Malesian Euphorbiaceae Descriptions

8. ANTIDESMA

 

P. HOFFMANN

 

Hoffmann, P. 2006. Antidesma in Malesia and Thailand: 1–292. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 

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Genus description

Key to the Species of West Malesia based on staminate material

Key to the Species of West Malesia based on pistillate material

Key to the Species of New Guinea and the Solomon Islands based on staminate material

Key to the Species of New Guinea and the Solomon Islands based on pistillate material

Species descriptions

Unmatched specimens

Dubious species

Excluded names

 

Antidesma Burm. ex L.

 

    Antidesma Burm. [Thes. Zeylan. (1736) 22, t. 10, prelinnean] ex L., Sp. Pl. (1753) 1027; Lam., Encycl. 1 (1783) 206; Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 182; Baill., Ιtude Euphorb. (1858) 601; Mόll. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 247; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 354; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv: 107 (1922); Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 3 (1924) 229; Gagnep. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5 (1926) 501; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1 (1964) 457; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 351; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 54; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 207; Kew Bull. 35 (1980) 692; Kew Bull. Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 208; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 358; Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 5; Euphorb. Philipp. (1983) 4;G. L. Webster, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 81: 52 (1994); Petra Hoffm., Kew Bull. 54 (1999) 347; Kew Bull. 54 (1999) 877; Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28 (2000) 139; Gardner et al., Forest Trees of Northern Thailand: 299 (2000); Govaerts, Frodin & Radcl.-Sm., World Checklist Bibliogr. Euphorb. 1 (2000) 178; Radcl.-Sm., Gen. Euphorbiacearum (2001) 69; Chakrab. & Gangop., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 24 (2000) 1; Petra Hoffm. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl.  Thailand 8 (2005) 51; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 25; G.L.Webster in Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 11 (2014) 81.— Bestram Adans., Fam. Pl. 2 (1763) 354.— Stilago L., Mant. Pl.: 16 (1767).— Rhytis Lour., Fl. Cochinchin. (1790) 660.— Minutalia Fenzl, Flora 27 (1844) 312, nom. nud.— Antidesma Buyrm. ex L. sect. Euantidesma Mόll.Arg., Flora 47 (1864) 519, nom. inval.— Type: Antidesma alexiteria L.

 

Shrubs and trees, dioecious, sometimes reported to be climbers, up to 30 m, clear bole up to 17 m, diameter up to 1 m, bole sometimes fluted or with buttresses; tigs sometimes hollow and inhabited by ants. Bark usually brown or grey, smooth, often longitudinally fissured, sometimes roughened, flaky or pustular, without exudate (except in A. excavatum and A. tetrandrum); wood hard to very hard, rarely reported to be soft. Indumentum  simple hairs (in A. pachystachys and A. pahangense indumentum partly stellate). Stipules present, caducous or persistent, sometimes foliaceous, up to 60 by 30 mm, entire (only the African A. laciniatum with laciniate stipules). Leaves evergreen or deciduous, alternate, simple, eglandular except in A. vaccinioides; petioles terete or channelled adaxially, sometimes basally and distally pulvinate and geniculate, up to 45 mm long (A. petiolatum); blades symmetrical, entire, pinnately veined, sometimes decurrent, 1.5–60 by 0.4–30 cm, membranaceous to coriaceous, discolorous, domatia in the axils between the midvein and secondary veins present or absent. Inflorescences raceme-like, often branched, sometimes fasciculate, 0.5–35 cm long, axillary or cauline, erect to pendulous, infructescences usually pendulous; bracts 1 per flower. Flowers usually light yellowish green, often turning partly or completely red when mature; pedicels short to absent, articulated only in A. vaccinioides; sepals 3–8, imbricate, fused to varying degrees; petals absent. Staminate flowers: disc cushion-shaped (enclosing the bases of the stamens and pistillode, Fig. 3A), extrastaminal and annular (Fig. 3B), or consisting of free alternistaminal lobes (Fig. 3C); stamens 2–13, usually antisepalous, filaments free, anthers extrorse in bud, versatile, connective elongated, U-shaped, thecae resembling swollen ends of the U, raised at anthesis, longitudinally dehiscing;  pistillode present or absent. Pistillate flowers:  disc annular (Fig. 3D–F); ovary 1-locular, 1-carpellate (2-locular and 2-carpellate only as an exception); ovules 2 per locule, anatropous, with individual obturators (tissue bridging the gap between pollen transmitting tissue and micropyle); stigmas 2–16, acute. Fruits drupaceous, ellipsoid to lenticular, often laterally compressed, 1.5–2.5 by 1.5–2 mm (A. venenosum) to 22 by 13 mm (A. gillespieanum A.C.Sm. in Fiji), base symmetrical to asymmetrical, style terminal to lateral; immature fruits green, maturing unevenly depending on position in the infructescence and exposure to the sun, through white, yellow, orange, pink, red and purple to black, sometimes glaucous or mottled with grey, globose to ellipsoid or flattened, smooth, shiny, fleshy; mesocarp soft, juicy, edible, sour, sour-sweet, sweet or bitter-sweet; endocarp lignified, foveolate, the sculpture usually obvious through the dried mesocarp. Seeds ecarunculate, 1 per fruit (rarely two, then fruits twice as big); endosperm in mature seeds present; cotelydons thin, flat, several times wider and longer than the radicle.

 

1. Antidesma acidum Retz.

 

    Antidesma acidum Retz., Observ. Bot. 5 (1788) 30 (“acida”); Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 249; C.E.C.Fischer, Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew (1932) 65; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 352; Grierson & Long, Fl. Bhutan (1987) 786, fig. 48h–j; Petra Hoffm.in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2004) 59, fig. 14; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 63, Map 3.—Type: Koenig s.n. (LD), India orientalis

    Stilago diandra Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 2 (1802) 35, pl. 166. — Antidesma stilago Poir., Encycl. suppl. 1 (1811) 403, p.p., nom. illeg. according to Art. 11.4. (Greuter et al. 2000). — Antidesma diandrum (Roxb.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1824) 826, nom. illeg. (later homonym of Roth’s name (see below), which was published without reference to Stilago diandra Roxb. Therefore the Roxburgh type cannot be used in Antidesma). — Antidesma diandrum (Roxb.) Spreng. var. genuinum Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 267, nom. inval. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Roxburgh s.n. (BM).

    Antidesma diandrum Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp. (1821) 369. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Heyne s.n. (K) India, Circars.

