K.Schum. & Hollrung, Fl. Kaiser Wilhelms Land (1889) 75; Stapf, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 4 (1894) 226; Koord., Meded. Lands Plantent. 19 (1898) 579; Boerl., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ 1 (1900) 286; K.Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Deutschen Schutzgeb. Sόdsee (1900) 403; Merr., Dict. Philipp. Isl. (1903) 119; Rep. invest. Java (1903) 32; Blanco Fl. Filip. (1905) 77; Philipp. J. Sci. 1, Suppl. 1 (1906) 81; Philipp. J. Sci. Bot. 3 (1908) 417; Philipp. J. Sci. Bot. 5 (1910) 192, pro obs.; Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 4 (1911) 1275; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 293; Hutch. in L.S.Gibbs, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 4 (1914) 135. — Ricinocarpus stipulaceus (Klotzsch) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 618. — Type: Cuming 621 (holo B; iso A, BM, G, K, L, LE, MO), Philippines, Manila.

    Acalypha affinis Klotzsch in Mayen, Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop.-Car. Nat. Curios. 19, suppl. 1 (1843) 416. — Type: None designated, Philippines, Luzon, Manila.

    Acalypha glandulosa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 749; Fl. Filip., 2nd ed. (1845) 516, non Cav. (Anal. Hist. Nat. 2, 1800) 141; Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 888; Blanco, Fl. Filip. 3rd ed. (1879) 149; Merr., Blanco Fl. Filip. (1905) 77. — Ricinocarpus blancoanus Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 617. — Neotype (Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen 2010): Merrill Species Blancoanae 20 (holo L; iso A, US), Philippines, Samar.

    Acalypha centromalayca Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 150; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 14; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 3; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 55. — Syntypes: Warburg 15573, 15574, 18198 (B†), Indonesia, Sulawesi (Celebes).

    Acalypha luzonica Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 153; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philipp. Isl. (1983) 2. — Lectotype (Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen 2010): Curran et al. 18219 (holo K), Philippines, Luzon, Benguet, Mt Pulog.

    Acalypha warburgii Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 155; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philipp. Isl. (1983) 3; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 93. — Type: Warburg 13135 (holo B†), Philippines, Luzon, Tayabas, Sampalok.

    Acalypha meyeri Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 165; Hurus., J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Secti. III, Bot. 6 (1954) 301; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philipp. Isl. (1983) 165; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 76. — Lectotype (Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen 2010): Meyer 2847 (holo SING; iso US), Philippines, Luzon, Bataan, Mt. Mariveles.

    Acalypha grandis auct. non Benth.: Miq., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ: 1, 2 (1859) 405.

 

 

Large shrubs, 2–5 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 25–30 cm long, 2–5 mm diam. Indumentum glabrous to hairy, denser on young parts, with simple straight hairs. Stipules persistent, ovate to narrowly elliptic, 10–25 by 2–5 mm, midrib outside hairy and with capitate trichomes. Leaves: petiole 2–15 cm long, glabrous or with sparse straight hairs of 0.5–1 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, 9–20 by 5–8 cm, length/width ratio 1–2.5, chartaceous, not variegated, green when fresh; base acute to weakly cordate, with a pair of glands of 1–2 by c. 0.5 mm, and scattered glandular trichomes; margin serrate, teeth 1–2 by 2–3 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex acute to acuminate; upper surface nearly glabrous, lower surface sparse to densely hairy, surfaces flat or slightly sunken between the veinlets; base 3-nerved, upper secondaries 5–8 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate, in different axils than pistillate ones; peduncle 5–40 mm long, indumentum velvety, hairs to 0.2 mm long; fertile portion 80–245 by 1.5–2.5 mm, internodes 1–3 mm long. Staminate flowers: bract ovate, 0.5–1 by 0.3–0.5 mm, with outside sparse hairs of c. 0.2 mm long; pedicel 0.5–1 mm long, with straight hairs to c. 0.2 mm long; calyx 0.5–1 mm diam, sepals ovate to elliptic, c. 0.5 by 0.2–0.3 mm, with straight hairs to c. 0.2 mm long, midrib verrucate in distal half, apex acute; filaments c. 0.3 mm long, thecae 0.3–0.4 by c. 0.2 mm. Pistillate inflorescences axillary or terminal, solitary, spicate, straight, many-flowered, in different axils than staminate ones; peduncle 8–20 by 1.5–2 mm long, nearly glabrous; fertile portion 9–30 by 0.3–1 cm, internodes 2–10 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1–1.5 mm diam; 1 or 2 per bract; bract stipules ovate to elliptic, 0. 5–1 by 0.25–0.5 mm; bracts sessile, 4–10 by 4–9 mm, foliaceous, accrescent, strongly veined outside, without dots, sparsely hairy outside, sometimes with short capitate trichomes, inside with sparse sessile glands; bract teeth 9–13, apical tooth 0.75–1 by c. 0.5 mm, apex acute to obtuse, lateral teeth 0.5–1 by 0.75–1 mm, apex acute; pedicel 0(–0.5) mm long; calyx 1–1.5 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate to elliptic, 0.75–1.5 by c. 1 mm, hairy outside, without verrucae, glabrous inside; ovary globose, c. 1 by 1 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 2.5–5 mm long, each 4–6 times divided, base hairy. Bisexual inflorescences absent. Fruits globose, 2–2.5 by c. 1.5 mm, verrucate, covered with bulbous-based trichomes, columella 1.5–2 mm long. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds prolate, 1–1.5 by c. 1 mm.

    Distribution — Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, Papua New Guinea.

    Habitat & Ecology — Disturbed lowland mixed forest; roadsides; riversides; young second-ary forest on limestone with thin clay cover. Flowering: November. Altitude 74 m.

    Vernacular names — Philippines: Balingud (Palawan); Toongtoong (Cebuano); Pameti (Cebuano); Lantayakan (Bundu Tuhan); Langanassi. Moluccas: Laransiΰn’a (Talaud). Papua New Guinea: Semur (Maibrat).

    Uses — Stem sap used to treat eye wounds or cataracts; tree used for fencing.

    Notes — 1. Key characters include long petioles exceeding the blade length, large chartaceous leaves, and long male and female inflorescences that also exceed leaf length (see note 1 under A. hellwigii and note 2 under A. pulogensis).

2. The staminate inflorescences sometimes terminate with a single pistillate flower in Ambon specimens (Reinwardt s.n., barcode L0240672; Zippelius s.n., barcode L0240838).

3. Mόller Argoviensis (Mόll.Arg. 1866: 822) mistakenly synonymized A. fruticosa Forssk., an Arabian species, under A. amentacea, a treatment also followed by Pax & Hoffmann (1924: 169) (see discussion of Fosberg & Sachet 1980).

4. Three other varieties are recognized: A. amentacea Roxb. var. palauensis Fosberg (in Fosberg & Sachet 1980) and A. amentacea Roxb. var. heterotricha Fosberg (in Fosberg & Sachet 1980) from Palau; and A. amentacea Roxb. var. trukensis (Pax & Hoffm.) Fosberg from Micronesia.

5. The specific epithet refers to the amentaceous or catkinlike inflorescences.

 

3. Acalypha angatensis Blanco

 

    Acalypha angatensis Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 750; Fl. Filip., 2nd ed. (1845) 516; Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 805; Blanco, Fl. Filip. 3rd ed. (1879) 150; Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. 4 (1880) 193; Merr., Blanco Fl. Filip. (1905) 77; Spec. Blanc. (1918) 227; Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 2 (1923) 445; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 153; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philipp. Isl. (1983) 2; T.C.Huang, Fl. Taiwan 3 (1993) 416; Fl. Taiwan 6 (2003) 68; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 31, Fig. 2b, 3b, 4a, 6b1-b2; Map 3. — Ricinocarpus angatensis (Blanco) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 617. — Neotype (Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen 2010): Merrill Species Blancoanae 333 (holo L; iso A, US), Philippines, Luzon, Bulacan, Angat.

    Acalypha tomentosa Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 750, non Sw. (Nov. Gen. Spec. Pl. Prod. , 1788, 99); Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 888; Blanco, Fl. Filip. 3rd ed. (1879) 151. — Ricinocarpus philippinensis Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 617. — Type: None designated.

    Acalypha grandis Benth. var. velutina Mόll.Arg., Flora 47 (1864) 441; Linnaea 34 (1865) 10; in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 608; Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. 4 (1880) 193; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 143; Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. Bot. 3 (1908) 417; Philipp. J. Sci. Bot. 5 (1910) 357; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 150. — Acalypha amentacea Roxb. var. velutina (Mόll.Arg.) Fosberg in Fosberg & Sachet, Smithson. Contrib. Bot. 45 (1980) 10; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 48. — Type: Cuming 1159 (holo G-DC; iso A, BM, K, L, LE), Philippines, Luzon.

    Acalypha akoensis Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 30 (1911) 266; Icon. Pl. Formos. 9 (1920) 100, in obs.; H.Keng, Taiwania 6 (1955) 31; T.C.Huang, Fl. Taiwan 3 (1993) 416. — Acalypha grandis Benth. var. akoensis (Hayata) Hurus., J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Secti. III, Bot. 6 (1954) 300; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 46; T.C.Huang, Fl. Taiwan 6 (2003) 68. — Type: Nakahara 537 (holo TI), Taiwan (Formosa), Ako, Kotansho.

    Acalypha formosana Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 30 (1911) 267; H.Keng, Taiwania 6 (1955) 31. — Acalypha grandis Benth. var. formosana (Hayata) Hurus., J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Secti. III, Bot. 6 (1954) 300. — Type: Kawakami, Hayata & Mori 7085 (holo TI), Taiwan, Randaisan.

    Acalypha longe-acuminata Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formos. 9 (1920) 100; H.Keng, Taiwania 6 (1955) 31; T.C.Huang, Fl. Taiwan 3 (1993) 421; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 73; T.C.Huang, Fl. Taiwan 6 (2003) 68. — Acalypha grandis Benth. var. longe-acuminata (Hayata) Hurus., J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Secti. III, Bot. 6 (1954) 300. — Type: Soma s.n. (holo TI), Taiwan Ako, Naiho.

 

 

Large shrubs or small trees, 5–6 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 10–20 cm long, 3–5 mm diam. Indumentum velvety with simple recurved hairs. Stipules persistent, ovate to elliptic, boat-shaped, 10–12 by 2–5 mm, densely hairy, without capitate trichomes. Leaves: petiole 4–10 cm long, with short velvety hairs, c. 0.25 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, 10–15 by 5–10 cm, length/width ratio 1.4–2.5, chartaceous; base emarginate; margin serrate to weakly crenate, teeth 1–2 by 2–5 mm, with a gland on tooth apex; apex acute; upper surface hairy, lower surface densely hairy with velvety indumentum, surfaces flat or slightly sunken between the veinlets; veins at base 3, upper secondaries 5–8 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate, in different axils than pistillate ones; peduncle 3–8 mm long, indumentum simple, of yellowish velvety hairs to 0.2 mm long; fertile portion 5–16 by 0.2–0.5 cm, internodes 1–2 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts ovate, 0.5–0.75 by c. 0.5 mm, densely hairy outside, c. 0.25 mm long; pedicel 0.5–1 mm long, with straight hairs to 0.5 mm long; calyx 0.5–0.75 mm diam, sepals ovate to elliptic, 0.5–0.75 by c. 0.5 mm, with straight hairs to 0.5 mm long, midrib verrucate in distal half, apex acute; filaments c. 0.25 mm long, thecae c. 0.25 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate inflorescences axillary or terminal, solitary, straight, spicate, many-flowered, in different axils than staminate ones; peduncle 8–25 mm long, indumentum velvety with simple recurved hairs to 1 mm long; fertile portion 9–11 by 0.3–1 cm, internodes 3–4 mm long. Pistillate flowers c. 1 mm diam; 1 or 2 per bract; bract stipules elliptic, 0.75–1 by 0.2–0.3 mm; bracts sessile, 3–4 by 4–5 mm, foliaceous, accrescent, strongly veined outside, without dots, densely hairy outside, with short capitate trichomes, glabrous inside, teeth 13, apical and lateral teeth 1–1.5 by 0.75–1 mm, apices acute; pedicel 0(–0.5) mm long; calyx c. 1 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate to elliptic, c. 1 by 0.5 mm, hairy outside, without verrucae, glabrous inside, hairy on margins with some capitate trichomes; ovary globose, c. 1 by 1 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 2–3 mm long, each divided 8–11 times, smooth. Bisexual inflorescences like the staminate ones, but terminated by a single, ebracteate pistillate flower, much more common than truly staminate inflorescences. Fruits globose, c. 2 by 2 mm, verrucate, distal half covered with bulbous-based trichomes, columella c. 1 mm long. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds prolate, c. 1.5 by 1 mm.

    Distribution — Taiwan, Malesia: Philippines.

    Habitat & Ecology — Secondary forest; riversides.

    Notes — 1. Key characters include yellowish velvety hairs, shortly pedunculate inflorescences and bisexual inflorescences usually terminated by a single pistillate ebracteate flower; completely staminate inflorescences are rare (see note 1 under A. grandibracteata and note 2 under A. pulogensis).

2. Ramos BS 44392 from Sulu, Philippines, is the only specimen of this species from outside the North Luzon-Taiwan cluster.

3. The specific epithet refers to type locality of Angat, Bulacan Province, Philippines.

 

4. Acalypha argentii Sagun & G.A.Levin

 

    Acalypha argentii Sagun & G.A.Levin, Blumea 52 (2007) 351; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 33, Map 4. — Type: Meijer 10198 (holo L; iso A, BO, KY, MO, US), Indonesia, Sulawesi, Kulasi near Palu.

 

       

 

Herbaceous annuals, c. 0.4 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches c. 40 cm long, 2–4 mm diam. Indumentum velvety, with simple recurved hairs. Stipules persistent, elliptic, 3–5 by 0.2–0.5 mm, with capitate trichomes of c. 0.1 mm long. Leaves: petiole 5–40 mm long, with simple straight hairs of 0.5–0.75 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, 2–5.4 by 1–2.7 cm, length/ width ratio 1.6–2, chartaceous; base acute to obtuse; margin serrate, teeth c. 1 by 1–2.5 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex acute to acuminate; upper surface pubescent, hairs on lamina 0.25–1 mm long, straight; lower surface densely pubescent; veins at base 3, upper secondaries c. 4 per side. Exclusively staminate and pistillate inflorescences absent. Bisexual inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate, sometimes branched and the branches spicate; peduncle 8–15 mm long, sometimes with a single pistillate flower at the base, indumentum of simple recurved hairs of 0.2–0.5 mm long; fertile portion 50–150 by 5–10 mm, pistillate below and staminate above, simple to 2- or 3-branched, branches 7–15 mm apart, subtended by persistent bracts, latter elliptic, 2–5 by 0.2–0.5 mm; pistillate portion 22–70 by 7–10 mm, internodes 2–10 mm long; staminate portion 20–35 by c. 2 mm, internodes 0.5–0.1 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts elliptic, c. 1 by 0.25 mm, with sparse hairs of 0.2 mm long outside; pedicel 0.5–0.75 mm long, with straight hairs of 0.1–0.5 mm long; calyx 0.5–0.75 mm diam, sepals ovate, c. 0.5 by 0.3 mm, with straight hairs of c. 0.2 mm long, midrib sparsely verrucate in upper half, apex acute; filaments c. 0.25 mm long, thecae c. 0.25 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate flowers 1 or 2 per bract; bract stipules elliptic 0.2–0.5 by c. 0.2 mm; bracts sessile, 5.5–6 by 6–7 mm, strongly veined outside, with dots, densely hairy outside, sparsely hairy inside, with simple trichomes of 0.5–1 mm long, sometimes with solitary capitate trichomes of c. 0.1 mm long on bract tooth apex and sinus, teeth 15, the apical tooth c. 2 by 1.5–2 mm, lateral teeth 0.75–1 by 0.5–1 mm, apices acute; pedicel 0(–0.3) mm long; calyx 1–1.5 mm diam, 3- (or 4-)lobed, sepals ovate to elliptic, c. 1 by 0.25 mm, densely hairy on margins with sparse verrucae on upper half of midrib; ovary globose to oblate, c. 0.5 by 0.75 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 3.5–4 mm long, each divided 4–6 times, smooth. Fruits not seen. Allomorphic fruits unknown.

    Distribution — Endemic in Central Sulawesi (area of Kulasi near Palu).

q = A. argentii; m = A. balgooyii, Μ = A. capillipes; = A. floresensis;5= A. phyllonomifolia; = = A. spectabilis; u = A. stenophylla; «= A. zollingeri.

    Habitat & Ecology — Flowering: May. Altitude 700–800 m.

    Notes — 1. Similar to the widespread A. lanceolata Willd. var. lanceolata, but hairy all over with velvety leaves, spicate to paniculate inflorescences with longer more robust staminate portions, and female bracts that are larger and very hairy. A. lanceolata Willd. var. lanceolata has practically glabrous leaves, spicate inflorescences that are never branched and with short staminate portions, the pistillate bracts are comparatively smaller and only sparsely hairy. Acalypha argentii is a rare species from Central Sulawesi and known only from the type collection.