    Stilago lanceolaria Roxb. [Hort. Bengal. (1814) 71, nom. nud.], Fl. Ind. ed. 2, vol. 3 (1832) 760;  — Antidesma lanceolarium (Roxb.) Wall., Num. List (1832) no. 7284; Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 3(1) (prob. 1844) 4, t. 766. — Antidesma lanceolatum Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 195, nom. illeg. according to Art. 52 (Greuter et al. 2000). — Antidesma lanceolatum Tul. var. genuinum Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 266, nom. inval. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Icones Roxburghianae No. 2561 (no. 2554 on drawing) (K).

    Antidesma wallichianum C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1849) 235. — Type: Francis de Silva in Hb. Wallich 7285 B (PRC, holotype; isotypes G, K, K-W, L), India or., Silhet.

    Antidesma diandrum (Roxb.) Spreng. var. lanceolatum Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 199. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Wallich 7284 (CGE, holo; iso CGE, G), India or.

    Antidesma diandrum (Roxb.) Spreng. var. ovatum Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 198. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Hb. Hamilton [F. Buchanan-Hamilton] s.n. (CGE), India or.

    Antidesma diandrum (Roxb.) Spreng. var. parvifolium Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 198. — Antidesma parviflorum Ham. in sched., Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 143, nom. nud., pro. syn., surely a typing error for “parvifolium”. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006):  Hb. Hamilton [F. Buchanan-Hamilton] s.n. (CGE), India or.

    Antidesma diandrum (Roxb.) Spreng. f. javanicum J.J.Sm. in Koord. & Valeton, Meded. Dept. Landb. Ned.-Indiλ 10: 275 (1910). — Type: Hb. Koorders (not located in L), Java.

 

Shrub to tree (once recorded: large climber), up to 10 m, diameter up to 10 cm, usually branched from the base; twigs brown; young twigs terete, pilose to pubescent, brown. Bark brown or grey, thin, smooth or roughened, cracked or flaking; inner bark pink. Stipules usually persistent, linear, 3–7 by 1–2 mm, apically obtuse to rounded, slightly pilose to (especially apically) densely pubescent. Leaves: petioles flat to channelled adaxially, 2–7 by 1–2 mm, pilose to densely pubescent; blades obovate to elliptic-oblong, (2–)5–10(–18) by (1–)2.5–4(–8) cm, length/width ratio (1.6–)2–2.5(–4.5), eglandular, chartaceous, basally acute or obtuse, mostly cuneate, apically long to very shortly acuminate to rounded, glabrous or rarely slightly pilose adaxially, pilose to pubescent at least in the axils between the midvein and secondary veins, rarely completely glabrous abaxially, dull on both surfaces, midvein flat to impressed adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, drying yellowish green, domatia present. Staminate inflorescences 5–14 cm long, axillary, simple or branched twice at the base, axes glabrous to pubescent; bracts orbicular to lanceolate, 0.6–1 by c. 0.6 mm, glabrous, margin fimbriate. Staminate flowers 2–2.5 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicels 1–1.5 mm long, very thin, not articulated, glabrous; calyx c. 0.5 by 0.8 mm, globose to cupular, sepals 4, fused for c. 2/3 of their length, irregularly shaped, glabrous outside, pubescent inside with hairs often exceeding the calyx, margin erose; disc cushion-shaped, enclosing the bases of the filaments, pubescent; stamens 2, rarely some 3-androus flowers among the 2-androus ones, 1.5–2 mm long, exserted 1.5–2 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.3 by 0.6 mm; pistillode absent. Pistillate inflorescences 2–3 cm long, axillary, simple to branched twice at the base, axes glabrous to pubescent; bracts orbicular to elliptic, 0.5–0.7 by c. 0.5 mm, glabrous, margin slightly erose, sometimes fimbriate. Pistillate flowers c. 2 by 1 mm; pedicels 0.2–1 mm long, glabrous; calyx c. 1 by 1 mm, urceolate, sepals 4(–5), fused for c. 2/3 of their length, apically acute, glabrous outside, pubescent inside with hairs often exceeding the calyx, margin erose to entire; disc shorter than the sepals, glabrous inside, glabrous to pilose outside; ovary ovoid, glabrous, style usually terminal, stigmas 3 or 4. Infructescences 2–5(–8) cm long; fruiting pedicels 1.5–3 mm long, glabrous. Fruits ellipsoid, terete or laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a terminal to slightly  subterminal style, 4–6 by 3–4 mm, glabrous, reticulate when dry.

     Distribution — India (including Andaman & Nicobar Islands), Nepal, southern China (Yunnan), Bangladesh, Burma, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia (Java only). Absent from Malesia, except Java. Absent from Sri Lanka, but the endemic A. walkeri (Tul.) Pax & K.Hoffm. is very similar. Antidesma acidum shows a classical monsoon forest disjunction.

    Habitat & Ecology — Continental Asia: in dry deciduous, deciduous and evergreen forest; at forest edges, in open spaces and bamboo thickets; in open or half-shady habitats; associated with dipterocarps, pine, oak; secondary, often disturbed, much degraded or frequently burnt vegetation. Java: in teak forest. On sandy gravel in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands; on red volcanic soil in Java; on sand, silt or red lateritic soil, over limestone, granite and shale-granite in Thailand and Vietnam. Altitude: sea level up to 1600 m.

    Uses — The fruits are eaten, and the young leaves are used in curry and as vegetable in India and Thailand.

    Vernacular names — Java: Ande-ande, Ondeh ondeh, Onjam, Kenjam.

 

2. Antidesma baccatum Airy Shaw

 

    Antidesma baccatum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 287; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 210; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 66, Fig. 5a–c, Map 4. — Type: BW (Vink) 12193 (K, holo; iso: A, B, L), Western New Guinea, Fak-Fak Division, Kowap, North of Fak-Fak.

 

Tree, up to 20 m, clear bole up to 12 m, diameter up to 12 cm; young twigs slightly striate to angular, glabrous to pilose to ferrugineous-pubescent; sometimes individual trichomes very thick, forming a crust that rubs off in patches as the twig grows older. Bark pale ochreous-grey, greyish-brown or pale green, 0.2–2 mm thick, smooth, sometimes slightly pustular; inner bark ochreous-red to ochre, blaze cream-brown, c. 5 mm thick; sapwood pale yellow, c. 0.5 cm thick, heartwood red. Stipules early-caducous, deltoid, 1–4 by 0.8–1.5 mm, apically acute, pubescent. Leaves: petioles channelled to nearly flat adaxially, 3–15(– 25) by 1–2 mm, basally and distally sometimes slightly pulvinate and geniculate, indumentum as on young twigs, becoming glabrous when old; blades oblong to elliptic, (5–)10–15(–22) by (2–)4–6.5(–9.5) cm, length/width ratio (1.7–)2.3–2.7(–3.1), eglandular, chartaceous to coriaceous, basally obtuse to acute, up to 7 mm long decurrent, apically acuminate to caudate-mucronate, with a rounded to acute apiculum, glabrous, except sometimes for short hairs along the major veins abaxially or/and along the midvein adaxially, shiny to dull on both surfaces, midvein flat, shallowly impressed or slightly raised adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate to weakly percurrent, widely spaced, drying olive-green to reddish brown, domatia sometimes present though not very pronounced. Staminate plants unknown. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, simple or consisting of up to 4 branches, robust, axes pilose to pubescent; bracts deltoid to irregularly shaped, 0.5–1 by 0.5–1 mm, apically acute to lacerate, glabrous, margin fimbriate, sometimes glandular. Pistillate flowers not known; calyx in young fruits c. 1 by 1.5–2 mm, shallowly bowl-shaped with a truncate base, sepals 4, fused for 3/4 to all of their length, apically rounded to acute, sinuses wide, rounded, glabrous, margin entire; disc extending to the same length as or exserted from the sepals, but indumentum always exserted from the calyx, ferrugineous-tomentose at the margin, otherwise glabrous, hairs as long as or slightly shorter than the disc; ovary lenticular, very sparsely pilose, style lateral, stigmas 3–5(– 6). Infructescences (2–)3–6.5 cm long, axes c. 1 mm wide; fruiting pedicels (0.5–)1–2.5 mm long, pilose to nearly glabrous. Fruits globose, not or maybe slightly laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a distinctly lateral style, 5–12 by 5–12 mm, glabrous or rarely sparsely pilose to sparsely tomentose, minutely scaly, sometimes white-pustulate, exocarp loosely enfolding the endocarp, neither areolate nor reticulate, without keels or ridges, brittle when dry.

    Distribution — Indonesia: Moluccas (Seram, Obi Island), Papua (Vogelkop Peninsula and Fak-Fak division), and Papua New Guinea (Central, Gulf, Madang, Morobe and Western provinces).

    Habitat & Ecology — In (rain) forest; in primary or secondary, sometimes much disturbed vegetation; associated with Nothofagus and Castanopsis. On clay soil over limestone. The species seems to have an affinity to limestone but collections are too few to be certain. Altitude: 10–1650 m.

    Vernacular names — Indonesia: Papua: Offu, Po kamit; Papua New Guinea: Suo (Samotang).

    Note — Schodde (& Craven) 5025 and 5034, fruiting collections from Aseki valley, Morobe province, Papua New Guinea, differ from typical specimens in their percurrent and perpendicular tertiary leaf venation.

 

3. Antidesma brachybotrys Airy Shaw

 

    Antidesma brachybotrys Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 457; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 209; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 69, Map 5. — Type: S (J.A.R.Anderson, Sonny Tan & E. Wright) 26069 (K holo; iso: A, L, SAR, SING), Borneo, Sarawak, Ulu Sungei Sekaloh, Niah R.

 

Shrub or tree, up to 5 m, diameter up to 5 cm; twigs grey or greyish green; young twigs terete, puberulent, soon becoming glabrous, brown. Bark grey or grey-brown, smooth; inner bark pale yellow; wood reddish or pale yellow, very hard and dense. Stipules caducous, narrowly deltoid to linear, 5–8 by 1–1.5 mm, apically acute, pilose to pubescent. Leaves: petioles broadly channelled to flat adaxially, 2–10(–13) by (1–)1.5–3 mm, puberulent, soon becoming glabrous; blades elliptic to slightly obovate, (9–)15–20(–24) by (3.5–)5–7(–8) cm, length/width ratio (2.3–)2.8(–3.4), eglandular, coriaceous, basally acute to obtuse, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous, or slightly puberulent only along the midvein abaxially, moderately shiny to dull on both surfaces, midvein flat to broadly impressed adaxially, sharply keeled abaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, widely spaced, drying reddish brown, more rarely yellowish brown, domatia absent. Staminate plants unknown. Pistillate inflorescences 2.5–4 cm long, axillary, simple, solitary or rarely 2 per fascicle, axes ochraceous- to ferrugineous-pubescent; bracts linear to deltoid, 0.5–0.7 by 0.3–0.5 mm, apically usually acute, pilose to pubescent. Pistillate flowers c. 2 by 1 mm; pedicels 0–0.5 mm long, puberulent; calyx c. 1 by 1 mm, cupular, sepals 3–4, fused for c. 2/3 of their length, apically acute, sinuses wide, shallow, sometimes irregular, sparsely pilose to puberulent outside, glabrous inside, margin entire; disc shorter than the sepals, glabrous; ovary ellipsoid, densely appressed-pubescent, style terminal, thick, stigmas 6, flatly spread out. Infructescences 5–11 cm long, robust; fruiting pedicels stout, 1–3 mm long, pilose to pubescent. Fruits ellipsoid, distinctly laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a terminal, more rarely slightly subterminal style, 10–15 by 7–11 mm, thinly appressed-puberulent, not pustulate, coarsely reticulate when dry.

    Distribution — Borneo: East Sarawak (Bintulu, Kapit and Miri divisions), Brunei and north-eastern Kalimantan Barat. The two specimens from Johore, Peninsular Malaysia (SF (Corner) 28984 and 29433) cited in the protologue are erroneously assigned to this species and represent Antidesma neurocarpum.

    Habitat & Ecology — In mixed dipterocarp forest, hill dipterocarp forest and mixed lowland forest, often by streams. On sandy soil over Belait sandstone in Brunei; on clay loam soil in Sarawak. Altitude: 30–350 m.

 

4. Antidesma brevipes Petra Hoffm.

 

    Antidesma brevipes Petra Hoffm., Kew Bull. 54 (1999) 348; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 66, Fig. 6, Map 5. — Type: Forman 316 (K, holo; iso: L, US), Sulawesi, Sulawesi Utara (Manado distr.), N of Mt Klabat, Wiau complex, Mt Tuandei, Sani. 