2. The specific epithet is assigned in honour of Dr. George Argent, former head of Tropical Botany at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, who has done extensive floristic work in Malesia, particularly in Indonesia and the Philippines.

 

5. Acalypha australis L.

 

    Acalypha australis L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1004; Spec. Pl. ed. 2, 2 (1763) 1424; Syst. Nat. 13 (1770) 634; Syst. Veg. (1774) 721; Murray, Syst. Veg. (1784) 863; Willd., Sp. Pl. 4 (1805) 530; Poir., Encycl. Mιth. Bot., Suppl. 4 (1816) 685; Spreng., Syst. Veg. 4 (1827) 315; D.Dietr., Syn. Pl. 5 (1852) 376; F.B.Forbes & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 26 (1894) 437; Diels. Bot. Jahrb. 29 (1900) 429; Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 20 (1904) 50; Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. Bot. 5 (1910) 192; Pamp., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 17 (1910) 408; Merr., Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 2 (1923) 445; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 35; Merr., Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., New Ser. 24 (1935) 238; Hurus., J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Secti. III, Bot. 6 (1954) 298; H.Keng, Taiwania 6 (1955) 31; C.F.Hsieh in H.L.Li, Fl. Taiwan (1977) 441; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 35 (1980) 584; Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philipp. Isl. (1983) 2; S.F.Huang & T.C.Huang, Taiwania 36 (1991) 82; T.C.Huang, Fl. Taiwan 3 (1993) 416; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 50; T.C.Huang, Fl. Taiwan 6 (2003) 68; Rani & N.P.Balakr., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 31 (2007) 96; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 34, Fig. 2c; Map 5. — Ricinocarpus australis (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 617. — Lectotype (Airy Shaw 1980): Herb. Linn. No. 1139.5 (LINN), China.

    Urtica gemina Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 558; Fl. Cochin. 1 (1793) 682. — Acalypha gemina (Lour.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3 (1826) 880. — Acalypha gemina (Lour.) Spreng. var. genuina Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 41, nom. inval.; in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 866. — Type: Not located.

    Acalypha sessilis Poir., Encycl. Mιth. Bot. 6 (1804) 204. — Type: l’Herbier de Jussieu (P n.v.).

    Acalypha pauciflora Hornem., Enum. Pl. Horti Bot. Hafniensis (1807) 1; Willd., Enum. Pl. (1809) 992; Hornem., Hort. Reg. Bot. Hafn. 2 (1815) 909. — Type: Herb. Vahl (holo C), China.

    Acalypha chinensis Roxb., Fl. Ind.a, ed. 1832, 3 (1832) 677; Hook. & Arn., Bot. Capt. Beechey Voy. (1837) 213. — Type: Roxburgh 2099 (holo K n.v.).

    [Acalypha lanceolata Wall., Num. list (1828) n. 7789, nom. nud., non Willd., Sp. Pl. 4 (1805) 524.]

    Acalypha australis L. var. lanceolata Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 20 (1904) 51; Fedde, Rep. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 1 (1906) 57. — Acalypha australis L. forma lanceolata (Hayata) Hurus., J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Secti. III, Bot. 6 (1954) 298. — Type: Makino s. n. (holo TI), Taiwan (Formosa), Kelung, anno 1876.

    Acalypha virgata auct. non L.: Thunb., Fl. Jap. (1784) 268.

 

 

Herbaceous annuals, c. 0.35 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 6–20 cm long, 1–2 mm diam. Indumentum sparsely hairy, with simple recurved hairs. Stipules persistent, elliptic, 0.5–1 by c. 0.2 mm, nearly glabrous. Leaves: petiole 2–20 by 0.5–1 mm long, with simple straight hairs to c. 0.5 mm long; blade narrowly elliptic, 2.5–3.5 by 0.6–1 cm, length/width ratio 3–5.8, chartaceous; base acute; margin weakly serrate, teeth 0.2–0.5 by 2–3 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex acute; upper surface nearly glabrous, hairs straight, 0.5–1 mm long; lower surface sparsely hairy with similar hairs; veins at base 3, upper secondaries 3–5 per side. Exclusively staminate and pistillate inflorescences absent. Bisexual inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate; peduncle 5–10 mm long, glabrous; fertile portion 10–20 by 5–10 mm, pistillate below and staminate above; pistillate portion 10–15 by 5–10 mm, internodes 3–5 mm long; staminate portion 3–5 by 1.5–2 mm, internodes 0.5 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts ovate, c. 0.3 by 0.3 mm, glabrous; pedicel c. 0.2 mm long, glabrous; calyx 0.5–0.75 mm diam, sepals ovate, c. 0.5 by 0.3 mm, glabrous, midrib sparsely verrucate in upper half, apex acute; filaments c. 0.25 mm long, thecae c. 0.25 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate flowers c. 1 mm diam; up to 6 per bract; bract stipules elliptic, 0.2–0.3 by c. 0.2 mm; bracts sessile, ovate to elliptic, 8–10 by 7–9 mm, tapering on distal end, weakly veined outside, without dots, glabrous, teeth c. 15, the apical tooth 1.5–2 by 1.5–2 mm, lateral teeth c. 0.5 by 1.5 mm, apices acute to acuminate; pedicel 0(–0.5) mm long; calyx c. 1 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate, c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm, glabrous; ovary globose, c. 1 by 1 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 3.5–4 mm long, each divided 4–6 times, smooth. Fruits globose to oblate, c. 2 by 2.5 mm, verrucate, distal half covered with bulbous-based trichomes, columella c. 1 mm long. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds prolate, c. 1.5 by 1 mm.

    Distribution — Russia, China, Taiwan, Malesia: Philippines (Northern Luzon, Cagayan Province).

l = A. australis; 5 = A. pulogensis

    Habitat & Ecology — Roadsides; open areas.

    Notes — 1. Acalypha australis is similar to A. zollingeri with its large pistillate bracts, but A. australis has narrowly elliptic leaves and pistillate bracts with a distinct acute apex. It also does not possess the yellow refringent sessile glands and stellate hairs of A. zollingeri. Furthermore, A. australis is an annual herb whereas A. zollingeri is a shrub.

2. A widespread weed in East Asia, but known in the Philippines only from a single collection, Ramos 7800. This specimen has narrowly elliptic leaves and was considered a separate variety or forma from the ovate-leaved species commonly found in East Asia (Hayata 1904, Honda 1931). Differences in leaf width might be attributed to the varying light conditions in habitat, where narrow-leaved specimens tend to grow in light intense areas. No infraspecific categories in A. australis are therefore recognized in this revision.

3. See note 1 under A. indica.

4. The specific epithet refers to ‘south’, perhaps southern China, the type locality for the species.

 

6. Acalypha balgooyi Sagun & G.A.Levin

 

    Acalypha balgooyi Sagun & G.A.Levin, Blumea 52 (2007) 353; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 35, Map 4. — Type: Nooteboom 5327 (holo L), Indonesia, NW Buru, N of Bara, Waeduna River.

 

       

 

Shrubs, c. 1 m tall, fertile branches exclusively staminate or with pistillate inflorescences, sometimes bearing some staminate flowers at their bases; flowering branches 30–36 cm long, 2–3 mm diam, subglabrous. Indumentum nearly absent except simple straight hairs on young parts. Stipules caducous, ovate to elliptic, 1.75–2 by 0.3–0.5 mm, midrib hairy, with short stalked trichomes. Leaves: petiole 1–3 cm long, with short sparse straight hairs of c. 0.5 mm long; blade elliptic, 6–12 by 1.5–3 cm, length/width ratio 4–4.5, chartaceous; base obtuse to acute; margin crenate, teeth 0.5–1 by 4–5 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex acuminate; upper and lower surfaces glabrous, flat or slightly sunken between the veinlets; veins at base 3, upper secondaries 7–9 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate; peduncle 4–7 mm long, indumentum simple straight hairs to 0.2 mm long; fertile portion 25–100 by 1.5–2 mm, internodes 1–1.5 mm long; sometimes a cluster of staminate flowers present in same axil as pistillate inflorescence. Staminate flowers: bracts elliptic, c. 0.75 by 0.25–0.3 mm, with dense hairs to 0.1–0.25 mm long outside, apex with gland; pedicel 0.5–0.75 mm long, with straight hairs to 0.2 mm long; calyx 0.5–0.75 mm diam, sepals ovate, c. 0.5 by 0.25 mm, with straight hairs to 0.1–0.2 mm long, midrib verrucate in distal half, apex acute; filaments c. 0.25 mm long, thecae c. 0.25 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate; peduncle 1–2 cm long, indumentum nearly absent; fertile portion pseudoscorpioid, 25–40 by 4–7 mm, internodes 7–12 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1–1.5 mm diam; 1 per bract; bract stipules elliptic, c. 0.75 by 0.2 mm; bracts sessile, 5–6 by 8–11 mm, strongly veined outside, with dots, nearly glabrous outside and inside, with capitate trichomes to 0.1 mm long on margin, teeth 9–11, apical tooth 2–3 by 1.5–2 mm, lateral teeth 0.75–1.5 by 0.75–1 mm, apices acute; pedicel absent; calyx 1–1.5 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate, c. 0.75 by 0.75 mm, sparsely hairy outside with no verrucae, glabrous inside; ovary globose to oblate, c. 1 by 1 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 3–5 mm long, each divided 7–9 times, smooth. Bisexual inflorescences absent. Fruits globose to oblate, c. 2.5 by 3.5 mm, verrucate, distal half covered with inconspicuous trichomes, columella 1.5–1.75 mm long. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds prolate, c. 2 by 1.5 mm.

    Distribution — Endemic in Malesia: Moluccas (NW Buru).

q = A. argentii; m = A. balgooyii, Μ = A. capillipes; = A. floresensis;5= A. phyllonomifolia; = = A. spectabilis; u = A. stenophylla; «= A. zollingeri.

    Habitat & Ecology — Riverine forest; in river valley with steep slopes; limestone mixed with gravel and stones. Flowering: November. Altitude 100–300 m.

    Notes — 1. Acalypha balgooyi is endemic to Buru and is similar to A. hainanensis Merr. & Chun in terms of having elliptic leaves with crenate margins, but differs in its exclusively staminate inflorescences and pseudoscorpioid pistillate inflorescences, and the presence of a few staminate flowers in some leaf axils that bear pistillate inflorescences. Unlike A. hainanensis, A. balgooyi does not exhibit pistillate flowers at the base of the predominantly staminate inflorescences.

2. A paratype is assigned: Van Balgooy 4861 (holo L; iso A, BO, KY, MO, US), Indonesia, NW Buru, SE of Bara, Waeduna River.

3. The specific epithet is assigned in honour of M.M.J. van Balgooy, one of the world’s experts on Malesian plants.

 

7. Acalypha brachystachya Hornem.

 

    Acalypha brachystachya Hornem., Enum. Pl. Horti Bot. Hafniensis (1807) 1; Willd., Enum. Pl. (1809) 992; Hornem., Hort. Reg. Bot. Hafn. 2 (1815) 909; Poir., Encycl. Mιth. Bot., Suppl. 4 (1816) 685; Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3 (1826) 880; D.Dietr., Syn. Pl. 5 (1852) 376; Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 870; Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5 (1887) 416; F.B.Forbes & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 26 (1894) 437; Pamp., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 17 (1910) 408; J.J.Sm. in Koord. & Val., Meded. Depart. Landb. Nederl.-Ind. 10  (1910) 756; Koord., Exkursionsfl. Java 2 (1912) 498; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 101; Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 1 (1913) 67; De Wild., Pl. Bequaert. 3 (1926) 488; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 489; Radcl.-Sm., Kew Bull. 28 (1973) 526, f. 1A; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 247; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 2; S.F.Huang & T.C.Huang, Taiwania 36 (1991) 83; T.C.Huang, Fl. Taiwan 3 (1993) 419; Fl. Taiwan 6 (2003) 68; Rani & N.P.Balakr., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 31 (2007) 96; Ngerns. & Chayamarit in Chayamarit & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 24; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 35, Fig. 2d, 4b; Map 6. — Ricinocarpus brachystachyus (Hornem.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 617. — Type: Herb. Hornemann (holo C), China.

    Acalypha conferta Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 1832, 3 (1832) 686. — Type: Roxburgh 2550/2557 (holo K, n.v.).

    [Acalypha calyciformis Wight ex Wall., Num. list (1828) n. 7786, nom. nud. — Representative specimen: Wall. Cat. 7786C (LE, NY), India.]

    [Acalypha fissa Wall., Num. list (1828) n. 7786B, nom. nud. — Representative specimen: Wall. Cat. 7786B (LE), India.]

    [Tragia tenuis Wall., Num. list (1828) n. 7787, nom. nud. — Representative specimen: Wall. Cat. 7787 (n.v.), India.]

    Nanocnide closii H.Lιv. & Vaniot, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 51 (1904) cxliv. — Type: Cavalerie 2732 (holo E), China, Kouy-Tchιou, Environs de Tou-chau, September 1899.

 

 

Herbaceous annuals, 0.2–0.45 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 5–15 cm long, 1–3 mm diam. Indumentum sparsely hairy, denser on young parts, with simple recurved hairs. Stipules persistent, elliptic, 0.5–1 by c. 0.25 mm, sparsely hairy. Leaves: petiole 6–95 mm long, with simple recurved hairs of c. 1 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, 3–5.5 by 1.2–3.5 cm, length/width ratio 1.6–2.5, chartaceous; base obtuse to emarginate; margin serrate, teeth 1–2 by 2–8 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex acute to acuminate; upper surface sparsely hairy, hairs on lamina straight, 0.5–1.5 mm long, hairs on nerves short, recurved; lower surface nearly glabrous, with few hairs of 0.5–1 mm long, slightly denser on midrib and veins; veins at base 3, upper secondaries 3–5 per side. Exclusively staminate and pistillate inflorescences absent. Bisexual inflorescences axillary, 1–4 per axil, spicate; peduncle 2.5–9 mm long, indumentum of simple straight hairs with sparse capitate trichomes of 0.1–0.5 mm long; fertile portion 7–50 by 4–10 mm, pistillate below and staminate above; pistillate portion 5–25 by 3–12 mm, internodes 1.5–5 mm long; staminate portion 3–17 by 1 mm, internodes 0.5–1.5 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts ovate, c. 0.5 by 0.25 mm, hairy on margins; pedicel 0.2–0.75 mm long, hairy; calyx 0.5–0.75 mm diam, sepals ovate, 0.3–0.5 by c. 0.2 mm, glabrous to sparsely hairy, midrib verrucate in distal half, apex acute; filaments c. 0.25 mm long, thecae c. 0.2 by 0.1 mm long. Pistillate flowers 0.5–0.75 mm diam; 4–6 per bract, maturing singly or doubly; bract stipules not seen; bracts sessile, 3.5–7 by 5–11 mm, weakly veined outside, without dots, sparsely hairy outside with hairs of 0.25–0.5 mm long, with capitate trichomes of 0.5–1 mm long, glabrous inside, lobes 3–5, apical and lateral lobes 3–6 by 0.75–1 mm, apices acute; pedicel 0–0.3 mm long; calyx 0.5–0.75 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate, 0.5–1 by 0.25–0.5 mm, sparsely hairy on margins with verrucae in upper half of midrib; ovary globose to ellipsoid, 0.3–0.5 by c. 0.3 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 1–2 mm long, each divided 4 or 5 times, smooth. Fruits 1–1.5 by 1.5–2 mm, verrucate, distal half covered with trichomes of 0.6–1 mm long, lower half with sparse hairs of 0.2 mm long; columella 0.5–0.75 mm long. Allomorphic fruits terminal, pedicel 0.5–0.75 mm long, indumentum simple, sparse; mericarp obovoid, 1–2 by 1–3 mm, ribbed, longitudinally sutured, distally with 2 opposite whorled, basally fused fringes whorls distally, fringes sometimes fused to form 1 whorl, fringes c. 1 by 1.5 mm, longer than half of mericarp length, proximal end of mericarp not fringed, hairs simple on ribs and fringes; stigma 0.5–1 mm long, 2 or 3 times divided. Seeds prolate, 0.75–1.5 by 0.5–1 mm.

    Distribution — Africa, India, China, Taiwan, Malesia: Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Is.

    Notes — 1. Acalypha brachystachya bears superficial similarity to A. lanceolata var. lanceolata and A. indica, which are also weedy annuals, but it is distinct by its deeply lobed pistillate bracts. A. lanceolata var. lanceolata has shallowly toothed pistillate bracts, whereas A. indica has obtuse to subentire pistillate bracts. Allomorph morphology also differs among the three species. The allomorphs of A. brachystachya have lateral fringes that appear fused forming a single distal fringe, whereas the two other species exhibit distinctly separate lateral fringes. See also note 1 under A. indica.