 

Tree, up to 15 m; young twigs terete, shortly ferrugineous-hispid, soon becoming glabrous, dark brown at first, soon becoming very light brown with a red tinge. Stipules early-caducous, deltoid, c. 1.5 by 0.6 mm, shortly ferrugineous-hispid. Leaves: petioles hardly channelled adaxially, 1.5–2 by 1.2–1.5 mm, glabrous, soon becoming whitish grey and rugose; blades oblong, 5–8 by 1.7–2.8 cm, length/width ratio 2.8–3.3, eglandular, coriaceous, basally acute, mostly concave, apically acuminate (all tips damaged), glabrous, shiny adaxially, dull abaxially, midvein flat adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, widely spaced, hardly prominent, drying dark reddish brown adaxially, bright reddish brown abaxially, domatia absent. Staminate inflorescences 2–3 cm long, axillary, simple, axes c. 0.4 mm wide, pilose; bracts ovate to elliptic, 0.2–0.3 by c. 0.2 mm, apically acute, pilose. Staminate flowers c. 2 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicels c. 0.1 mm long, not articulated, glabrous; calyx c. 0.8 by 1 mm, conical to cupular, sepals 4, fused for c. 1/2 of their length, deltoid, thick, apically acute, the abaxial lobe smaller than the other three, ferrugineous-hispid outside, nearly glabrous inside, margin entire; disc cushion-shaped, fully enclosing the bases of the filaments, pilose; stamens 2 (in one flower there are 3 stamens, 2 of which inserted in the same disc excavation), antisepalous with regard to the two lateral sepals, c. 1.5 mm long, exserted c. 1 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.3 by 0.5 mm; pistillode absent. For pistillate plants and fruits see note below.

    Distribution — Sulawesi.

    Habitat & Ecology — In forest. Altitude: c. 700 m.

    Note — At the proof stage of this publication, five superficially very similar collections from Northern Sulawesi came to my attention (250 km W of Gorontalo, 75 km inland from Papayuto, on tributary of Sungai Papayuto, 0°45'N, 121°30'E, Burley et al. 4067, 4131, 4209, 4219, 4222, all A). The two staminate specimens (Burley et al. 4067 and 4222) agree in every detail with Antidesma riparium var. riparium which is known from Central and Southeast Sulawesi.

    The fruits of the three pistillate specimens, however, are very different from those of Antidesma riparium and agree more with Antidesma celebicum. The plant differs from Antidesma celebicum in the shorter, thicker Leaves: petioles, the leaves drying reddish, the absence of domatia, the inflorescences fasciculate but never branched, more stigmas, shorter fruiting pedicels but slightly larger fruits. Besides the fruits, differences to Antidesma riparium include the shorter petiole, shorter, more strongly fasciculate inflorescences, smaller stipules, bracts and flowers, shorter pedicels and, again, higher number of stigmas.

    In vegetative and inflorescence structure, the three pistillate specimens agree very well with Antidesma brevipes which is only known from the staminate type collection. Although it is difficult to imagine that the staminate and pistillate specimens collected so closely together do not belong to the same taxon, it seems even more unlikely that an undescribed species should have staminate individuals identical with Antidesma riparium, and completely different pistillate plants. The pistillate material (Burley et al. 4131, 4209 and 4219) is therefore tentatively assigned to Antidesma brevipes, and a separate description is given:

 

Tree, up to 12 m, diameter up to 12 cm; young twigs terete, ferrugineous-pilose, glabrescent, first dark brown, light grey to brown when older. Bark grey to greyish brown, smooth, inner bark yellowish brown or reddish brown. Stipules caducous, deltoid, c. 3 by 1 mm, appressed ferrugineous-pilose. Leaves: petioles channelled or flat adaxially, 1–3 by c. 1 mm, sparsely ferrugineous-pilose, becoming glabrous when old; blades elliptic, more rarely oblong, 7–13.5 by 3–4.5 cm, length/width ratio 2.3–3.1, eglandular, subcoriaceous, basally acute, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous, moderately shiny on both surfaces, major veins flat adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, drying reddish brown adaxially, slightly lighter abaxially, domatia absent. Pistillate inflorescences 3–5 cm long, axillary, simple, 3–7 per fascicle, axes ferrugineous-pilose; bracts narrowly deltoid to linear, 0.3–0.5 by 0.3–0.5 mm, apically acute, pilose. Pistillate flowers c. 0.7 by 1.5 mm; pedicels 0–0.2 mm long; calyx c. 0.4 by 1 mm, shallowly cupular, sepals 5, fused for c. 3/4 of their length, apically acute, sinuses rounded, glabrous on both sides, margin fimbriate; disc shorter than the sepals, but indumentum sometimes exserted from the sepals, pubescent only at the margin; ovary ellipsoid, glabrous, style terminal, stigmas 6–9. Infructescences 3–8 cm long; fruiting pedicels 0.1–0.3 mm long. Fruits ellipsoid, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a terminal style, 4–6 by 3–4 mm, glabrous, sometimes white-pustulate, aerolate when dry.

 

5. Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng.

 

    Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1 (1824) 826; Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 3(1) (1844–45) t. 819; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 112, fig. 12E, G; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 209; Kew Bull. 35 (1980) 693; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 211; Petra Hoffm. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 61, fig. 15; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 74, Fig. 7; Map 6. — [Bunius sativus Rumph., Herb. Amboin. 3 (1743) 204, t. 131, prelinnean.] — Stilago bunius L., Mant. Pl. 1 (1767) 122. — Antidesma stilago Poir., Encycl. suppl. 1 (1811) 403, p.p., nom. illeg. — Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng. var. genuinum Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 262, nom. inval.  — Lectotype (designated by Airy Shaw, 1980): “Bunius sativus”, Rumphius, Herb. Amboin. 3 (1743): t. 131.

 

 