2. Acalypha supera Forssk. (Fl. Aegypt.-Arab., 1775, 162) is interpreted by Govaerts et al. (2000) from its description as synonymous with A. brachystachya, as it is an older name it should have priority over brachystachya. However, the description is vague and no type was designated nor can any original material be found, so we are proposing that this name should be rejected (Sagun in prep.).

3. The specific epithet refers to the usually short inflorescences.

 

8. Acalypha capillipes Mόll.Arg.

 

    Acalypha capillipes Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 40; in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 823; P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 4 (1994) 212; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 54; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 36, Fig. 2e, 6c1-c2; Map 4. — Ricinocarpus capillipes (Mόll.Arg.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 617. — Lectotype (Forster 1994): Beckler 19 (holo MEL; iso G-DC, K), Australia, New South Wales.

    Acalypha spinescens Benth., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 13 (1879) 72, t. 1291; P.I.Forst., Austrobaileya 4 (1994) 214. — Type: Riedel s.n. (holo K; iso L), Indonesia, Sulawesi, Gorontalo.

 

 

Shrubs, 1–1.5 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 6–15 cm long, 2–4 mm diam, with axillary spines of 7–11 by c. 1 mm. Indumentum sparsely hairy, denser on young parts, with simple recurved hairs. Stipules persistent, ovate to elliptic, c. 0.75 by 0.5–0.75 mm, midrib hairy, without capitate trichomes. Leaves: petiole 2–4 mm long, with sparse straight hairs of 0.2–0.3 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, 1.3–3.5 by 0.5–2 cm, length/width ratio 1.8–3, chartaceous; base emarginate to cuneate; margin entire in lower 1/3 and crenate above, teeth 1–2 by 2–6 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex acute to obtuse, without drip-tip; upper surface glabrous, lower surface sparsely hairy, both surfaces flat or slightly sunken between the veinlets; veins at base 3, upper secondaries 4 or 5 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary, solitary, 1 per axil, spicate; peduncle 1–1.5 mm long, sparsely hairy; fertile portion 6–20 by c. 0.5 mm, internodes 0.5–5 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts ovate, c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm, sparsely hairy outside with straight hairs of c. 0.1 mm long; pedicel 0.5–0.75 mm long, with straight hairs of c. 0.2 mm long; calyx 0.5–0.75 mm diam, sepals ovate to elliptic, c. 0.5 by 0.2 mm, with straight hairs of c. 0.1 mm long, midrib verrucate in distal half, apex acute; filaments c. 0.2 mm long, thecae c. 0.25 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, straight, spicate; peduncle 10–17 mm long, glabrous; fertile portion 1–2 cm long, bearing only 1 or 2 bracts, internodes c. 5 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1–1.5 mm diam; 1 or 2 per bract; bract stipules not seen; bracts sessile, 3–5 by 3–8 mm, apices acute, weakly veined outside, with dots, glabrous, teeth 11–13, apical tooth c. 2 by 3 mm, lateral teeth c. 1 by 2 mm; pedicel absent; calyx 1–1.5 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate to elliptic, c. 1 by 0.5 mm, hairy outside, hairs 0.5–0.75 mm long, without verrucae, glabrous inside, margins with sparse hairs; ovary globose, c. 1 by 1–1.25 mm, trilocular, verrucate; stigmas 3, 2–3 mm long, each divided 8–10 times, smooth. Bisexual inflorescences absent. Fruits not seen. Allomorphic fruits unknown.

    Distribution — Malesia: Sulawesi; Australia (Queensland).

q = A. argentii; m = A. balgooyii, Μ = A. capillipes; = A. floresensis;5= A. phyllonomifolia; = = A. spectabilis; u = A. stenophylla; «= A. zollingeri.

    Habitat & Ecology — Dry, coastal areas.

    Notes — 1. Key characters include axillary spines and pistillate inflorescences with an elongated peduncle bearing one or two flowers. This species is similar to A. siamensis var. siamensis with its crenate leaf margins, but A. capillipes does not have the bisexual inflorescences and fruits with spiny appendages found in A. siamensis var. siamensis.

2. This is a species known primarily from north-eastern Australia, and there are only two collections of A. capillipes known from Malesia, on Gorontalo (North Sulawesi), and Moena (Central Sulawesi).

3. The specific epithet refers to the long, thin peduncle of the pistillate inflorescence.

 

9. Acalypha cardiophylla Merr. var. cardiophylla

 

    Acalypha cardiophylla Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 1, Suppl. 1 (1906) 80; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 141; Fosberg in Fosberg & Sachet, Smithson. Contrib. Bot. 45 (1980) 11; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 37, Fig. 5a, 6d1-d2; Map 7. — Lectotype (Sagun, G.A. Levin & Welzen 2010): Merrill 2506 (holo SING; iso BM, G, GH, MO, US). — Former syntype: Ahern’s collector 1249 (BM, G, US), Philippines, Luzon, Bataan, Lamao Forest.

    Acalypha subcinerea Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 7 (1915) 2631. — Type: Elmer 13329 (holo PNH†; iso BM, BO, G, L, MO, NY, U), Philippines, Mindanao, Agusan, Cabadbaran, Mt Urdaneta.

    Acalypha suirebiensis Yamam., J. S. Trop. Agric. 5 (1933) 178; H.Keng, J. Washington Acad. Sci. 41 (1951) 205; Taiwania 6 (1955) 32; T.C.Huang, Fl. Taiwan 3 (1993) 422; Fl. Taiwan 6 (2003) 68. — Type: Yamamoto 813 (holo TAI), Taiwan, Suirenbi, Kwarenko.

    Acalypha hontauyuensis H.Keng, J. Washington Acad. Sci. 41 (1951) 204; Hurus., J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Secti. III, Bot. 6 (1954) 301; H.Keng, Taiwania 6 (1955) 31; T.C.Huang, Fl. Taiwan 3 (1993) 419; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 67; T.C.Huang, Fl. Taiwan 6 (2003) 68. — Lectotype (Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen 2010): Hosokawa 8047 (holo TAI). — Former syntype: Hosokawa 8165 (TAI), Taiwan, Hontauyu (Botel Tobago), 16 July 1935.

    Acalypha caturus auct. non Blume: Merr., Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 2 (1923) 445; H.Keng, Taiwania 6 (1955) 31; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philipp. Isl. (1983) 2; T.C.Huang, Fl. Taiwan 3 (1993) 419; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 55 pro syn.; T.C.Huang, Fl. Taiwan 6 (2003) 68.

 

 

Large shrubs or small trees, 3–12 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 20–30 cm long, 3–7 mm diam, glabrous. Indumentum sparsely hairy, denser on young parts, with simple recurved hairs. Stipules persistent, broadly ovate to elliptic, 3–8 by 2–4 mm, apex acute, with velvety hairs, without capitate trichomes. Leaves: petiole 5–15 cm long, glabrous; blade ovate to cordate, 9–20 by 7–17 cm, length/width ratio 1.1–1.4, chartaceous; base acute to cordate; margin subentire to weakly crenate, teeth 1–3 by 2–5 mm, without a gland on tooth tip; apex acute; upper surface glabrous, lower surface sparsely hairy, surfaces flat or slightly sunken between the veinlets; veins at base 3, upper secondaries 5–7 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary, 1 or 2 per axil, spicate; peduncle 5–15 mm long, glabrous; fertile portion 8–30 by 2–4 cm, internodes 1–4 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts ovate to elliptic, 0.2–0.5 by c. 0.1 mm, with sparse hairs outside; pedicel 0.5–1 mm long, nearly glabrous; calyx 1–1.5 mm diam, sepals ovate to elliptic, c. 1 by 0.75 mm, with straight hairs to 0.25 mm long, midrib verrucate in distal half, apex acute; filaments c. 0.25 mm long, thecae c. 0.25 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate, straight, laxly many-flowered, rachis visible, in different axils than staminate ones; peduncle 5–10 mm long, indumentum of short velvety hairs; fertile portion 12–25 by 0.5–1 cm, internodes 5–10 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1.5–2 mm diam; 1 per bract; bract stipules not seen; bracts sessile, 1–2 by 3–4 mm, chartaceous, non-accrescent, weakly veined outside, without dots, with velvety hairs outside, glabrous inside, lobes 3, apical and lateral lobes 0.5–1 by 0.5–1 mm, apices acute; pedicel absent; calyx 1.5–2 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate, c. 1 by 1 mm, hairy outside without verrucae, glabrous inside; ovary globose, c. 2 by 2 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 2–3 mm long, each more than 20 times divided, base hairy. Bisexual inflorescences like the staminate ones but with a single pistillate flower at the base, much more common than truly staminate inflorescences. Fruits globose to oblate, 3–3.5 by 2.5–3 mm, verrucate, each locule with a longitudinal ridge covered with velvety hairs, columella c. 2 mm long. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds globose, c. 2 by 2 mm.

    Distribution — Taiwan, Malesia: Borneo, Philippines.

    Habitat & Ecology — Open fields; secondary growth; semiopen forest.

    Vernacular names — Philippines: Candilla (Cebuano)

    Uses — Leaves applied for headache (PNH (Frake) 38322).

    Notes — 1. Key characters include 3-partite, non-accrescent pistillate bracts, and 3-locular fruits with septal thickenings. This species is similar to A. longispica and A. caturus, and a number of authors have subsumed A. cardiophylla into A. caturus. All three species have 3-partite, non-accrescent pistillate bracts, neither A. caturus nor A. longispica has densely hairy longitudinal ridges on the fruit, and A. caturus has bilocular fruits.

2. The variety A. cardiophylla Merr. var. ponapensis (Kaneh. & Hatus.) Fosberg (in Fosberg & Sachet 1980) occurs in Pohnpei, in the Caroline Islands.

3. The specific epithet refers to the cordate leaves.

 

10. Acalypha caturus Blume

 

    Acalypha caturus Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 629; Miq., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ: 1, 2 (1859) 406; Baill., Adansonia 2 (1862) 224; Mόll. Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 805; Scheffer, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 4 (1869) 121; Stapf, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 4 (1894) 225; Boerl., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ 1 (1900) 286; J.J.Sm. in Koord. & Val., Meded. Depart. Landb. Nederl.-Ind. 10 (1910) 510; Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 1 (1913) 67; Syst. Verz. 3 (1914) 71; Hutch. in L.S.Gibbs, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 4 (1914) 135; Merr., Bibliogr. Enum. Born. Pl. (1921) 343; Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 2 (1923) 445; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 141; S.Moore, J. Bot. 63, suppl. (1925) 101; Merr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 1 (1929) 160; Holth. & H.J.Lam, Blumea 5 (1942) 199; Backer & Bakh. f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 489; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 51; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull, Addit. Ser. 4 (1975) 23; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 247; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 3; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 55; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 38, Fig. 5b-c, 6e1-f2; Map 8. — Ricinocarpus caturus (Blume) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 615. — Lectotype (Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen 2010): Blume 2130 (L, barcodes L0240994, L0241027, L0241031), Indonesia, Greater Sunda Is., Java, Mt Salak.

    Acalypha minahassae Koord., Meded. Lands Plantent. 19 (1898) 579; Boerl., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ 1 (1900) 286; K.Schum., Just’s Bot. Jahresber. 6 (01) 348; Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 1 (1912) 2. — Type: Koorders 16785 (BO), Sulawesi (Celebes).

    Acalypha similis Koord., Meded. Lands Plantent. 19 (1898) 579; Boerl., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ 1 (1900) 286; K.Schum., Just’s Bot. Jahresber. 6 901) 348. — Typus: None designated .

    [Acalypha caturus forma angustifolia J.J.Sm. in Koord. & Val., Meded. Depart. Landb. Nederl.-Ind. 10 (1910) 511, nom. nud. ]

    Acalypha cinnamomifolia Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 142; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 15; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 3; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 56. — Type: Schlechter 17982 (holo B†; iso G, K?, L), Papua New Guinea, Kaiser Wilhelmsland, Finisterre.

    Acalypha cinnamomifolia Pax & K.Hoffm. var. induta Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 15; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 56. — Type: Stevens LAE 55670 (holo K; iso A, L), Papua New Guinea, Milne Bay District, Raba Raba subdistrict.

    Acalypha wilkesiana auct. non Mόll.Arg.: Koord., Meded. Lands Plantent. 19 (1898) 579.

 

   

 

Large shrubs or small trees, 7–10 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 8–20 cm long, 4–8 mm diam, nearly glabrous to velvety. Indumentum sparsely hairy, denser on young parts, with simple straight hairs. Stipules persistent, ovate to elliptic, 6–7 by 1.5–2 mm, hairy, without capitate trichomes. Leaves: petiole 3–12 cm long, with short velvety hairs of c. 0.25 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, 9–16 by 7–10 cm, length/width ratio 1.2–1.6, chartaceous; base obtuse to acute; margin serrate to crenate, teeth 1–2 by 2–3 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex acute to acuminate; upper surface glabrous, lower surface sparsely to densely hairy, surfaces flat or slightly sunken between the veinlets; veins at base 3, upper secondaries 4–7 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate; peduncle 5–8 mm long, indumentum of simple velvety hairs; fertile portion 10–24 by 2–4 cm, internodes 1–3 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts ovate, c. 1 by 0.5 mm, outside with dense hairs of 0.2–0.3 mm long; pedicel 0.5–1 mm long, with straight hairs to 0.2 mm long; calyx 0.5–1 mm diam, sepals ovate to elliptic, c. 0.75 by 0.5 mm, glabrous, midrib not verrucate, apex acute; filaments c. 0.25 mm long, thecae c. 0.25 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, solitary per axil, spicate, straight, laxly many-flowered (rachis visible); peduncle 5–8 mm long, indumentum velvety; fertile portion 10–30 by 0.5–1 cm, internodes 2–5 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1.5–2 mm diam; 1 per bract; bract stipules not seen; bracts sessile, 1–2 by 3–4 mm, chartaceous, non-accrescent, densely hairy outside, without dots, glabrous inside, lobes 3, apical and lateral lobes 0.75–1 by 0.5 mm, apices acute; pedicel absent; calyx 1.5–2 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate to narrowly elliptic, 1–1.5 by c. 0.5 mm, hairy outside with no verrucae, glabrous inside; ovary globose, c. 1 by 1 mm, bilocular; stigmas 2, 3–3.5 mm long, each divided 6–10 times, smooth. Bisexual inflorescences absent. Fruits globose to oblate, c. 2 by 3–3.5 mm, verrucate, columella 1.5–2 mm long. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds globose, c. 1.5 by 1.5 mm.

    Distribution — Malesia: Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Is., Moluccas, Papua New Guinea.

    Habitat & Ecology — Primary and secondary forest, riverine forest, often on limestone and along rivers, also in open or cleared areas.

    Vernacular names — Sulawesi: Membea hutan (Gorontalo); Abas (Central Sulawesi).

    Notes — 1. Key diagnostic characters include bilocular fruits and 3-partite non-accrescent pistillate bracts. This species is similar to A. cardiophylla var. cardiophylla and A. longispica (see note 1 under A. cardiophylla var. cardiophylla).

2. The type for A. cinnamomifolia (Schlechter 17982) is a peculiar specimen with long and sparsely branched stigmas, which rarely occur in Malesian Acalypha, but in all other characters considered it is scarcely different from A. caturus. Until more specimens are available that show consistent differences between A. cinnamomifolia and A. caturus, the former name is synonymized and not considered as distinct species.

3. See also note 1 under A. floresensis.

4. The specific epithet is after the genus Caturus L. (Euphorbiaceae), which was later subsumed into Acalypha.

 

11. Acalypha floresensis Sagun & G.A.Levin

 

    Acalypha floresensis Sagun & G.A.Levin, Blumea 52 (2007) 356; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 39, . Map 4 — Type: Loeters 1840 (holo L), Indonesia, Flores, Lesser Sunda Islands.

 

 

Shrubs or trees, only pistillate branches seen; flowering branches c. 15 cm long, c. 3 mm diam. Indumentum velvety, with simple recurved hairs. Stipules persistent, linear, c. 4 by 0.75 mm, with straight hairs of 0.5–0.75 mm long, without capitate trichomes. Leaves: petiole 3–6 cm long, with sparse straight hairs of c. 0.5 mm long; blade elliptic, 8–10.5 by 4–5.5 cm, length/width ratio 1.9–2, chartaceous; base slightly obtuse to acute; margin serrate, teeth 1.5–2 by 3–4 mm, without a gland on tooth tip; apex acuminate; upper surface glabrous, lower surface velvety, surfaces flat or slightly sunken between the veinlets; veins at base 3, upper secondaries 6 or 7 per side. Staminate inflorescences and flowers unknown. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate, straight; peduncle 3–5 cm long, indumentum velvety with simple straight hairs of c. 0.25 mm long; fertile portion 70–100 by 7–10 mm, many-flowered, internodes 5–11 mm long. Pistillate flowers 0.5–1 mm diam; 1 per bract; bract stipules not seen; bracts with a petiole 1–2 mm long, blade 4–5 by 5–6 mm, indistinctly veined outside, without dots, practically glabrous, lobes 11–15, the apical lobe 1.5–2 by 1.5–2 mm, lateral lobes 1.5–2 by 1–2 mm, apices acute; pedicel absent; calyx 0.5–1 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate to elliptic, c. 1 by 0.75 mm, densely hairy on margins, otherwise glabrous outside and inside, verrucae absent; ovary globose to oblate, 0.5–1 by c. 1 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 5–6 mm long, each divided 9–14 times, smooth. Bisexual inflorescences unknown. Fruits globose to oblate, c. 2.5 by 3 mm, verrucate, distal half covered with trichomes, columella c. 1.75 mm long. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds prolate, c. 2 by 1.75 mm.