Tree, rarely shrub, up to 30 m, clear bole up to 10 m, diameter up to 1 m, usually straight, often fluted or with buttresses (up to 3 m tall and 10 cm out), sometimes with more than one stem; young twigs terete or flattened, glabrous to densely ferrugineous-pubescent, brown. Bark brown, yellow brown, greyish caramel, tan or grey, thin (1–2 mm thick), rough or smooth, usually more or less fissured or vertically cracked, sometimes flaking or with scattered small bumps, soft; inner bark reddish brown, red, pinkish, orange white, white or straw, 3–6 mm thick, fibrous; sapwood pale red, pale orange or pale brown, heartwood reddish brown, hard and dense, sometimes slight odour to cut wood. Stipules early-caducous, linear, 4–6 by 1.5–2 mm, pubescent. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, 3–10(–17) by 1.5–2 mm, glabrous to densely ferrugineous-pubescent; blades oblong to elliptic, more rarely obovate, (5–)10–18(–32) by (2–)4–6(–9) cm, length/width ratio (2–)2.5–3(–6), eglandular, coriaceous, basally acute to rounded, rarely cordate, apically acuminate-mucronate (mucro up to 3 mm long), often with a rounded apiculum, glabrous, or pilose to ferrugineous-pubescent only along the midvein adaxially, glabrous to ferrugineous-pubescent all over abaxially, shiny on both surfaces, midvein flat adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, drying olive-green adaxially, lighter and more reddish abaxially, domatia absent. Staminate inflorescences (6–)15–25 cm long, axillary, consisting of 3–8(–14) branches, axes pubescent to glabrous; bracts deltoid to elliptic, c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm, pubescent. Staminate flowers 3–4 by c. 3 mm; pedicel absent; calyx c. 1 by 1.5 mm, cupular, sepals 3 or 4, rarely 5 (in the same inflorescence), fused for 2/3–3/4 of their length, apically obtuse, glabrous to ferrugineous-pubescent on both sides, margin fimbriate; disc variable, extrastaminal-annular to lobed alternistaminally, lobes free or enclosing the bases of the stamens and pistillode, much shorter than or up to the same length as the sepals, glabrous; stamens 3 or 4(or 5), 2–3 mm long, exserted 1.5–2 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.5 by 0.7 mm; pistillode clavate to cylindrical, c. 1 by 0.5 mm, usually exserted 0.5–1 mm from, rarely extending to the same length as the sepals, pubescent, sometimes glabrous apically. Pistillate inflorescences (4–)8–17 cm long, axillary, simple or more rarely consisting of up to 4 branches, axes glabrous to pubescent; bracts deltoid, 0.5–1.5 by 0.5–1 mm, pubescent to pilose. Pistillate flowers 2.5–3 by c. 1.5 mm; pedicels 0.5–1(–2) mm long, pubescent to glabrous; calyx 1–1.5 by c. 1.5 mm, cupular, sepals 3, fused for 2/3–3/4 of their length, thick, apically obtuse to rounded, glabrous to pilose on both sides, margin usually erose; disc shorter than the sepals, glabrous; ovary ellipsoid, glabrous to very sparsely pilose, style terminal to subterminal, stigmas 3–4(–6). Infructescences 10–17 cm long, robust; fruiting pedicels 2–4(–9) mm long, pubescent to glabrous. Fruits ellipsoid, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a terminal to slightly subterminal style, 5–11 by 4–7 mm, glabrous, rarely pilose, often white-pustulate, reticulate when dry.

 

Only variety in Malesia:

 

5a. var. bunius

 

    Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng. var. bunius: Petra Hoffm. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 63; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 75, Map 6.

    Antidesma sylvestre Lam., Encycl. 1 (1783) 207 (“sylvestris”). — Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng. var. sylvestre (Lam.) Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 263 (1866). — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Rheede, Hort. Malab. 5 (1685) 51, t. 26.

    Antidesma ciliatum C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1849) 234. — Type: Cuming 1446 (PRC, holo; iso: CGE, E, FHO, G, K, L, P), Philippines, Luzon, prov. Batangas.

    Antidesma cordifolium C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1849) 235. — Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng. var. cordifolium (C.Presl) Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 262. — Type: Cuming 474 (PRC, holo; iso: CGE, E, G, FHO, K, L, MEL, P), Philippines, Luzon, prov. Laguna, Calauang.

    Antidesma floribundum Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 189. — Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng. var. floribundum (Tul.) Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 263. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Macrae s.n. (CGE), Sri Lanka, circa Kandy.

    Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng. var. wallichii Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 263. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Wallich 7282 (G-DC [microfiche], holo; iso: K-W, OXF, P), India orientalis.

    Antidesma andamanicum Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 364; Chakrab. & Gangop., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 24 (2000) 14 (s synon. nov.). — Lectotype (designated by Mandal & Panigrahi, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 4, 1983, 256): Kurz s.n. (CAL, holo; iso: G, K), South Andaman Islands.

    Sapium crassifolium Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 2 (1908) 485. — Antidesma crassifolium (Elmer) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 7 (1912) 383. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Elmer 10312 (US, holo; iso: BM, E, G, K, L), Philippines, Negros, Prov. Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mts, Dumaguete.

    Antidesma collettii Craib, Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1911(10) (1911) 461. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Collett 636 (K), Burma, Shan Hill.

    Antidesma thorelianum Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 70 (1923) 124, Airy Shaw, Kew. Bull. 26 (1972) 353 (as synon. nov.). — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Thorel 684 p.p. (P holo; iso: K, P), Laos, Vien-thian (expedition du Me-Kong). (Note: There are five duplicates of the type number in P, two of which are annotated as Antidesma thorelianum by Gagnepain.)

 

Young twigs glabrous to very shortly pubescent. Leaves: petioles glabrous to pubescent (especially adaxially); blades glabrous, or pilose only along the midvein, often minutely white-pustulate. Inflorescence axes glabrous to pubescent. Staminate calyx glabrous to pubescent outside, ferrugineous-pubescent at the base inside, hairs often exceeding the calyx. Pistillate calyx glabrous to sparsely pilose outside, ferrugineous-pubescent at the base inside, hairs often exceeding the calyx; ovary glabrous.

    Distribution — India (incl. Andaman & Nicobar Islands), Sri Lanka, southern China (Hainan and Guangdong prov.), Burma, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, Sumatra, Singapore, Borneo, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Islands, Moluccas, New Guinea, Christmas Islands (Indian Ocean, Australia), Tahiti, Hawaiian Islands. As Antidesma bunius is widely cultivated as a fruit tree, it is impossible to distinguish truly wild occurrences and to establish the natural geographic distribution of the species. It seems to be absent in Peninsular Malaysia (except Singapore) and nearly absent in Borneo. Exceptions are one collection from West Kalimantan without precise locality (Teysmann), one from East Kalimantan, one collection from cultivation in Brunei, and Castro & Melegrito 1519 from Banguey Island, cited by Merrill (Philipp. J. Sci. 29, 1926: 380), which could not be located and examined for this study and is therefore not included in the distribution map (Petra Hoffm., 2006, map 6). In contrast, 105 specimens from Java and 70 from the Philippines were examined. Variety pubescens Petra Hoffm. is only found in N. and N.E. Thailand.

    Habitat & Ecology — In wet evergreen forest, dipterocarp forest and teak forest; on river banks, at forest edges, along roadsides; in bamboo thickets; in semi-cultivated and cultivated areas; in shady or open habitats; usually in secondary but also in primary vegetation. It thrives best in open, sunny places (A. Lamb, pers. comm.), and is said to be common in the early stages of secondary forest succession, invading marginal grassland (Gruθzo in PROSEA 2, 1991: 79). On sand, loam or clay over (coral) limestone or granite bedrock. Altitude: sea level up to 2100 m.