    Distribution — Malesia: Lesser Sunda Islands (Flores).

q = A. argentii; m = A. balgooyii, Μ = A. capillipes; = A. floresensis;5= A. phyllonomifolia; = = A. spectabilis; u = A. stenophylla; «= A. zollingeri.

    Notes — 1. Acalypha floresensis, from Flores in the Lesser Sunda Islands, possesses distinctly petiolate pistillate bracts. This is a distinctive feature not found elsewhere in Malesian Acalypha or elsewhere in the genus in so far as we are aware. Airy Shaw (1982) was the first to notice the distinctiveness of the type specimen (Loeters 1840) and annotated it as “Acalypha inter A. grandis et A. caturus fers intermedia”. Acalypha floresensis resembles A. grandis Benth. in having velvety hairs on the lower side of the leaves and accrescent foliaceous pistillate bracts. The only similarity between A. floresensis and A. caturus is their ovate to elliptic leaves. Acalypha caturus is distinct by its bilocular fruits and non-accrescent pistillate bracts.

2. The specific epithet refers to the type locality, Flores Island in the Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia.

 

12. Acalypha grandibracteata Merr.

 

    Acalypha grandibracteata Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. Bot. 5 (1910) 191; Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 2 (1923) 445; Airy Shaw, Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philipp. Isl. (1983) 2; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 65; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 42, Fig. 6g1-g2; Map 9. — Type: Lectotype (Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen 2010): BS (Fenix) 3607 (PNH), Batanes Islands, Batan, Santo Domingo de Basco.

    Acalypha kotoensis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formos. 9 (1920) 99. — Acalypha grandis Benth. var. kotoensis Hurus., J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Secti. III, Bot. 6 (1954) 300; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 70. — Type: Miyake s.n. (holo TI), Taiwan (Formosa), Kotosho.

 

 

Large shrubs or small trees, c. 7 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 10–15 cm long, 3–9 mm diam, velvety. Indumentum sparsely hairy, denser on young parts, with simple recurved hairs, 0.3–0.5 mm long. Stipules persistent, ovate to elliptic, 6–25 by 1.5–5 mm, with dense velvety hairs, without capitate trichomes. Leaves: petiole 4–15 cm long, with short velvety hairs of c. 0.25 mm long; blade ovate to broadly elliptic, 8–18 by 6–12 cm, length/width ratio 1.2–1.5, chartaceous; base obtuse to cordate; margin serrate to crenate, teeth 1–2 by 1.5–2 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex acute; upper and lower surfaces glabrous, flat or slightly sunken between the veinlets; veins at base 5, upper secondaries 6–8 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate; peduncle 5–7 mm long, indumentum of simple velvety hairs; fertile portion 7–12 by 2–3 cm, internodes 1–2 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts elliptic, 0.75–1 by c. 0.3 mm, outside with dense hairs of 0.3–0.5 mm long; pedicel 0.5–1 mm long, with dense hairs to 0.5 mm long; calyx 0.5–0.75 mm diam, sepals ovate to elliptic, c. 0.75 by 0.2 mm, with straight hairs to 0.25 mm long, midrib not verrucate, apex acute; filaments c. 0.25 mm long, thecae c. 0.25 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, 1 or 2 per axil, straight, spicate, many-flowered, in different axils than staminate ones; peduncle 4–15 mm long, indumentum hairy with simple recurved hairs to c. 0.5 mm long; fertile portion 6–9 by 0.6–0.8 cm, internodes 2–5 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1–1.5 mm diam; 1 or 2 per bract, maturing singly; bract stipules elliptic, 0.5–1 by c. 0.2 mm; bracts sessile, 4–5 by 5–6 mm, foliaceous, accrescent, strongly veined outside, without dots, sparsely hairy outside, with short capitate trichomes, glabrous inside, teeth 11, 1–1.5 by 0.5–1 mm, apices acute; pedicel absent; calyx 1–1.5 mm diam, sepals 3, elliptic, c. 1 by 0.5 mm, hairy outside without verrucae, glabrous inside; ovary globose, c. 1 by 1 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 2–3 mm long, each divided 6–8 times, smooth. Bisexual inflorescences absent. Fruits globose to oblate, c. 1.5 by 2 mm, verrucate, covered with bulbous-based trichomes, columella c. 1 mm long. Allomorphic fruits terminal, pedicel 6–10 mm long, with hairs of 0.5–1 mm long, ebracteate, ovary too young to measure (PNH (Mendoza) 76763, PPI (Reynoso) 6998). Seeds prolate, c. 1.5 by 1 mm.

    Distribution — Taiwan, Malesia: Philippines (Batanes Islands and Northern Luzon).

    Notes — 1. This species is similar to A. angatensis but different in having leaves that are 5-nerved at the base and almost orbicular. Acalypha grandibracteata also does not have the yellowish hairs of A. angatensis, and the otherwise staminate inflorescences do not terminate with a single ebracteate pistillate flower.

2. The specific epithet refers to the large pistillate bracts.

 

13. Acalypha grandis Benth.

 

    Acalypha grandis Benth., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 232; Seem., Bonplandia 9 (1861) 258; Viti (1862) 441; Mόll. Arg., Flora 47 (1864) 441; Linnaea 34 (1865) 10; in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 806; Seem., Fl. Viti. (1867) 224; Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 7 (1886) 462; K.Schum., Bot. Jahrb. 9 (1888) 206; Warb., Bot. Jahrb. 13 (1891) 358; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 149; Fosberg, Lloydia 3 (1940) 114, pro nota; Hurus., J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Secti. III, Bot. 6 (1954) 300; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 205; Kew Bull. 33 (1978) 73, in obs.; Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 16; ; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 42, Map 10. — Ricinocarpus grandis (Benth.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 618. — Acalypha amentacea Roxb. var. grandis (Benth.) Fosberg in Fosberg & Sachet, Smithson. Contrib. Bot. 45 (1980) 8. — Type: Barclay s.n. (holo K), Fiji.

    Acalypha consimilis Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 807; Seem., Fl. Viti. (1867) 225. — Ricinocarpus consimilis (Mόll.Arg.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 617. — Type: United States Exploring Expedition s.n. (holo US), Fiji.

    [Acalypha grandis Benth. forma atropurpurea Gilli, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 83 (1980) 436, nom. nud. — Representative specimen: Gilli 544 (W), Papua New Guinea.]

 

Large shrubs or small trees, c. 2.5 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 8–15 cm long, 4–9 mm diam, velvety. Indumentum sparsely hairy, denser on young parts, with simple straight hairs. Stipules persistent, elliptic to needle-like, 7–10 by 1–1.5 mm, hairy, without capitate trichomes. Leaves: petiole 14–20 cm long, with straight hairs of c. 1 mm long; blade ovate to broadly elliptic, 14–22 by 11–21 cm, length/width ratio 1.1–1.3, chartaceous; base cordate to obtuse; margin serrate, teeth 1–2 by 3–7 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex acute to acuminate; upper surface glabrous, lower surface densely hairy, surfaces flat or slightly sunken between the veinlets; veins at base 5, upper secondaries 7 or 8 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate; peduncle 5–20 mm long, indumentum of simple velvety hairs; fertile portion 70–120 by 3–5 mm, of constant width, internodes 3–5 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts ovate, c. 1.5 by 0.5 mm, outside with dense hairs to 0.5 mm long; pedicel 0.5–1 mm long, with straight hairs to 0.2 mm long; calyx c. 1 mm diam, sepals ovate, c. 0. 5 by 0.5 mm, with straight hairs outside to 0.5 mm long, midrib verrucate in distal half, apex acute; filaments c. 0.25 mm long, thecae c. 0.25 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, straight, spicate, laxly many-flowered, internodes usually visible, in different axils than staminate ones; peduncle 0.8–6 mm long, indumentum velvety with simple straight hairs to 1 mm long; fertile portion 10–21 by 1–1.5 cm, internodes 3–6 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1–1.5 mm diam; 1 or 2 per bract, maturing singly; bract stipules elliptic, c. 0.5 by 0.2 mm; bracts sessile, 4–6 by 7–8 mm, foliaceous, accrescent, strongly veined outside, without dots, hairy outside and inside with hairs to 0.5 mm long, teeth 9–11, apical tooth c. 2 by 2 mm, lateral teeth c. 1 by 1 mm, apices acute; pedicel absent; calyx 1–1.5 mm diam, sepals 3, elliptic, c. 1 by 0.5 mm, hairy outside without verrucae, glabrous inside; ovary globose, c. 2 by 2 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 2–3 mm long, each divided 6–8 times, base hairy. Bisexual inflorescences absent. Fruits globose to oblate, c. 2 by 2.5 mm, verrucate, hairy, with straight hairs only; columella 1.5–2 mm long. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds prolate, c. 2 by 1.5 mm.

    Distribution — Malesia: Papua New Guinea; Solomon Is., Fiji, Caroline Is.

    Notes — 1. Key characters include leaves with five nerves at the base, long petioles that exceed the leaf blade length and narrowly elliptic or needle-like stipules. It is closely similar to A. subintegra in its leaf venation and needle-like stipules, but has serrate (vs subentire) leaves and shorter pistillate inflorescences.

2. The specific epithet probably refers to its habit or its large leaves.

 

14. Acalypha hellwigii Warb.

 

    Acalypha hellwigii Warb., Bot. Jahrb. 18 (1894) 198; K.Schum & Lauterb., Fl. Deutschen Schutzgeb. Sόdsee (1900) 402; Boerl., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ 1 (1900) 288; J.J.Sm., Nova Guinea 8 (1910) 239; Nova Guinea 8 (1912) 791; Gage, Nova Guinea 12 (1915) 481; Kalkman, Nova Guinea 15 (1963) 251, in obs; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 16; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 66; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 43, Fig. 3d; Map 11. — Acalypha scandens Warb., Bot. Jahrb. 13 (1891) 359, non Benth. (Hooker J. Bot. .Misc. 6, 1854, 329), nom. inval. — Acalypha scandens Warb. var. glabra Warb., Bot. Jahrb. 13 (1891) 359, nom. inval. — Acalypha hellwigii Warb. var. glabra (Warb.) K.Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Deutschen Schutzgeb. Sόdsee (1900) 402, nom. inval. — Lectotype (Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen 2010): Lauterbach 629 (holo WRSL), Papua New Guinea, Sattelberg, Hopi. — Former syntypes: Hellwig 395, 396, Kaiser Wilhelmsland, Finschhafen, am Waldrand; Hellwig 553, Sattelberg.

    Acalypha scandens Warb. var. mollis Warb., Bot. Jahrb. 13 (1891) 360. — Acalypha hellwigii Warb. var. mollis (Warb.) K.Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Deutschen Schutzgeb. Sόdsee (1900) 402; Boerl., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ 1 (1900) 286; J.J.Sm., Nova Guinea 8 (1910) 239; Nova Guinea 12 (1915) 546; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 17; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 66. — Lectotype (Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen 2010): Hellwig 163 (holo K; iso LE), Papua New Guinea, Kelana. — Syntypes: Hellwig 508, Sattelberg, Wankewan; Lauterbach 1642, Kaiser Wilhelmsland, Finschhafen.

    Acalypha sogerensis S.Moore, J. Bot. 61, suppl. (1923) 47. — Type: Forbes PP 13 (holo BM; iso E, L), Papua New Guinea, Sogere.

    Acalypha nematorhachis Lauterb. & K.Schum. in K.Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Deutschen Schutzgeb. Sόdsee (1900) 402; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 168; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 19; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 77. — Type: Lauterbach 605 (holo WRSL), New Guinea, Kaiser Wilhelmsland, Sattelberg.

    Acalypha explorationis Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 33 (1978) 71; Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 16; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 62. — Type: Docters van Leeuwen 10509 (holo K; iso L), Indonesian New Guinea, ‘North New Guinea’, Exploration Camp.

    Acalypha insulana auct. non Mόll.Arg.: Lauterb. & K.Schum. in K.Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Deutschen Schutzgeb. Sόdsee 1900) 401, p.p.

    Acalypha insulana var. pubescens auct. non Mόll.Arg.: Warb., Bot. Jahrb. 13 (1891) 358; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 165.

    Acalypha stipulacea auct. non Klotzsch: K.Schum & Hollrung, Fl. Kaiser Wilhelms Land (1889) 75; K.Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Deutschen Schutzgeb. Sόdsee (1900) 403.

    Acalypha grandis auct. non Benth.: K.Schum & Lauterb., Fl. Deutschen Schutzgeb. Sόdsee (1900) 401 p.p.

    Acalypha insulana Mόll.Arg. var. glabrescens auct. non Mόll.Arg.: Boerl., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ 1 (1900) 286; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 166.

 

 

Large shrubs or small trees, 2–4 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 25–37 cm long, 3–4 mm diam. Indumentum nearly glabrous to densely hairy, with simple straight hairs. Stipules persistent, linear and needle-like, 6–11 by 1–1.5 mm, densely hairy, with capitate trichomes of 0.1–0.2 mm long on margin. Leaves: petiole 2–10 cm long, with velvety hairs of c. 1 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, 11–15 by 3.5–8.5 cm, length/width ratio 1.8–3, chartaceous; base weakly cordate to obtuse to acute; margin serrate, teeth 1–1.5 by 3–6 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex acute to acuminate; upper surface nearly glabrous, lower surface nearly glabrous to densely hairy, surfaces flat or slightly sunken between the veinlets; veins at base 3, upper secondaries 10 or 11 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary, 1–4 per axil, spicate; peduncle 5–10 mm long, indumentum of simple dense hairs to 0.5 mm long; fertile portion c. 8 by 2 mm, internodes 1–2 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts ovate to elliptic, 0.5–0.75 by c. 0.5 mm, outside with hairs, 0.25–0.5 mm long; pedicel 0.5–0.75 mm long, with straight hairs to c. 0.5 mm long; calyx c. 1 mm diam, sepals ovate, c. 0.75 by 0.5 mm, with straight hairs to c. 0.2 mm long, midrib verrucate in distal half, apex acute; filaments c. 0.25 mm long, thecae c. 0.25 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, straight, spicate, many-flowered, in different axils than staminate ones; peduncle 20–30 mm long, indumentum dense with simple straight hairs to 0.3 mm long; fertile portion 19.5–23 by 0.5–1 cm, internodes 3–6 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1–1.5 mm diam; 1 or 2 per bract; bract stipules elliptic, 0.25–0.75 by 0.1–0.2 mm; bracts sessile, 3–8 by 4.5–9 mm, foliaceous, accrescent, strongly veined outside, sometimes with dots, sparsely hairy outside with hairs to 0.5 mm long, with short capitate trichomes, glabrous inside, teeth 8–19, apical tooth 2.5–3 by 1.5–2 mm, lateral teeth 0.5–1 by 0.75–1 mm, apices acute; pedicel absent; calyx 1–1.5 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate to elliptic, 1–1.5 by 0.5–0.75 mm, hairy outside with hairs c. 0.2 mm long, with verrucae in distal half, glabrous inside; ovary globose to oblate, 0.75–1 by 0.3–1 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3 (or 4), 2.5–5 mm long, each divided 6–9 times, base glabrous to hairy. Bisexual inflorescences absent. Fruits globose to oblate, 1.5–2.5 by 1.5–3 mm, verrucate, distal half covered with bulbous-based trichomes, hairs c. 0.5 mm long, columella c. 2 mm long. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds prolate, c. 2 by 1.5 mm.

    Distribution — Malesia: Papua New Guinea, New Ireland; Solomon Is.

    Habitat & Ecology — Primary lowland rainforest, secondary forest, clearings, usually along rivers, also on hills and ridges. Flowering: All year round. Altitude: 1–2050 m.

    Vernacular names — Papua New Guinea: Betten (Sibil); Biharu (Tairora); Deneng (Hagen); Eil (Mawan); Getogore (Foi language); Giminopa (Asaro: Kefamo); Jiminopa (Asaro: Kefamo); Kararempa (Okapa); Kemalapu (Dunantina); Kepelappa (Dunantina); Ketokole (Kutubu language); Kwarungi (Samu Kundi: Abelam); Liringga (Yali); Managai (Chimbu: Masul); Mandi (Enga language, Yogos); Meloa (Western District); Mingai (Tainde); Mingai Kama (Kuman language); Minja (Wahgi: Mini); Monday (Madang: Saidor); Mondeng (Rawa); Mutani (Garaina); Neng (Hagen: Togoba); Si (Bembi); Talad (Madang); Walopeh (Mekeo language, Maipa).

    Uses — Wraps for smokes; leaf smoked, rubbed on wounds to help them heal (Rifai 6559).

    Notes — 1. Key characters include needle-like stipules, short petioles not exceeding half of leaf length, and fasciculate staminate inflorescences. Acalypha hellwigii can be confused with A. amentacea var. amentacea with its chartaceous leaves and long pistillate inflorescences, but can be differentiated from A. amentacea var. amentacea instantly by its short petioles. For differences with A. nervulosa, see note 1 under latter; and for differences with A. novoguineensis, see note 1 under A. novoguineensis.

2. Acalypha hellwigii is usually synonymized under the Fijian species A. insulana (Penninerviae). Acalypha insulana has distinctly penninerved leaves, while A. hellwigii has three basal veins.

3. The specific epithet honours botanist Franz Carl Hellwig, who collected in New Guinea in 1888–1889.

 

15. Acalypha hispida Burm.f.

 

    Acalypha hispida Burm.f., Fl. Ind. (1768) 203; Willd., Sp. Pl. 4 (1805) 523; Enum. Pl. (1809) 993; Hornem., Hort. Reg. Bot. Hafn. 2 (1815) 909; Poir., Encycl. Mιth. Bot., Suppl. 4 (1816) 685; Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3 (1826) 880; Wall., Num. list (1828) 7780C; Benth., London J. Bot. 2 (1843) 232; D.Dietr., Syn. Pl. 5 (1852) 376; Miq., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ: 1, 2 (1859) 404; Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 815; Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. 4 (1880) 194; Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5 (1887) 417, pro nom. excl.; Warb., Bot. Jahrb. 18 (1894) 198, in obs.; K.Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Deutschen Schutzgeb. Sόdsee (1900) 402; Boerl., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ 1 (1900) 286; J.J.Sm. in Koord. & Val., Meded. Depart. Landb. Nederl.-Ind. 10 (1910) 18; Koord., Exkursionsfl. Java 2 (1912) 497; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 293; Interpr. Rumph. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 323; Philipp. J. Sci. 19 (1921) 362; Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 2 (1923) 445; S.Moore, J. Bot. 61, suppl. (1923) 47; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 140; De Wild., Pl. Bequaert. 3 (1926) 490; Hurus., J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Secti. III, Bot. 6 (1954) 301; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 489; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 206; Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 16; Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philipp. Isl. (1983) 2; Chakrab. & N.P.Balakr., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. Addit. Ser. 9 (1992) 10; Ngerns. & Chayamarit in Chayamarit & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 26; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 44. — Acalypha densiflora Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 628, nom. illeg.; Miq., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ: 1, 2 (1859) 405; Koord., Meded. Lands Plantent. 19 (1898) 578; Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 3 (1914) 71. — Ricinocarpus hispidus (Burm.f.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 618. — Type: Illustration t. 61, f. 1. (Burman f. 1768).

    Caturus spiciflorus L., Mant. Pl. (1767) 127, non Acalypha spiciflora Burm.f.; Dennst., Schlόss. Hort. Ind. Malab. (1818) 31; A.Juss., Euph. Gen. (1824) 115; Roxb., Fl. Indica, ed. 1832, 3 (1832) 760. — Lectotype (Radcliffe-Smith in Jarvis, F.R.Barrie, D.M.Allan & Reveal, List Linn. Gen. Names Types, 1993): Herb. Linn. No. 1163.1 (LINN).

    [Acalypha rubra Noronha ex Hassk., Tijdschr. Nat. Geschied. Phys. 11 (1844) 216, non Willd., Enum. Pl. (1809) 992, nom. nud. — Representative specimen: None designated.]

    Acalypha sanderi N.E.Br., Gard. Chron. ser. 3, 20 (1896) 392; K.Schum., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 2 (1898) 127 (‘A. sanderiana’); Merr. Philipp. J. Sci. 19 (1921) 362. — Acalypha hispida Burm.f. var. sanderi (N.E.Br.) J.J.Sm. in Koord. & Val., Meded. Depart. Landb. Nederl.-Ind. 10 (1910) 19. — Type: None designated.

    Acalypha wilkesiana auct. non Mόll.Arg.: Warb., Bot. Jahrb. 13 (1891) 358.

 

 

Large shrubs to small trees, 2–4 m tall, possibly dioecious, only pistillate plants known; flowering branches 10–36 cm long, 0.4–0.6 cm diam. Indumentum velvety, with simple recurved hairs. Stipules persistent, ovate to elliptic, c. 8 by 13 mm, midrib hairy, without capitate trichomes. Leaves: petiole 10–15 cm long, with velvety hairs of c. 1 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, 12–25 by 9–18 cm, length/width ratio 1.3–1.6, chartaceous; base slightly cordate to obtuse; margin serrate to deeply crenate/ undulate, teeth 1–3 by 3–6 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex acute to acuminate; upper surface glabrous, lower surface glabrous, surfaces flat or slightly sunken between the veinlets; veins at base 3, upper secondaries 5–8 per side. Staminate inflorescences and flowers unknown. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate, straight, extremely densely flowered, rachises usually hidden by flowers; peduncle 17–30 mm long, indumentum of simple recurved hairs to c. 0.5 mm long; fertile portion 23–34 by 0.8–1 cm, internodes 2–3 mm long. Pistillate flowers c. 1 mm diam; 4–6 per node; bract stipules absent; bracts sessile, 0.5–1 by 0.5–1 mm, hairy outside, entire, apex acute, chartaceous, non-accrescent; pedicel absent; calyx c. 1 mm diam, sepals (3 or) 4, ovate to elliptic, c. 0.5 by 0.3 mm, hairy outside without verrucae, glabrous inside; ovary globose to oblate, c. 1 by 1 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 5–8 mm long, each divided 6–16 times, smooth. Bisexual inflorescences unknown. Fruits unknown. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds unknown.

    Distribution — Malesia; only known from cultivation.

    Habitat & Ecology — Cultivated, escaped to secondary forest and roadsides. Flowering: March to November. Altitude 100–1260 m.

    Vernacular names — Sumatra: Ikor ikor. Java: Boentot koeching. Philippines: Buntot-pusa (Tagalog).

    Uses — Widely cultivated ornamental because of its showy red (due to stigmas), dense pistillate inflorescences.

    Notes — 1. Key characters include extremely showy pistillate inflorescences bearing densely packed flowers, each with long, highly laciniate stigmas, usually reddish or crimson coloured.

2. The specific epithet refers to the long and laciniate styles of the pistillate inflorescence.

 

16. Acalypha indica L.

 

    Acalypha indica L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1003; Syst. Nat. 13 (1770) 634; Syst. Veg. (1774) 721; Willd., Sp. Pl. 4 (1805) 523; Hornem., Enum. Pl. Horti Bot. Hafniensis (1807) 1; Hort. Reg. Bot. Hafn. 2 (1815) 908; Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 628; Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3 (1826) 880; Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 1832, 3 (1832) 675; Span., Linnaea 15 (1841) 350; Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Or. (1844) 6, t. 877; Hassk., Pl. Java. Rar. (1848) 246; Benth., Fl. Hongkong. (1861) 303; Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 868; Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. 4 (1880) 194; S.Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philipp. (1885) 143; Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5 (1887) 416; K.Schum. & Hollrung, Fl. Kaiser Wilhelms Land (1889) 75; F.B.Forbes & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 26 (1894) 438; Koord., Meded. Lands Plantent. 19 (1898) 579; Boerl., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ 1 (1900) 286; Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. Bot. 3 (1908) 417; Fl. Manila (1912) 292; Koord., Exkursionsfl. Java 2 (1912) 498; Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 1 (1913) 69; Syst. Verz. 3 (1914) 71; Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 11 (1916) 285; Spec. Blanc. (1918) 226; Kenoyer, J. Indian Bot. 1 (1919) 3; Merr., Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 2 (1923) 446; Ridl., Fl. Malay Penin. 3 (1924) 274; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 33; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 490; Sanjappa, Taxon 28 (1979) 274; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 206; Radcl.-Sm., Kew Bull. 28 (1973) 527; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 18; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 247; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 3; Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philipp. Isl. (1983) 2; S.F.Huang & T.C.Huang, Taiwania 36 (1991) 83; T.C.Huang, Fl. Taiwan 3 (1993) 421; T.C.Huang, S.F.Huang & K.C.Yang, Taiwania 39 (1994) 12; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 68; T.C.Huang, Fl. Taiwan 6 (2003) 68; Rani & N.P. Balakr., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 31 (2007) 96; Ngerns. & Chayamarit in Chayamarit & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 26, plate I: 1; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 45, Fig. 2h, 4c; Map 12. — Ricinocarpus indicus (L.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 618. — Lectotype (Radcliffe-Smith, Fl. Pakistan 172, 1986): Herb. Hermann Vol. III: 2 (holo BM), Sri Lanka.

    Acalypha caroliniana Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 748, non Walter (Fl. Carol., 1788, 238), nec Elliott (Sketch Bot. S. Carolina Georgia 2, 1824, 645); Blanco, Fl. Filip., 2nd ed. (1845) 515; Fl. Filip. 3rd ed. (1879) 149; Merr., Blanco Fl. Filip. (1905) 77. — Neotype (Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, 2010): Merrill Species Blancoanae 487 (holo L; iso A, US), Philippines, Luzon, Rizal Province, Guadalupe.

    [Acalypha ciliata Wall., Num. list (1828) n. 7779J, nom. nud. — Representative specimen: Wall.Cat. 7779J (n.v.), India.]

    [Acalypha canescens Wall., Num. list (1828) n. 7785, nom. nud. — Representative specimen: Wall.Cat. 7785 (n.v.), India.]

 

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Herbaceous annuals, 0.3–0.8 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 9–30 cm long, 2–3.5 mm diam. Indumentum sparsely hairy, denser on young parts, with simple straight hairs and capitate trichomes. Stipules persistent, elliptic, 0.75–1 by 0.2–0.5 mm; sparsely hairy. Leaves: petiole 13–60 mm long, glabrous to hairy with hairs c. 0.5 mm long, sometimes with capitate glands; blade ovate to elliptic, 1.5–5 by 1–3 cm, length/width ratio 1.2–1.7, chartaceous; base cuneate to obtuse; margin serrate, teeth 0.5–1 by 2–4 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex obtuse to acute; upper surface glabrous to sparsely hairy; lower surface sparsely hairy, more densely on midrib and veins; veins at base 3, upper secondaries 3–5 per side. Exclusively staminate and pistillate inflorescences absent. Bisexual inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate; peduncle 2–10 mm long, sparsely hairy; fertile portion 25–65 by 7–15 mm, pistillate below and staminate above, usually terminating with an allomorphic flower; pistillate portion 15–50 by 10–15 mm, internodes 5–15 mm; staminate portion 5–15 by 1–1.5 mm, internodes 0.5–1 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts elliptic, 0.5–0.75 by 0.2–0.3 mm, with sparse hairs up to 0.5 mm long; pedicel c. 0.5 mm long, with sparse hairs up to 1 mm long; calyx 4–12 by c. 0.5 mm diam, sepals ovate, c. 0.3 by 0.2 mm, hairy outside, midrib verrucate in distal half, apex acute; filaments c. 0.2 mm long, thecae c. 0.2 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1–1.5 mm diam; 3 per bract; bract stipules 0.3–0.5 by c. 0.2 mm; bracts sessile, 3.5–8 by 5–12 mm, weakly veined outside, without dots, glabrous outside and inside, sparsely hairy on the margins, teeth 10–14, 0.5–1 by 1–2 mm, apices obtuse; pedicel 0–0.5 mm long; calyx 1–1.5 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate to elliptic, 0.5–1 by c. 0.5 mm, hairy; ovary globose to elongate, 0.5–0.75 by 0.5–1 mm; stigmas 3, 2–4 mm long, each divided 1 or 2 times, smooth. Fruits 1.75–2 by 1.75–2 mm, distal half covered with trichomes, columella 0.75–1 mm long. Allomorphic fruits terminal; pedicel 3.5–15 mm long, with sparse hairs up to 0.5 mm long; mericarp obovoid, 1–2 by 1–3 mm, longitudinally sutured, distal half with 2 opposite whorled, mostly fused fringes that are not broader than half of mericarp length, proximal end with one shallowly fringed whorl. Seeds prolate, c. 1.5 by 0.75–1 mm.

    Distribution — Palaeotropical weed; Africa, Malesia, Micronesia; introduced in the Neotropics.

    Habitat & Ecology — Roadsides and waste places. Flowering: All year round. Altitude 0–250 m.

    Vernacular names — Bali: Tumpang pajuk (Samis).

    Notes — 1. Acalypha indica is similar to the other weedy annuals in Malesia, A. australis, A. brachystachya and A. lanceolata var. lanceolata. They all have similar ovate to elliptic leaves (except for A. australis), foliaceous pistillate bracts, and bisexual inflorescences, but A. indica has shallowly toothed to subentire pistillate bracts and always terminal allomorphs that have shallow lobed lateral fringes and long pedicels. Acalypha australis has a distinct acute apical lobe on the pistillate bracts; its allomorphs have not been observed in Malesian specimens. Acalypha brachystachya has elongated bract lobes and its allomorphs have seemingly fused lateral fringes that appear as a single distal lobe. Acalypha lanceolata var. lanceolata has acute pistillate bract teeth and its allomorphs are subsessile, have deeply lobed lateral fringes, and are found laterally on the staminate portion of the inflorescence and are never terminal.

2. Seed development and allomorph morpho-anatomy was studied by Johri & Kapil (Phytomorphology 3, 1953, 137–151).

3. Coode (in R.Antoine, Brenan & Mangenot, Fl. .Mascar. 160, 1982, 78) lectotypified A. indica, citing Herb. Linn. No. 1139.3. This is a specimen of A. lanceolata var. lanceolata, however, and so should be rejected in favour of Radcliffe-Smith’s subsequent lectotypification (Radcliffe-Smith, Fl. Pakistan 172, 1986) of the specimen at the Hermann Herbarium in BM, which is also the basis of Flora Zeylanica (Linnaeus, Fl. Zeylan., 1747).

4. The specific epithet denotes the country India, the presumed locality of the type collection.

 

17. Acalypha lanceolata Willd. var. lanceolata

 

    Acalypha lanceolata Willd., Sp. Pl. 4 (1805) 524; Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3 (1826) 881; Wall., Num. list (1828) n. 7780B, n. 7789; D.Dietr., Syn. Pl. 5 (1852) 377; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 206; Radcl.-Sm., Kew Bull. 28 (1973) 526; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 51; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull, Addit. Ser. 4 (1975) 24; Sanjappa, Taxon 28 (1979) 274; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 18; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 247; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 4; Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philipp. Isl. (1983) 2; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 71; Rani & N.P.Balakr., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 31 (2007) 96; Ngerns. & Chayamarit in Chayamarit & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 29; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 46, Fig. 2i, 4d; Map 13. — Ricinocarpus lanceolatus (Willd.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 617. — Lectotype (Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen 2010, non Radcl.- Sm. 1973, see note 2): L’Herbier de Paul Hermann: 101 (Bibliotheque de l’Institute de France).

    Urtica pilosa Lour., Fl. Cochin. (1790) 558; Fl. Cochin. 1 (1793) 682; Merr., Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., New Ser. 24 (1935) 238, pro syn. — Type: None designated (n.v.).

    Acalypha boehmerioides Miq., Fl. Nederl. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 459; Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 871; Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. 4 (1880) 194; K.Schum., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin-Dahlem 2 (1898) 127; K.Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Deutschen Schutzgeb. Sόdsee (1900) 401; J.J.Sm., Nova Guinea 8 (1910) 240; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 292; Koord., Exkursionsfl. Java 2 (1912) 498; Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 1 (1913) 66; Merr., Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 2 (1923) 445; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 96; Merr., Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., New Ser. 24 (1935) 238; Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5 (1940) 92; Holth. & H.J.Lam, Blumea 5 (1942) 199; H.J.Lam, Blumea 5 (1945) 577; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 490; T.C.Huang, S.F.Huang & K.C.Yang, Taiwania 39 (1994) 12. — Acalypha boehmerioides Miq. var. genuina Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 96, nom. inval. — Type: Amand s.n. (holo U, barcode U0001841), Indonesia, Sumatra.

    Acalypha hispida Willd. var. pubescens Hook. & Arn., Bot. Capt. Beechey Voy. (1837) 213. — Type: Not located.