    Uses — Widely cultivated as a fruit tree, especially in Java and the Philippines. In Java, the trees are carefully tended and the fruits are highly regarded and sold. Rumphius (1743: 204) introduced the species to Ambon from Sulawesi and found them easily propagated by cuttings as well as fairly fast-growing. Hasskarl (Aantek. nut Java, 1854: 54) reported that the trees are sometimes surrounded by bamboo scaffolding to make harvesting easier. Smith (Meded. Dept. Landb. Ned.-Indiλ 12, 1910: 273) claimed that Antidesma bunius is to be found in every village in Java. Today, the bunches are harvested by hand with the help of a bamboo pole, preferably with a net bag to collect the detached bunches (Gruθzo in PROSEA 2, 1991: 79). The fruits can be eaten raw, but as the drupes in a raceme do not ripen evenly, they are often used to produce jam or jelly. They are also made into wine in the Philippines (L. Bululacao and A. Lamb, pers. comm.) and into a liqueur in Java (Smith, l.c. 1910: 273). The reason why the species is not cultivated in Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo is probably cultural rather than ecological (L. G. Saw and A. Lamb, pers. comm.). The relatively high standard of living in Malaysia explains a preference for high-yielding, more commercial fruits. In Kalimantan, bread is still largely unknown and therefore there is also no interest in jam, while alcoholic beverages are usually made from starchy crops such as rice and cassava rather than fruit. In Indonesia, a sour sauce for fish is prepared from the fruits. The leaves are eaten as vegetable, in salads and cooked with rice (Gruθzo, l.c. 1991: 78). For more details on cultivation see Gruθzo (l.c. 1991: 78). The wood is not durable especially when exposed to the elements, but is still used for construction purposes (Ridley, Bull. Kolon. Mus. 27, 1903: 92; Rumphius, l.c. 1743: 204; Smith, l.c. 1910: 272). It is also subject to termite attacks and therefore unsuitable for work in contact with the soil (Vietnam, Poilane 10901).

    Vernacular names — Sumatra, Java and Sulawesi: Buni, Boni, Buneh, Buni, Huni, Huni berak or Huni gede barunei (Sundanese), Woni, Wuni. Philippines: Bignai or Bignay (Mang. Tag.), Bognay, Bugnai (Mang.), Bugnay (Bulodtol, Igar., Ilk.), Bugne n. iitan, Bugne oongal (Ifugao). Sulawesi: Buneh. Lesser Sunda Islands: Barune (Sumbawanese), Guna, Hadju wune, Wuler. Moluccas: Kata kuti or Kuti kata (Bandanese).

 

6. Antidesma catanduanense Merr.

 

    Antidesma catanduanense Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 16 (1920) 549; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 81, Map 7. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): BS (Ramos) 30515 (A, holo; iso: K, US), Philippines, Catanduanes, Mt Mariguiodon.

 

Young twigs terete, glabrous or nearly so, whitish grey. Stipules not seen. Leaves: petioles 13–17 by 1–1.2 mm, basally and distally pulvinate over 2–3 mm, shortly pilose, very light brown to whitish grey, becoming glabrous when old; blades elliptic, 10–13.3 by 5.3–6.9 cm, length/width ratio 1.8–2, eglandular, subcoriaceous, basally obtuse to rounded, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous adaxially, glabrous or slightly pilose only along the major veins abaxially, shiny on both surfaces, midvein shallowly impressed to flat adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate to weakly percurrent, drying olive-green, lighter abaxially, domatia absent. Staminate plants unknown. Pistillate inflorescences axillary or terminal, branched regularly, consisting of 3–20 branches, sometimes in fascicles of 2 inflorescences, axes pilose; bracts deltoid, c. 0.3 by 0.3 mm, apically acute, pilose. Pistillate flowers not known; calyx in fruit 0.5–0.6 by 0.7–1 mm, cupular, sepals 4, fused for c. 4/5 of their length, individual sepals inconspicuous, apically broadly obtuse, sinuses broadly rounded, glabrous outside and inside, margin entire; disc extending to the same length as the sepals, sparsely whitish-pilose at the margin, hairs much shorter than the disc; stigmas 3–4. Infructescences 3–5 cm long; fruiting pedicels 1–2 mm long, pilose. Fruits ellipsoid to nearly globose, calyx not splitting, staying intact and as narrow as at anthesis, moderately laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a subterminal style, c. 3.5 by 2–2.5 mm (including the calyx), glabrous, not white-pustulate, wrinkled (neither areolate nor reticulate) when dry.

    Distribution — Philippines: Catanduanes.

    Habitat & Ecology — Along streams in forests.

 

7. Antidesma celebicum Miq.

 

    Antidesma celebicum Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavum 1 (1864) 218, non Koord. (1898); Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 82, Map 7. — Type: Teysmann HB 5283 (U), Sulawesi, Distr. Menado (collection number not cited in protologue).

    Antidesma celebicum Koord., Meded. Lands Plantentuin 19 (1898) 580, 625, nom. illeg. (non Miq. 1864). — Type: Northern Sulawesi (Celebes bor.), in oerwoud bij bivak Pinamorongan. There are two fruiting collections (Koorders 16790 and 16800) from this locality in BO!, both of which represent Antidesma celebicum Miq.

 