    Acalypha fallax Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 43; in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 872; Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5 (1887) 416; F.B.Forbes & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 26 (1894) 437; Boerl., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ 1 (1900) 286; Ridl., Fl. Malay Penin. 3 (1924) 274. — Ricinocarpus fallax (Mόll.Arg.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 616. — Lectotype (Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen 2010): Perrottet 462 (lecto G-DC). — Syntype: Perrottet 463 (G-DC).

    Acalypha wightiana Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 43. — Acalypha wightiana Mόll.Arg. var. ovata Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 43, nom. inval. — Acalypha wightiana Mόll.Arg. var. genuina Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 872, nom. inval. — Type: Wight in Wall. 7780C (holo G-DC; iso K-W), India, Madras.

    Acalypha wightiana Mόll.Arg. var. lanceolata (Willd.) Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 43; in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 872. — Type: Hb. Willd. Fol. 17817 (holo B-W), India orientali.

    Acalypha harmandiana Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 70 (1924) 873. — Type: Harmand s.n. (holo P; iso A), Cambodia (Cambodge).

    Acalypha ciliata auct. non Forssk.: Wall., Num. list (1828) n. 7780.

    Acalypha virginica auct. non L.: Wall., Num. list (1828) n. 7779.

 

 

Herbaceous annuals, 0.6–0.9 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 15–30 cm long, 2–3.5 mm diam, hairy. Indumentum sparse to densely hairy, denser on young parts, with simple recurved hairs. Stipules persistent, elliptic, 1.5–3 by 0.2–0.3 mm, hairy. Leaves: petiole 25–67 by 0.5–1 mm, with simple recurved hairs to c. 0.5 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, 3–6.5 by 2–4 cm, length/width ratio 1.2–1.8, chartaceous; base obtuse to acute; margin serrate, teeth 1–2 by 2–4 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex acute to acuminate; upper surface nearly glabrous, hairs on lamina straight, 0.5–0.75 mm long; lower surface sparsely hairy; veins at base 3, upper secondaries 3 or 4 per side. Exclusively staminate and pistillate inflorescences absent. Bisexual inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate; peduncle 2–10 mm long, hairy; fertile portion 5–40 by 3–4 mm, pistillate below and staminate above; pistillate portion 2–30 by 13–16 mm, internodes 2–5 mm long; staminate portion 3–7 by 1–2 mm, internodes 0.5–1 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts elliptic, 0.5–0.75 by 0.2–0.3 mm, hairy on margins; pedicel 0.3–0.5 mm long, hairy; calyx 0.5–0.75 mm diam, sepals ovate, c. 0.5 by 0.25 mm, glabrous, midrib sparsely verrucate in upper half, apex acute; filaments c. 0.2 mm long, thecae c. 0.25 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate flowers c. 1 mm diam; 1 per bract; bract stipules elliptic, c. 1 by 0.5 mm; bracts sessile, 2–3 by 4–6 mm, ovate, strongly veined outside, without dots, sparsely hairy outside, with capitate trichomes 0.5–0.75 mm long, glabrous inside, teeth 11–13, 0.5–0.75 by 0.5–1 mm, apices acute; pedicel 0(–0.5) mm long; calyx c. 1 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate to elliptic, 0.5–0.75 by 0.25–0.3 mm, hairy on margins; ovary globose, c. 1 by 1 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 1–3 mm long, each divided 2 or 3 times, smooth. Fruits globose to oblate, 1.5–1.75 by 2–2.5 mm, distal half covered with straight hairs of c. 0.5 mm long, columella 0.75–1 by c. 0.5 mm long. Allomorphic fruits borne between pistillate and staminate portions of inflorescence; pedicel 0.1–1 mm long, with sparse hairs up to 0.25 mm long; mericarp obovoid, c. 2 by 2–3 mm, longitudinally sutured, distal half with 2 opposite whorled, essentially free fringes that are broader than half of mericarp length, proximal end of mericarp fringed. Seeds prolate, 1.25–1.5 by c. 0.75 mm.

    Distribution — Palaeotropical weed; Africa, Malesia, Micronesia.

    Habitat & Ecology — Roadsides and waste places. Flowering: All year round. Altitude 0–400 m.

    Vernacular names — Malay Peninsula: Mula mani (Tamil);Sasaimutih (Dawan).

    Notes — 1. This species is similar to A. argentii and A. indica; see notes under these species.

2. The earliest effective lectotypification of A. lanceolata can be traced to Radcliffe-Smith (in Polhill, Fl. Trop. E. Africa, 1987), but the reference is in conflict with the protologue. The type chosen is an illustration in Thesaurus Zeylanicus: 205, t. 93, f. 2 (Burman 1737), but the figure is a Phyllanthus, and f. 1 is the Acalypha. However, the caption on the figure does not match the specimen examined by Willdenow. A specimen on page 101 of the Hermann Herbarium in the Bibliotheque de l’Institute de France (Lourteig, Taxon 15, 1966: 23–32; Trimen, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 24, 1887: 129–155) matches the protologue and is chosen here as the lectotype in accordance with the provisions of the ICBN.

3. Another variety, A. lanceolata var. glandulosa (Mόll.Arg.) Radcl.-Sm. (Kew Bull. 44, 1989: 439–454) occurs in Africa.

4. The specific epithet probably refers to the lanceolate or narrowly elliptic leaves.

 

18. Acalypha longispica Warb.

 

    Acalypha longispica Warb., Bot. Jahrb. 18 (1894) 197; K.Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Deutschen Schutzgeb. Sόdsee (1900) 401; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 141; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 19; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 73; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 47, Fig. 2j, 3e; Map 14. — Lectotype (Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen 2010): Hellwig 383 (holo K; iso BO), Papua New Guinea, Kaiser Wilhelmsland, Finschhafen. — Former syntype: Hollrung 98, Papua New Guinea.

    Acalypha caturoides K.Schum & Lauterb., Nachtr. Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. Sόdsee (1905) 298. — Lectotype (Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen 2010): Schlechter 14270 (holo K; iso BM, BO, LE), Papua New Guinea, Kaiser Wilhelmsland, Konstantinhafen. — Former syntype: Weinland 380 (WRSL), Papua New Guinea, Kaiser Wilhelmsland, Finschhafen.

    Acalypha protractra S.Moore, J. Bot. 61, suppl. (1923) 47. — Type: H.O. Forbes PP 127 (holo BM; iso E, L), Papua New Guinea, Sogeri.

    Acalypha grandis auct. non Benth.: K.Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Deutschen Schutzgeb. Sόdsee (1900) 401, p.p.

 

 

Large shrubs or small trees, 4–10 m tall, usually monoecious; flowering branches 15–30 cm long, 3–7 mm diam. Indumentum velvety, with simple recurved hairs. Stipules persistent, ovate to broad elliptic, 2–7 by 2–7 mm, usually recurved, apex obtuse, densely hairy with hairs of c. 0.1 mm long, without capitate trichomes. Leaves: petiole 3–15 cm long, with velvety hairs of 0.5–1 mm long; blade broadly ovate to elliptic, 8.5–17 by 9–16 cm, length/width ratio 0.8–1, chartaceous; base cordate to obtuse; margin subentire to weakly crenate, teeth 1–3 by 3–8 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex acute to slightly acuminate; upper surface glabrous, lower surface velvety, surfaces flat or slightly sunken between the veinlets; veins at base 3, upper secondaries c. 5 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate; peduncle 5–8 mm long, indumentum simple, of velvety hairs up to 0.2 mm long; fertile portion 8–13 by 2–3 cm, internodes 1–2 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts ovate, c. 0.5 by 0.25 mm, hairy outside; pedicel 0.5–1 mm long, glabrous; calyx 0.5–1 mm diam, sepals ovate to elliptic, c. 0.75 by 0.5 mm, glabrous, midrib not verrucate, apex acute; filaments c. 0.25 mm long, thecae c. 0.25 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, straight, spicate, laxly many-flowered, rachis visible, in different axils than staminate ones; peduncle 4–15 mm long, indumentum velvety with simple recurved hairs; fertile portion 8–34 by 0.3–0.7 cm, internodes 3–10 mm long. Pistillate flowers c. 1 mm diam; 1 per bract; bract stipules not seen; bracts sessile, 1–1.5 by 1.5–2 mm, chartaceous, nonaccrescent, weakly veined outside, without dots, sparsely hairy outside with hairs of c. 0.2 mm long, glabrous inside, lobes 3, c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm, apices acute; pedicel absent; calyx c. 1 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate, c. 1 by 1 mm, sparsely hairy outside with hairs c. 0.2 mm long, without verrucae, glabrous inside; ovary globose, c. 1.5 by 1.5 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 2–4 mm long, each divided 4–6 times, smooth. Bisexual inflorescences like the staminate ones but with 1 or 2 pistillate flowers near the base. Fruits globose to oblate, c. 3 by 4 mm, verrucate, covered with velvety hairs, without longitudinal ridges, columella c. 2 by 1 mm. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds globose, c. 1.5 by 1.5 mm.

    Distribution — Malesia: Moluccas, New Guinea.

    Habitat & Ecology — Forest margins, secondary vegetation, regrowths on village gardens, often alluvial; soil clayey, limestone. Flowering: March to December. Altitude 15–1350 m.

    Vernacular names — New Guinea (Papua): Mandewoenik (Biak).

    Notes — 1. Key characters include 3-partite and non-accrescent pistillate bracts, trilocular fruits, and reflexed, broad, almost orbicular stipules. This species is similar to A. caturus and A. cardiophylla var. cardiophylla; see the notes under these species. See also note 1 under A. novoguineensis.

2. Rarely some pistillate flowers occur at the base of the staminate inflorescence (PNH (Sulit) 10070, PNH (Sulit) 14310), which is more common in A. cardiophylla var. cardiophylla.

3. The specific epithet refers to the long inflorescences.

 

19. Acalypha nervulosa Airy Shaw

 

    Acalypha nervulosa Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20 (1966) 407; Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 19; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 78; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 48, Map 15. — Type: P. van Royen 8128 (holo K; iso L), Papua New Guinea, Vogelkop Peninsula, Nettoti range, Wekari river camp.

 

Straggling shrubs, 1–3 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 14–36 cm long, 3–3.5 mm diam, velvety. Indumentum sparsely hairy, denser on young parts, with simple straight hairs. Stipules caducous, elliptic, needle-like, 2–3 by 0.2–0.5 mm, with hairs of 0.5–1 mm long and capitate trichomes of c. 0.1 mm long. Leaves: petiole 4–7 mm long, with simple straight hairs of 0.5–0.75 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, 7–11 by 2–4 cm, length/width ratio 2–3.5, chartaceous; base obtuse to acute; margin serrate, teeth c. 1 by 3 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex acute to acuminate; upper surface nearly glabrous, hairs on lamina straight, 0.5–0.75 mm long; lower surface densely pubescent especially along nerves, hairs 0.5–0.75 mm long; penninerved, veins at base 1, upper secondaries 7–9 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate; peduncle 3–10 mm long, hairs simple, straight; fertile portion 45–97 by 1.5–2 mm, internodes up to 2 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts broadly ovate, c. 1 by 0.5 mm, outside with sparse hairs of 0.2–0.5 mm long; pedicel c. 0.5 mm long, with straight hairs of c. 0.2 mm long; calyx 0.5–1 mm diam, sepals ovate, c. 0.75 by 0.25 mm, with sparse straight hairs of c. 0.2 mm long, midrib verrucate in distal half, apex acute; filaments c. 0.2 mm long, thecae c. 0.2 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate, straight, many-flowered, in different axils than staminate ones; peduncle 7–35 mm long, simple straight hairs; fertile portion 8–10 by 0.2–0.3 cm, internodes 3–8 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1–1.5 mm diam; 1 per bract; bract stipules elliptic 0.75–1 by c. 0.2 mm; bracts sessile, ovate, 4–7 by 6–8 mm, foliaceous, accrescent, strongly veined outside, with dots, densely hairy outside, sparsely hairy inside, with simple hairs of 0.25–0.5 mm long, with short capitate trichomes of c. 0.1 mm long, teeth 9–11, apical tooth c. 3 by 1.5 mm, lateral teeth c. 2 by 1 mm, apices acute; pedicel absent; calyx 1–1.5 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate to elliptic, 1–1.5 by 0.5–1 mm, hairy on margins with hairs of c. 0.2 mm long, without verrucae; ovary globose, c. 1 by 1 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 3–6 mm long, each divided 10–16 times, hairy. Bisexual inflorescences absent. Fruits globose to oblate, c. 1.5 by 2 mm, verrucate, with hairs of c. 0.5 mm long, without trichomes, columella c. 1 mm long. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds prolate, c. 2 by 1.5 mm.

    Distribution — Endemic in Papua New Guinea.

    Habitat & Ecology — River banks, riparian marshes, young secondary (montane) forest; soil sandy clay with much gravel. Flowering: All year round. Altitude 850–1925 m. Fruits eaten by birds (Widjaja EAW 4378).

    Vernacular names — Bekuom (Hatam); Hamaka (Sougb); Boekwom (Hattam); Potie (Kapaukoe); Potie (Dani).

    Uses — Leaves used for sore throat and as cigarette wrappers (Kostermans & Soegeng 580).

    Notes — 1. Key characters include short and laxly flowered pistillate inflorescences, small leaves, and a single staminate inflorescence per axil. This species is similar to A. hellwigii in its short petioles and needle-like stipules, but differs in having penninerved leaves and a single staminate inflorescence per axil.

2. The specific epithet probably refers to the pinnate nervation of the leaves.

 

20. Acalypha novoguineensis Warb.

 

    Acalypha novoguineensis Warb., Bot. Jahrb. 13 (1891) 359; Bot. Jahrb. 18 (1894) 198, in obs.; Boerl., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ 1 (1900) 286; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 151; Fosberg, Lloydia 3 (1940) 114, in obs.; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 20; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 78; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 49, Fig. 2k; Map 16 — Type: Warburg 20502 (holo B†; iso A), Papua New Guinea, Kaiser Wilhelmsland, Astrolabe-Bay, Sigar.

 

 

Large shrubs or small trees, 5–8 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 12–25 cm long, 4–7 mm diam, velvety. Indumentum densely hairy, denser on young parts, with simple recurved hairs. Stipules persistent, ovate to elliptic, c. 2 by 1 mm, hairy, without capitate trichomes. Leaves: petiole 4–12 cm long, with dense velvety hairs up to 1 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, 7–17 by 6.5–16 cm, length/width ratio 1–1.4, chartaceous; base cordate; margin serrate to crenate, teeth 1–5 by 3–10 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex acute to acuminate; upper surface sparse to densely hairy, lower surface densely hairy, surfaces flat or slightly sunken between the veinlets; veins at base 5, upper secondaries c. 8 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate; peduncle 2–5 mm long, indumentum of velvety hairs up to 0.2 mm long; fertile portion 10–17 by 3–5 cm, internodes 1–3 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts elliptic, 1–1.5 by 0.25–0.5 mm, outside with dense hairs of 0.3–0.5 mm long; pedicel 0.5–1 mm long, with straight hairs up to 0.2 mm long; calyx 0.75–1 mm diam, sepals ovate to elliptic, c. 1 by 0.5 mm, with straight hairs up to 0.25 mm long, midrib not verrucate, apex acute; filaments c. 0.25 mm long, thecae c. 0.25 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, straight, spicate, many-flowered, in different axils than staminate ones; peduncle 5–7 mm long, indumentum velvety with simple recurved hairs of 0.5–0.75 mm long; fertile portion 9–18 by 3–5 cm, internodes 3–6 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1–1.5 mm diam; 1 per bract; bract stipules elliptic, c. 0.5 by 0.2 mm; bracts sessile, 2–3.5 by 1.5–4 mm, foliaceous, accrescent, strongly veined outside, with dots, sparsely hairy outside with hairs of c. 0.5 mm long and with a few sessile glands, glabrous inside, teeth 5, apical tooth 0.5–1 by 1–2 mm, lateral teeth c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm, apices obtuse; pedicel absent; calyx 1–1.5 mm diam, sepals 3, elliptic, c. 1 by 0.5 mm, hairy outside with no verrucae, glabrous inside; ovary globose, c. 2 by 2 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 5–6 mm long, each divided 10–12 times, smooth. Bisexual inflorescences absent. Fruits globose to oblate, 1.5–2 by 2–2.5 mm, verrucate, with both straight hairs and hairs with enlarged bases, septum covered with bulbous-based trichomes 0.25–0.5 by 0.2–0.25 mm, columella c. 1 mm long. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds prolate, c. 1.5 by 1 mm.

    Distribution — Malesia: Papua New Guinea, New Ireland.

    Habitat & Ecology — Secondary forest, edges of forest, edges of rivers. Flowering: January to October. Altitude 9–600 m.

    Vernacular names — Papua New Guinea: Morumbi taindi (Kuman).

    Uses — Sometimes cultivated (Sterly 1677).