Tree, up to 25 m, clear bole up to 9 m, diameter up to 37 cm, sometimes with more than one stem and much-branched from the ground; young twigs terete, shortly pilose to pubescent, brown. Bark grey or brown, 1 mm thick, smooth, cracked or scaly, soft; inner bark tan, yellow, light pinkish or reddish brown; sapwood reddish yellow, whitish orange or reddish brown. Stipules early-caducous, deltoid, c. 3 by 1.5–2 mm, apically acute, pubescent. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, (6–)10–15(–20) by 0.8–1.2 mm, basally and distally usually pulvinate over 2 mm, sometimes distinctly geniculate, pubescent (usually very short) to glabrous; blades oblong to elliptic or slightly ovate, (7.5–)10–15(–18) by (3.5–)4.5–6.5(–8) cm, length/width ratio (2–)2.4(–3), eglandular, membranaceous to subchartaceous, basally acute to obtuse, more rarely rounded, apically (usually long) acuminate-mucronate, glabrous, or pilose only along the midvein adaxially and along the major veins abaxially, dull on both surfaces, major veins flat to shallowly impressed adaxially, tertiary veins weakly percurrent, more rarely reticulate, widely spaced, drying olive- to greyish green on both surfaces, sometimes lighter abaxially, domatia usually present. Staminate inflorescences 5–14 cm long, axillary (but aggregated at the end of the branch or some short, simple inflorescences on older twigs), usually consisting of 2–25 branches, slender, axes pubescent, bracts subtending individual branches conspicuously large (c. 3 by 3 mm); bracts broadly elliptic to orbicular, c. 0.5 by 0.4–0.6 mm, apically obtuse to rounded, pubescent. Staminate flowers c. 1.5 by 1 mm; pedicel absent; calyx c. 0.5 by 0.8–1 mm, bowl-shaped with a truncate base, sepals 4, fused for 2/3–3/4 of their length, apically broadly rounded, sinuses narrow, rounded, shortly pilose to glabrous outside, glabrous inside, margin slightly erose; disc extrastaminal-annular, hardly lobed, sometimes almost enclosing the individual filaments, as long as or extending to the same length as the sepals, constricted at the base, glabrous at the sides, ferrugineous-pubescent apically; stamens 4, 0.8–1.5 mm long, exserted 0.5–1.2 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.2–0.3 by 0.3–0.4 mm; pistillode clavate, slightly crateriform apically, c. 0.5 by 0.3–0.4 mm, exserted from the sepals, ferrugineous-pilose to pubescent. Pistillate inflorescences c. 4 cm long (only one pistillate flowering specimen seen), axillary (but sometimes aggregated at the end of the branch or some short, simple inflorescences on older twigs), branched regularly, in fascicles of 2–3 inflorescences, each consisting of 2–5 branches, axes pilose to pubescent; bracts deltoid to broadly elliptic, 0.5–0.7 by c. 0.5 mm, apically acute to rounded, pilose to pubescent. Pistillate flowers c. 2 by 1 mm; pedicels 1–1.5 mm long, pilose; calyx 0.5–0.7 by c. 1 mm, bowl-shaped, often with a truncate base, sepals 4, fused for c. 2/3 of their length, apically broadly rounded, sinuses rounded, shortly pilose to glabrous outside, glabrous inside, margin slightly erose; disc slightly longer than the sepals (including the indumentum), glabrous inside, glabrous or with short ferrugineous hairs outside, always long ferrugineous hairs at the margin; ovary globose to ellipsoid, laterally compressed, pubescent to glabrous, style slightly subterminal, stigmas 4–6. Infructescences 5–9 cm long; fruiting pedicels 1–2 mm long, spreading-pilose. Fruits lenticular to ellipsoid, distinctly laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, more rarely slightly asymmetrical, with a terminal or subterminal style, 3–4 by c. 3 mm, glabrous to pilose, sometimes white-pustulate, areolate when dry.

    Distribution — Sulawesi incl. Sangi & Talaud Islands, Lesser Sunda Islands (Timor), Moluccas (Bacan Island and Halmahera).

    Habitat & Ecology — In primary, more rarely secondary forest, usually in understorey. On deep clayey, fertile volcanic soil over andesite, phyllite and quartzite. Altitude: sea level up to 1200 m.

    Vernacular names — Sulawesi: Kayu tuah; Lombopale hutan; Ruomo. Moluccas: Halmahera: O kadateke; Talau: Angusip’a (Talau Kuruhit).

 

8. Antidesma chalaranthum Airy Shaw

 

    Antidesma chalaranthum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 33 (1979) 424; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 211; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 84, Map 8. — Type: Pullen 456 (K, holo; iso: L, US), Northeastern New Guinea, Eastern Highlands Distr., Goroka subdistr., Asaro-Mairifutica divide, 0.8 km S of Daulo camp.

 

Shrub or tree, up to 7 m; young twigs terete to slightly striate, ferrugineous-pubescent, light brown. Stipules persistent, deltoid, 1.5–2.5 by 0.5–1 mm, apically acute, ferrugineous-pubescent, becoming glabrous when old. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, 3–6 by 1–1.5 mm, pubescent to pilose; blades elliptic, 5.5–10 by 2.5–5 cm, length/width ratio 2–2.8, eglandular, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, basally acute, apically acuminate-mucronate, sometimes with a rounded or retuse apiculum, glabrous, or sparsely pilose only along the midvein adaxially, sparsely pilose all over abaxially, especially along the major veins, moderately shiny to dull adaxially, dull abaxially, midvein impressed adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, widely spaced, drying reddish to greyish brown, domatia weakly developed, inconspicuous. Staminate inflorescences 3–5 cm long, axillary and cauline, consisting of 2–4 branches, very slender, axes 0.2–0.5 mm wide, sparsely and spreading-hirsute; bracts deltoid, c. 0.7 by 0.5 mm, apically acute, spreading-pilose. Staminate flowers 2.5–3 by 1.5–2 mm; pedicels 2–4 mm long, not articulated, spreading-pilose; calyx c. 1.5 by 0.7 mm, cylindrical, sepals 4, fused for 1/4–1/3 of their length, deltoid, apically obtuse, sinuses obtuse, appressed-pilose outside, glabrous inside, margin slightly erose; disc extrastaminal-annular, glabrous at the sides, pubescent (partly ferrugineous) apically, extending to the same length as the sepals, lobed towards the centre, or lobes ± detached from the annular part of the disc, subulate and standing between the stamens, lobes slightly longer than annular part of disc and ± highly connate to the pistillode; stamens 3 or 4, 2–2.5 mm long, exserted 1.5–2 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.5 by 0.5–1 mm; pistillode clavate, c. 1.5 by 0.5–1 mm, exserted c. 1 mm from the sepals, with a fold on one side, c. 0.5 mm long and 0.5 mm deep, ferrugineous-pubescent. Pistillate inflorescences axillary to cauline, simple or consisting of up to 3 branches, axes sparsely and spreading-hirsute; bracts deltoid, c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm, apically acute, pilose. Pistillate flowers not known; calyx in fruit c. 1 by 2 mm, bowl-shaped, sepals 4, fused for 2/3–3/4 of their length, deltoid, apically obtuse, sinuses obtuse, appressed-pilose outside, glabrous inside, margin slightly erose; disc shorter than the sepals, pubescent at the margin; stigmas 3–5. Infructescences 3–5 cm long, axes c. 0.5 mm wide; fruiting pedicels slender, 3–4 by c. 0.3 mm, spreading-pilose. Fruits lenticular, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a distinctly lateral style, 5–8 by 5–8 mm, glabrous or nearly so, white-pustulate, reticulate when dry.

    Distribution — Papua New Guinea: Eastern Highlands and probably also Southern Highlands provinces.

    Habitat & Ecology — In mossy forest on ridge; in primary vegetation; associated with Nothofagus. Altitude: 2200–2600 m.

    Vernacular name — Ndiyer.