    Notes — 1. Key characters include small pistillate bracts with subentire margins, cordate leaves with densely hairy lower sides and deeply crenate or serrate margins, and shortly pedunculate staminate inflorescences. This species is similar to A. longispica and A. grandis in its cordate leaf bases, but differs from A. longispica in having small foliaceous pistillate bracts, and from A. grandis in its small and shallowly toothed pistillate bracts.

2. The specific epithet refers to the type locality, New Guinea.

 

21. Acalypha phyllonomifolia Airy Shaw

 

    Acalypha phyllonomifolia Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20 (1966) 406; Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 38 (1974) t. 3719; Kew Bull. 33 (1978) 74, in obs.; Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 20; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 82; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 50, Fig. 6i1-i2; Map 4. — Type: Carr 13953 (holoK; iso A, BM, L, SING), Papua New Guinea, Yodda river.

    Acalypha concinna Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 33 (1978) 74; Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 16; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 57. — Type: LAE (Stevens & Veldkamp) 54966 (holo K; iso L), Papua, Milne Bay District, Raba Raba Subdistrict, Suckling Complex Mayu II.

 

Straggling shrubs, 2–3 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 6–20 cm long, 1–3 mm diam, without axillary spines. Indumentum nearly absent, of simple straight hairs. Stipules persistent, narrowly elliptic, needle-like, 2–4 by 0.2–0.5 mm, glabrous, without capitate trichomes. Leaves: petiole 0.2–1.5 cm long, glabrous; blade ovate to elliptic, 4–7 by 1–3 cm, length/width ratio 2–5, chartaceous; base obtuse to acute; margin serrate, teeth 0.5–1 by 2–3 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex caudate, forming drip-tips of 2–4 cm long; upper and lower surface nearly glabrous, flat or slightly sunken between the veinlets; veins at base 5, upper secondaries 7–12 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate; peduncle 1–2 cm long, sparsely hairy; fertile portion 90–180 by 1–3 mm, internodes 1–5 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts ovate, 0.5–1 by 0.5–1 mm, sparsely hairy outside, hairs c. 0.2 mm long; pedicel c. 0.5 mm long, with straight hairs of c. 0.1 mm long; calyx 0.5–1.5 mm diam, sepals ovate to elliptic, 0.5–0.75 by 0.3–0.5 mm, glabrous, midrib sparsely verrucate in upper half, apex acute; filaments c. 0.25 mm long, thecae c. 0.25 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, 1 (or 2) per axil (sometimes the same axil as a staminate inflorescence), consisting of a single bract and associated flowers; peduncle absent. Pistillate flowers 1–1.5 mm diam; 1 or 2 per bract; bract stipules elliptic, 0.2–0.5 by 0.2–0.5 mm; bracts sessile, 5–6 by 5–6 mm, strongly veined outside, without dots, glabrous, teeth 5, the apical tooth 1.5–2 by 1–3 mm, lateral teeth 1–1.5 by 0.5–2 mm, apices acute; pedicel absent; calyx 1–1.5 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate to elliptic, c. 1 by 0.25–0.5 mm, glabrous, without verrucae; ovary globose, c. 1 by 1 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 2–5 mm long, each divided 6–8 times, smooth. Bisexual inflorescences absent. Fruits globose to oblate, c. 2.5 by 3 mm, with sessile glands, verrucate, columella c. 2.5 mm long. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds prolate, c. 1.5 by 1 mm.

    Distribution — Endemic in Papua New Guinea.

q = A. argentii; m = A. balgooyii, Μ = A. capillipes; = A. floresensis;5= A. phyllonomifolia; = = A. spectabilis; u = A. stenophylla; «= A. zollingeri.

    Habitat & Ecology — Riversides, secondary forest. Flowering: December and January. Altitude 1350–1950 m.

    Notes — 1. Key characters include leaves with drip tips, and usually solitary and subsessile pistillate flowers.

2. The specific epithet refers to having leaves that are similar  to those in the genus Phyllonoma Willd. ex Schult. (Saxifragaceae).

 

22. Acalypha pulogensis Sagun & G.A.Levin

 

    Acalypha pulogensis Sagun & G.A.Levin, Blumea 52 (2007) 357; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 50, Map 5. — Type: PNH (Celestino) 4372 (holo L, barcode L0242361; iso L, barcode L0241973), Philippines, Mt Pulog, Kabayan, Benguet, Luzon.

 

 

Large shrubs or small trees, 3–4 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 15–28 cm long, 4–7 mm diam, velvety. Indumentum sparsely hairy, denser on young parts, with simple recurved hairs. Stipules persistent, ovate to elliptic, c. 12 by 2.5 mm, midrib hairy outside, without capitate trichomes. Leaves: petiole 2–9 cm long, with sparse straight hairs of c. 0.5 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, 9–16.5 by 5.5–11 cm, length/width ratio 1.5–1.6, chartaceous, not variegated, green when fresh; base emarginate, eglandular; margin serrate (staminate branches) or crenate to undulate (pistillate branches), teeth 1–3 by 2–5 mm, without a gland on tooth tip; apex acute to acuminate; upper surface glabrous, lower surface sparsely hairy, surfaces flat or slightly sunken between the veinlets; veins at base 3, upper secondaries c. 8 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate; peduncle 5–10 mm long, velvety hairs up to 0.2 mm long; fertile portion 4–15 by 3–4 cm, internodes 1–2 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts ovate, 0.75–1 by c.1 mm, outside with dense hairs of 0.3–0.5 mm long; pedicel 0.5–1 mm long, with straight hairs up to 0.2 mm long; calyx 0.5–0.75 mm diam, sepals ovate to elliptic, c. 0.75 by 0.5 mm, with straight hairs up to 0.25 mm long, midrib not verrucate, apex acute; filaments c. 0.25 mm long, thecae c. 0.25 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, straight, spicate, many-flowered, in other axils than staminate ones; peduncle 12–40 mm long, indumentum velvety with simple recurved hairs of 0.5–0.75 mm long; fertile portion 11–17 by 1.2–2 cm, internodes 3–10 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1–1.5 mm diam; 1 or 2 per bract, maturing singly; bract stipules elliptic, 0.75–1 by 0.3–0.5 mm; bracts sessile, 6–12 by 8–11 mm, foliaceous, accrescent, strongly veined outside, with dots, sparsely hairy outside with hairs of 0.5–0.75 mm long, glabrous inside, teeth c. 11, apical tooth 4–6 by 1.5–2 mm, apex slightly rounded, lateral teeth 2–3 by 1–1.5 mm, apices acute; pedicel 0(–0.75) mm long; calyx 1–1.5 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate to elliptic, c. 1.25 by 1 mm, hairy outside with no verrucae, glabrous inside; ovary globose to oblate, c. 1 by 1 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 5–6 mm long, each divided 4–6 times, smooth. Bisexual inflorescences none. Fruits globose to oblate, c. 1.75 by 1.75 mm, verrucate, distal half covered with trichomes, columella c. 0.75 mm long. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds prolate, c. 1.75 by 1 mm.

    Distribution — Endemic to the Philippines (Luzon).

l = A. australis; 5 = A. pulogensis

    Habitat & Ecology — Flowering: March. Altitude c. 2000 m.

    Notes — 1. Merrill and Quisumbing distributed specimens  with an unpublished name. However, we decided not to use thisname due to its misleading connotation of obtusely undulate leaf margins, whereas the leaves are often serrate.

2. This species is similar to A. angatensis Blanco with its  thick staminate inflorescences, and to A. amentacea var. amentacea in terms of its deeply toothed pistillate bracts and large practically glabrous stipules. However, A. pulogensis does not possess the velvety leaf lower sides and the boat-shaped stipules of A. angatensis. Acalypha pulogensis also has much larger pistillate bracts with dots and longer teeth, as opposed to the smaller, shallowly toothed, and undotted pistillate bracts of its close allies.

3. The specific epithet refers to the type locality, Mt Pulog, Luzon, Northern Philippines, the source of the only collection of this species.

 

23. Acalypha siamensis Oliv. ex Gage var. siamensis

 

    Acalypha siamensis Oliv. ex Gage, Rec. Bot. Surv. India 9 (1922) 238; Ridl., Fl. Malay Penin. 3 (1924) 274; Merr., J. Arnold Arbor. 19 (1938) 39; Merr. & Chun, Sunyatsenia 5 (1940) 92; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 207; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 88; Ngerns. & Chayamarit in Chayamarit & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 32, fig. 3; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 51, Fig. 2l, 5d, 6j1-j2; Map 17. — Acalypha sphenophylla Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 110, nom. superf. — Lectotype (Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen 2010): Ridley 14522 (holo SING; iso BM, K), Malaysia, Perak, Ulu Temango. — Former syntypes: Ridley 2306 (SING), Malaysia, Pahang, Kwala Beru; Ridley 1291 (SING), Malaysia, Pahang, Katapang; Burkill 994 (SING), Malaysia, Pahang, Palau Timau.

    Acalypha evrardii Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 70 (1924) 871; Merr., J. Arnold Arbor. 19 (1938) 40. — Lectotype (Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen 2010): Pierre 1573 (holo K; iso G, US), Vietnam (Cochinchine), Thudaumot et Saigon. — Former syntypes: Pierre 1123 (n.v.), Vietnam (Cochinchine), Thu-dau-mot et Saigon; Evrard 512, 680 (n.v.), Vietnam, Annam; Poilane 2842 (n.v.), Vietnam, Annam; Harmand 726 (n.v.), Vietnam, Condor.

 

   

 

Shrubs, 0.5–2.5 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 15–25 cm long, 1.5–2 mm diam, glabrous. Indumentum nearly absent, of simple straight hairs. Stipules persistent, elliptic, 2–2.5 by c. 1 mm, glabrous, without capitate trichomes. Leaves: petiole 1.5–3 mm long, with simple recurved hairs of 0.5–1 mm long; blade elliptic to obovate, 3–8 by 1.5–3.5 cm, length/width ratio 2–2.5, chartaceous; base acute; margin serrate, teeth 1–2 by 3–5 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex acute to slightly acuminate; upper surface glabrous; lower surface glabrous; veins at base 3, upper secondaries 3–5 per side. Exclusively staminate and pistillate inflorescences absent. Bisexual inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate; peduncle c. 10 mm long, with simple straight hairs of c. 0.1 mm long; fertile portion c. 21 by 5 mm, pistillate below and staminate above; pistillate portion 9–25 by 5–15 mm, internodes 3–5 mm long; staminate portion 11–30 by 2–3 mm, internodes c. 1 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts broadly ovate, c. 1 by 1 mm, outside with sparse hairs of c. 0.2 mm long and with some short capitate trichomes; pedicel c. 0.5 mm long, with straight hairs of c.0.2 mm long; calyx c. 1.5 mm diam, sepals ovate, c. 0.5 by 0.3 mm, with straight hairs of c. 0.2 mm long, midrib verrucate in distal half, apex acute; filaments c. 0.25 mm long, thecae c. 0.20 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate flowers c. 2 mm diam; 1 per bract; bract stipules ovate, c. 1 by 0.75 mm; bracts sessile, 3–5 by 4–6 mm, weakly veined outside, glabrous, without dots, teeth 9, apical tooth 1–1.5 by 1.5–3 mm, lateral teeth 0.5–1 by 1–2 mm, apices acute; pedicel absent; calyx c. 2 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate, c. 1.5 by 1 mm, hairy on margins with sparse verrucae on upper half of midrib; ovary globose to oblate, c. 1 by 1.5 mm, bi- or trilocular; stigmas 2 or 3, 4–4.5 mm long, each divided 10–12 times, with hairs of 0.2–0.5 mm long. Fruits globose to oblate, c. 4 by 5 mm, with hairs of c. 0.2 mm long, covered with spines, 1–2 by 0.2–0.5 mm, apex terminating with a small caput, latter usually detaching when mature, columella 2–3 mm long. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds prolate, 1.5–2.5 by 1–2 mm.

    Distribution — Thailand, Vietnam, Malay Peninsula (cult. in Singapore), Sumatra, Java (cult.), Sulawesi.

    Habitat & Ecology — Usually cultivated. Flowering: January to November. Altitude 15–30 m.

Vernacular names — Malaysia: Te tjina. Sumatra: Kajoe pala (Aer Djoman); Kajoe tes (Aer Djoman).

    Uses — Planted in Java as a substitute for tea (Meijer 7265) and used as a hedge plant.

    Notes — 1. Key characters include elliptic to obovate leaves, bisexual inflorescences, and spiny fruits. It is most similar to A. capillipes (see notes under that species).

2. Another variety, A. siamensis Oliv. ex Gage var. denticulata Airy Shaw (Kew Bull. 32, 1977, 69–83) occurs in Thailand.

3. The specific epithet refers to the type locality of Thailand, formerly known as Siam.

 

24. Acalypha spectabilis Airy Shaw

 

    Acalypha spectabilis Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 33 (1978) 71; Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 20; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 52, Fig. 2m, 6k1-k2; Map 4. — Type: NGF (Streimann & Kairo) 44458 (holo BRI; iso L), Papua New Guinea, Northeast New Guinea, Morobe Dist., Wau subdist., near Yaman head of Baime River.

 

 

Shrubs, 2–4 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches c. 21 cm long, 5–10 mm diam, velvety. Indumentum of dense, velvety, straight hairs. Stipules persistent, obovate, 7–9 by 4.5–7.5 mm, with velvety hairs up to 2 mm long. Leaves: petiole 5–15 by 3–7 mm long, with dense simple straight hairs 1–2 mm long; blade elliptic to obovate, 10.5–17 by 5.5–10 cm, length/width ratio 1.7–1.9, bullate, chartaceous; base obtuse to emarginate; margin serrate, teeth 1–3 by 1–3 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex acute; upper surface sparsely hairy, hairs straight, c. 0.5 mm long, bullate between the veinlets; lower surface densely pubescent; veins at base 3, upper secondaries 8–10 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate; peduncle 1.5–2 cm long, hairs simple, straight, 0.2–0.5 mm long; fertile portion 9–13 by 3–5 cm; internodes 1–2 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts elliptic, c. 1.5 by 1 mm, outside with dense hairs of 0.5–1 mm long; pedicel c. 1 mm long, with straight hairs of c. 0.5 mm long; calyx 0.5–0.75 mm diam, sepals ovate to elliptic, c. 0.5 by 0.3 mm, with straight hairs of c. 0.2 mm long, midrib sparsely verrucate in distal half, apex acute; filaments c. 0.25 mm long, thecae c. 0.25 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, consisting of a solitary bract and associated flower; peduncle absent. Pistillate flowers 1–1.5 mm diam; 1 per bract; bract stipules not seen; bracts sessile, ovate to obovate, c. 5 by 4–5 mm, weakly veined outside, densely hairy outside at base and along midrib with hairs of 1.5–2 mm long, glabrous inside, margins lined with simple trichomes of 0.2–0.25 mm long, teeth absent (the margins entire), apex acute; pedicel absent; calyx 1–1.5 mm diam, sepals 3, elliptic, c. 1 by 0.25–0.5 mm, densely hairy on margins, without verrucae; ovary globose, c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 2–3 mm long, each divided > 20 times, smooth. Bisexual inflorescences absent. Fruits not seen. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds not seen.

    Distribution — Endemic in Papua New Guinea.

q = A. argentii; m = A. balgooyii, Μ = A. capillipes; = A. floresensis;5= A. phyllonomifolia; = = A. spectabilis; u = A. stenophylla; «= A. zollingeri.

    Habitat & Ecology — Nothofagus dominated ridge in small clearing. Flowering: May and December. Altitude 450 m.

    Notes — 1. Key characters include elliptic to obovate andbullate leaves, short stout petioles, solitary pistillate flowers, and pistillate bracts with entire margins.

2. The specific epithet presumably refers to the visually striking or remarkable appearance of the plant, probably due to its bullate leaves and dense, velvety indumentum, but Airy Shaw (1978) gave no explanation of his choice of epithet.

 

25. Acalypha stenophylla K.Schum.

 

    Acalypha stenophylla K.Schum., Bot. Jahrb. 9 (1888) 206; K.Schum. & Hollrung, Fl. Kaiser Wilhelms Land (1889) 75; K.Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Deutschen Schutzgeb. Sόdsee (1900) 403; Boerl., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ 1 (1900) 286; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 168; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 21 Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 52, Fig. 6l1-l2; Map 4. — Type: Hollrung 239 (holo B†; iso K), Papua New Guinea, Kaiser Wilhelmsland, Finschhafen, Kalueng.

 

 

Shrubs, 0.6–0.9 m tall, apparently dioecious; flowering branches 11–21 cm long, 2–3 mm diam, velvety. Indumentum of dense simple straight hairs. Stipules persistent, elliptic, needle-like, 4–8 by 0.5–1 mm, densely hairy, without capitate trichomes. Leaves: petiole 3–10 cm long, with dense velvety hairs up to 1 mm long; blade narrowly elliptic, 7–10 by 1–2.5 cm, length/ width ratio 4–7, chartaceous; base obtuse; margin subentire to serrate, teeth 0.5–1 by 3–5 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex acute to acuminate; upper surface hairy, lower surface densely hairy, surfaces flat or slightly sunken between the veinlets; veins at base 3, upper secondaries 6–8 per side. Staminate inflorescences not seen. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate, straight, many-flowered, in different nodes than staminate ones; peduncle 5–20 mm long, indumentum velvety with simple straight hairs of c. 0.5 mm long; fertile portion 20–60 by 3–6 mm, internodes 4–10 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1–1.5 mm diam; 1 per bract; bract stipules elliptic, c. 0.5 by 0.25 mm; bracts sessile, 3–4 by 4–5 mm, foliaceous, accrescent, strongly veined outside, with dots, densely hairy outside, hairy inside, hairs c. 0.5 mm long, teeth c. 13, apical tooth c. 1.5 by 2 mm, apex acute, lateral teeth c. 1 by 1 mm, apices acute; pedicel absent; calyx 1–1.5 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate to elliptic, c. 1 by 0.5 mm, hairy outside with no verrucae, margins with capitate trichomes, glabrous inside; ovary globose, c. 1 by 1 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 3–4 mm long, each divided 8–10 times, base hairy. Bisexual inflorescences absent. Fruits not seen. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds not seen.

    Distribution — Endemic in Papua New Guinea.

q = A. argentii; m = A. balgooyii, Μ = A. capillipes; = A. floresensis;5= A. phyllonomifolia; = = A. spectabilis; u = A. stenophylla; «= A. zollingeri.

    Habitat & Ecology — On arid hills and in grassland. Flowering: January. Altitude 90–150 m.

    Notes — 1. Key characters include narrowly elliptic leaves and dense velvety indumentum covering the whole plant body.

2. The specific epithet refers to the distinctive narrow leaves.

 

26. Acalypha subintegra Airy Shaw

 

    Acalypha subintegra Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 33 (1978) 73; Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 21; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 52, Fig. 2n; Map 18. — Type: Brass 27620 (holo K; iso A, L), Papua, Milne Bay Dist., Misima subdistr. (Louisiade Archipelago), Misina Is., Narian.

 

 

Shrubs, 2–4 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 8–22 cm long, 3–5 mm diam, velvety. Indumentum densely hairy, denser on young parts, with simple recurved or straight hairs. Stipules persistent, narrowly elliptic and needle-like, 2.5–3 by c. 0.5 mm, hairy, with capitate trichomes. Leaves: petiole 4–14 cm long, with velvety hairs c. 0.25 mm long; blade ovate to cordate, 9–15.5 by 5.5–10 cm, length/width ratio 1.3–1.7, chartaceous; base cordate; margin subentire to weakly crenate, teeth 0.25–0.5 by 4–6 mm, gland on tooth apex; apex acute to acuminate; upper surface nearly glabrous, lower surface with dense hairs of 0.5–1 mm long, surfaces flat or slightly sunken between the veinlets; veins at base 5, upper secondaries 6–8 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate; peduncle 3–7 mm long, hairs velvety, up to 0.5 mm long; fertile portion 32–80 by 2–3 cm, terminal end bulbous, internodes 3–4 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts ovate, c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm, outside with hairs of c. 0.2 mm long, inside glabrous; pedicel c. 0.5 mm long, with straight dense hairs up to 0.2 mm long; calyx 0.5–0.75 mm diam, sepals ovate to elliptic, c. 0.5 by 0.25 mm, with straight hairs up to 0.1–0.2 mm long, midrib verrucate in distal half, apex acute; filaments c. 0.2 mm long, thecae c. 0.2 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate inflorescences terminal or axillary, 1 per axil, straight, spicate, densely many-flowered, internodes usually not visible, in other axils than staminate ones; peduncle c. 3 cm long, hairs velvety, c. 0.2 mm long; fertile portion c. 23.5 by 1.3 cm, internodes 2–5 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1–1.5 mm diam; 1 per bract; bract stipules elliptic, c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm; bracts sessile, 4–10 by 5.5–6.5 mm, foliaceous, accrescent, strongly veined outside, without dots, with sparse subsessile trichomes on both sides, densely hairy outside, sparsely hairy inside, hairs 0.5–1 mm long, teeth 11–15, 1–2 by 1–1.5 mm, apices acute; pedicel absent; calyx 1–1.5 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate to elliptic, c. 1.5 by 0.75 mm, hairy outside, with short capitate trichomes, without verrucae, glabrous inside; ovary globose, c. 1 by 1 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 5 mm long, each divided 8–10 times, with hairs 0.1–0.2 mm long. Bisexual inflorescences absent. Fruits globose to oblate, c. 2 by 2.5 mm, verrucate, with dense straight hairs of 0.2–1 mm long, columella c. 1.5 by 0.5 mm long. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds prolate, c. 1.5 by 1 mm.

    Distribution — Papua New Guinea (Louisiade & Trobriand Is.).

    Habitat & Ecology — Along rocky coastline or old lava flows in light forest and regrowth. Flowering: March, October, November. Altitude 4.5–27 m.

    Notes — 1. Key characters include subentire leaves, bulbous distal ends on the staminate inflorescences, velvety leaf undersides, and short needle-like stipules.

2. See note 1 under Acalypha grandis.

3. The specific epithet refers to the subentire leaves.

 

27. Acalypha wilkesiana Mόll.Arg.

 

    Acalypha wilkesiana Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 817; Seem., Fl. Viti. (1867) 225; Warb., Bot. Jahrb. 13 (1891) 358; Bot. Jahrb. 18 (1894) 198, in obs.; Koord., Meded. Lands Plantent. 19 (1898) 579; Boerl., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ 1 (1900) 286; J.J.Sm. in Koord. & Val., Meded. Depart. Landb. Nederl.-Ind. 10 (1910) 20; Merr., Fl. Manila (1912) 293; Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 11 (1916) 285; Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 2 (1923) 446; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 153; De Wild., Pl. Bequaert. 3 (1926) 495; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1963) 489; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 206, 208; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 51; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull, Addit. Ser. 4 (1975) 24; Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 21; Kew Bull. 35 (1980) 586; Alphab. Enum. Euphorb. Philipp. Isl. (1983) 3; Chakrab. & N.P.Balakr., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. Addit. Ser. 9 (1992) 10; Ngerns. & Chayamarit in Chayamarit & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 32; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 52, Fig. 20, 6m1-m2. — Acalypha amentacea Roxb. subsp. wilkesiana (Mόll.Arg.) Fosberg & Sachet, Smithson. Contrib. Bot. 45 (1980) 10; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 48. — Type: Wilkes Expedition 22 (holo G-DC; iso GH), Fiji.

    Acalypha compacta Guilf. ex C.T.White, Gard. Chron. ser. 3, 94 (1933) 343; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 35 (1980) 585; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 48. — Lectotype (Airy Shaw 1980): C.T. White s.n. (holo BRI), Australia, New South Wales, Queensland.

    Acalypha grandis auct. non Benth.: Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 3.

    Acalypha longispica auct. non Warb.: K.Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Deutschen Schutzgeb. Sόdsee (1900) 401 p.p. [Lauterbach 358].

 

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Large shrubs, 0.5–4 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 9–30 cm long, 2–6 mm diam. Indumentum nearly absent, of few simple recurved hairs. Stipules persistent, elliptic, 5–10 by 0.5–1 mm, hairy on outside of midrib, without capitate trichomes. Leaves: petiole 2–10 cm long, with sparse straight hairs of 1–2 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, 9–19 by 5–14 cm, length/width ratio 1.4–1.9, chartaceous, often variegated or brown-coloured, often twisted and aberrant; base obtuse to acute; margin serrate to crenate to undulate, teeth 1–3 by 2–10 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex acute to acuminate; upper and lower surface glabrous, flat or slightly sunken between the veinlets; veins at base 3, upper secondaries c. 8 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate; peduncle 5–15 mm long, hairs velvety, up to 0.2 mm long; fertile portion 4–15 by 3–4 cm, internodes 1–5 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts elliptic, c. 1 by 0.5 mm, outside with dense hairs of 0.3–0.5 mm long; pedicel 0.5–1 mm long, with straight hairs up to 0.2 mm long; calyx 0.5–1 mm diam, sepals ovate to elliptic, 0.75–1 by c. 0.5 mm, with straight hairs up to 0.25 mm long, midrib verrucate in distal half, apex acute; filaments c. 0.25 mm long, thecae c. 0.25 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, straight, spicate, many-flowered, in other axils than staminate ones; peduncle 1.5–4 cm long, hairs velvety, recurved, c. 0.1 mm long; fertile portion 10–15 by 1–1.5 cm, internodes 3–10 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1.5–2 mm diam; 1 per bract; bract stipules narrowly elliptic, 1–1.5 by c. 0.25 mm; bracts sessile, 5–6 by 7–8 mm, foliaceous, accrescent, weakly veined outside, without dots, nearly glabrous outside, glabrous inside, teeth c. 7, apical tooth c. 2.5 by 3.5 mm, lateral teeth 1–3 by 1–3 mm, apices acute; pedicel absent; calyx 1.5–2 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate to elliptic, c. 1.5 by 1 mm, margins with short capitate trichomes, outside nearly glabrous and without verrucae, glabrous inside; ovary globose to oblate, c. 1.5 by 2 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3 or 4, 5–6 mm long, each divided 8–10 times, smooth. Bisexual inflorescences absent. Fruits globose to oblate, c. 4 by 5 mm, verrucate, densely hairy, columella c. 2.5 mm long. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds globose, c. 2 by 2 mm.

    Distribution — Widespread cultivated ornamental; not known in the wild, origin unknown.

    Habitat & Ecology — Cultivated, sometimes escaped andfound along edge of forests and along roads. Flowering: February to December. Altitude 400–450 m.

    Uses — Often popular ornamental.

    Notes — 1. Key characters include variegated and often twisted leaves with distinctly serrate to lobate margins and deeply toothed pistillate bracts.

2. Various cultivars have been named under A. wilkesiana, but no infraspecific taxa within A. wilkesiana are recognized in this revision.

3. Acalypha wilkesiana is considered here as a distinct species and not as subspecies of A. amentacea (Fosberg & Sachet, Smithson. Contrib. Bot. 45, 1980) due to its diagnosable morphological characteristics and distinct position in the molecular phylogenetic analyses.

4. The specific epithet honours Charles Wilkes, head of the United States Exploring Expedition (1838–1842), during which the type was collected.

 

28. Acalypha zollingeri Mόll.Arg.

 

    Acalypha zollingeri Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865) 40; in DC., Prod. 15, 2 (1866) 867; Boerl., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ 1 (1900) 286; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 135; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 94; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 54, Fig. 2p; Map 4. — Ricinocarpus zollingeri (Mόll.Arg.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 617. — Typus: Zollinger 3419 (holo G-DC; iso A, BM, G-DC, L, LE), Indonesia, Lesser Sunda Is., Sumbawa.

 

 

Shrubs, c. 2 m tall, monoecious; flowering branches 8–17 cm long, 2–3 mm diam. Indumentum nearly absent, with yellow refringent stalkless glands, capitate trichomes, stem and peduncle with few simple straight and stellate hairs. Stipules caducous, elliptic, 1–1.5 by 0.25–0.5 mm, hairy, without capitate trichomes. Leaves: petiole 3–23 mm long, with straight hairs of c. 0.25 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, 3.5–5.5 by 1.2–2.5 cm, length/width ratio 2.2–2.5, chartaceous; base acute, with a pair of dot-like glands; margin weakly serrate, teeth 0.5–1 by 0.5–8 mm, with a gland on tooth tip; apex acute to acuminate; upper surface glabrous; lower surface glabrous with yellow refringent stalkless glands; veins at base 3, upper secondaries 5 per side. Exclusively staminate and pistillate inflorescences absent. Bisexual inflorescences axillary, 1 per axil, spicate; peduncle 1.5–6 cm long; with simple straight and stellate hairs; fertile portion 14–31 by 1.5–2 mm, pistillate below and staminate above; pistillate portion 4–6 by 1.5–2.5 mm, internodes 5–7 mm long; staminate portion 10–25 by 1.5–2 mm, internodes 0.5–1 mm long. Staminate flowers: bracts elliptic, c. 0.75 by 0.5 mm, outside with dense hairs of 0.2–0.5 mm long; pedicel 0.5–0.75 mm long, with straight hairs of 0.1–0.5 mm long and capitate trichomes of c. 0.5 mm long; calyx 0.5–0.75 mm diam, sepals ovate, c. 0.5 by 0.25 mm, with straight hairs of c. 0.2 mm long, midrib without verrucae, apex acute; filaments c. 0.25 mm long, thecae c. 0.25 by 0.1 mm. Pistillate flowers 1–1.5 mm diam; 1 per bract; bract stipules not seen; bracts sessile, 7–15 by 8–12 mm, strongly veined outside, without dots, with yellow refrigent stalkless glands, otherwise glabrous, teeth c. 15, the apical tooth 3–4 by 4–5 mm, lateral teeth 0.5–1 by 4–5 mm, apices acute; pedicel absent; calyx 1–1.5 mm diam, sepals 3, ovate to elliptic, c. 1 by 0.25 mm, densely hairy on margins, without verrucae; ovary globose, c. 1.5 by 1.5 mm, trilocular; stigmas 3, 3–4 mm long, each divided 4–6 times, smooth. Fruits not seen. Allomorphic fruits unknown. Seeds not seen.

    Distribution — Lesser Sunda Is. (Sumbawa).

q = A. argentii; m = A. balgooyii, Μ = A. capillipes; = A. floresensis;5= A. phyllonomifolia; = = A. spectabilis; u = A. stenophylla; «= A. zollingeri.

    Notes — 1. Key characters include stellate hairs on the stem; yellow refringent stalkless glands on the lower leaf surfaces,pistillate bracts, and ovaries; and pistillate bracts with subentire margins. See note 1 under A. australis.

2. Acalypha dalzellii Hook.f. (Fl. Br. India 5, 1887) from India and A. pubiflora Baill. subsp. australica Radcl.-Sm. (Radcliffe-Smith, Kew Bull. 45, 1990, 677–679) from Australia have very similar morphologies and may be conspecific with A. zollingeri.

3. The specific epithet honours botanist Heinrich Zollinger, who made three trips to Indonesia between 1841 and 1859.

 

Doubtful species

 

    Acalypha celebica Koord., Meded. Lands Plantent. 19 (1898) 578; Boerl., Fl. Nederl. Indiλ 1 (1900) 286; K.Schum., Just’s Bot. Jahresber. 6 (1901) 348; Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 3 (1914) 71; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 176; Hurus., J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Secti. III, Bot. 6 (1954) 297; in obs. pro syn.; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 3; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 54. — Lectotype (Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen 2010): Koorders 16782 (holo BO), Indonesia, Sulawesi, Manado.

Note — Probably not Euphorbiaceae.

 

    Acalypha hoffmanniana Hurus., J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Secti. III, Bot. 6 (1954) 297; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 3; Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checkl. Bibliogr. Euphorb. (2000) 67; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 54. — Acalyphopsis celebica Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xvi (1924) 178, non Acalypha celebica Koord., Meded. Lands Plantent. 19 (1898) 578. — Syntypes: Warburg 16643, 16645, 16647 (B†), Indonesia, South Sulawesi (Sud-Celebes).

Note — Scanty description and no extant type material.

 

Excluded species

 

    Acalypha arvensis Poepp. & Endl. in Poepp., Nov. Gen. Spec. Pl. 3 (1841) 21; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 54.

Note — Rarely cultivated, indigenous to Central and South America.

 

    Acalypha integrifolia Willd., Sp. Pl. 4 (1805) 530; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 54.

Note — Rarely cultivated, indigenous to Mauritius.

 

    Acalypha pilosa Cav., Anal. Hist. Nat. 2 (1800) 136; Fern.-Vill., Nov. App. 4 (1880) 194; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 54.

Note — Rarely cultivated, indigenous to Mexico.

 

    Acalypha siamensis Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 70 (1924) 874, non Oliv. ex Gage, Rec. Bot. Surv. India 9 (1922) 238; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010). — Type: Pierre 6291 (holo P; iso A), Vietnam (Cochinchina). = Acalypha kerrii Craib.

Note — Indigenous to Thailand and Vietnam.

 

    Acalypha hispida Willd., Sp. Pl. 4 (1805) 523, nom. inval., non Burm.f. (Fl. Ind., 1768, 203); Willd., Enum. Pl. (1809) 993; Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 628; Hassk., Pl. Java. Rar. (1848) 248; Wall., Num. list (1828) n.7780C; Hook. & Arn., , Bot. Capt. Beechey Voy. (1830–1841) 213; Span., Linnaea 15 (1841) 350; Baill., Adansonia 2 (1862) 224; Sagun, G.A.Levin & Welzen, Blumea 55 (2010) 54. — Type: Hb. Willd.Folio 17812 (holo B-W, barcode B-W 17812-020) = Acalypha poiretii Spreng.