    Note — Originally described only from the staminate type. Airy Shaw suggested that NGF (Streimann & Kairo) 27636 from Aseki, Morobe province, might be a matching pistillate collection, but this specimen certainly belongs to Antidesma baccatum which is not known to occur in the Eastern Highlands province, nor is it known from more than 1500 m altitude. The fruiting collection LAE (Kerenga & Symon) 56821 from Daulo Pass is a better match for Antidesma chalaranthum; it was collected close to the type locality at 2200 m altitude, and besides a great overall similarity has the same slender inflorescence axes and pedicels. Two very similar fruiting collections, though not as close in locality and altitude, are Jacobs s.n. (6 Oct. 1973) and LAE (Damas) 58888 from Mt Bosavi, Southern Highlands province.

 

9. Antidesma concinnum Airy Shaw

 

    Antidesma concinnum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 33 (1979) 425; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 211; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 86, Map 8. — Type: Pullen 7541 (K holo; iso: L), Papua New Guinea, Central Distr., near Nunumai, 12 km N of Amazon Bay, 10°11'S, 149°23'E.

 

Shrub or treelet, up to 1.5 m; young twigs terete, very slender, pubescent, brown. Stipules persistent, subulate, 1–2 by 0.2–0.3 mm, pilose. Leaves: petioles nearly terete to channelled adaxially, 1.5–3 by c. 0.5 mm, pilose; blades ovate, 2.5–5.5 by 1–2 cm, length/width ratio 2.3–3.4, eglandular, thinly chartaceous, basally acute, apically acuminate- to caudate-mucronate, with a rounded to retuse apiculum, glabrous, or pilose only along the midvein adaxially, sparsely pilose all over abaxially, more densely so along the veins, shiny on both surfaces, midvein flat to impressed adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, drying olive-green, domatia absent. Staminate inflorescences 4–6 cm long, appearing terminal, simple, axes c. 0.2 mm wide, pilose; bracts ovate to deltoid, c. 0.3 by 0.3 mm, apically acute to obtuse, glabrous. Staminate flowers 1–2 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicel absent; calyx c. 0.7 by 1 mm, bowl-shaped, sepals 3, fused for c. 3/4 of their length, apically acute to obtuse, sinuses rounded, wide, shallow, glabrous outside and inside, margin sparsely fimbriate; disc consisting of 3 free alternistaminal lobes, lobes ± obconical, well-separated from each other, c. 0.3–0.4 by 0.5 mm, glabrous at the sides, ferrugineous-pubescent apically; stamens 3, immature c. 1 mm long, exserted c. 0.5 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.3–0.4 by c. 0.5 mm; pistillode subulate, 0.3–0.5 by 0.1–0.2 mm, extending to the same length as the disc, slightly exserted from the sepals, ferrugineous-pubescent. Young infructescences c. 5 cm long, axillary or terminal, simple, very slender, axes sparsely puberulent; bracts nearly orbicular to oblong, 0.5–0.6 by 0.4–0.5 mm, glabrous, margin fimbriate. Young fruits c. 2 by 1.5 mm; pedicels 1–1.5 mm long, pilose; calyx in young fruit c. 0.5 by 1 mm, bowl-shaped with a truncate base, sepals 4, fused for c. 4/5 of their length, apically acute, sinuses wide, rounded, glabrous outside and inside, margin slightly erose; disc exserted from or extending to the same length as the sepals, ochraceous- to ferrugineous-tomentose at the margin, indumentum usually exserted from the sepals; ovary lenticular, pilose, style lateral, stigmas 4 or 5. Infructescences 2–5 cm long, axes up to 0.5 mm wide; fruiting pedicels 1–2 mm long, sparsely puberulous. Fruits lenticular, distinctly laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a distinctly lateral style, c. 5 by 5 mm, sparsely appressed-pilose, not white-pustulate, areolate when dry.

    Distribution — Papua New Guinea: Central and Milne Bay provinces.

    Habitat & Ecology — In primary forest. Altitude: 50–100 m.

    Note — The slender habit and small, ovate leaves make this taxon rather distinctive. However, the pistillate flowers and fruits of the type are identical with those of Antidesma excavatum which is vegetatively so variable that it would be hard to justify recognition of a species on the basis of leaf shape and size alone. Several fruiting collections from different parts of Papua New Guinea more or less bridge the gap between the types of Antidesma concinnum and typical Antidesma excavatum in leaf shape and size (Kanehira & Hatusima 12057 from Nabire; Carr 12511 from Koitaki; Brass 3809 from Dieni). The staminate paratype of Antidesma concinnum, on the other hand, has free disc lobes which are never observed in Antidesma excavatum.

 

10. Antidesma contractum J.J.Sm.

 

    Antidesma contractum J.J.Sm. in Lorentz, Nova Guinea 8(1) (1910) 229, t. LVI; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 212; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 88, Fig. 8, Map 9. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006):  Koch 78 (L), Dutch New Guinea, Etna Bai, Dec. 1904.

    Antidesma ledermannianum Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 133; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 213. — Type: Ledermann 7759 (†), Neu Guinea, Kaiser Wilhelmsland, am Sepik, Station Gubugai.

    Antidesma impressivenum Kaneh. & Hatus. (“impressivena”), nom. nud. — Typical specimen: Kanehira & Hatusima 11699 (BO), Dutch New Guinea, Nabire.

 

Shrub or tree, up to 8 m, diameter up to 8 cm, often poorly branched, spindly and straggling with overhanging branches; twigs pale green and knobby; young twigs terete, glabrous, light brown to whitish grey. Bark pale grey or fawn, thin, rather smooth, with scattered lenticels; wood light pink. Stipules usually caducous, narrowly deltoid to linear, 3–5(–10) by 0.5–1 mm, apically acute, glabrous to sparsely pilose. Leaves: petioles channelled to flat adaxially, often rugose and whitish grey, 3–10 mm long (but apparently up to 25 mm long including the decurrent leaf base), 1.5–3 mm wide, pilose to glabrous; blades ovate to oblong, more rarely elliptic or slightly obovate, 2–17 mm long more or less sharply decurrent, (6–)15–20(–30) by (2–)4–7(–10) cm, length/width ratio (2–)3–3.5(–5.2), eglandular, chartaceous to coriaceous, basally acute to rounded, apically acuminate- to caudate-mucronate, glabrous, or sparsely pilose only along the midvein adaxially and along the major veins abaxially, moderately shiny on both surfaces, sometimes bullate, all veins distinctly raised adaxially, rarely almost flat, tertiary veins reticulate to weakly percurrent, usually strong perpendicular intersecondary veins, drying dark reddish brown on both surfaces, or lighter abaxially, domatia absent. Staminate inflorescences 4–7 cm long, axillary to almost cauline, simple, solitary or up to 7 per fascicle, very slender, axes ferrugineous-hispid to nearly glabrous; bracts narrowly deltoid, 0.5–0.7 by c. 0.3 mm, apically acute, pilose. Staminate flowers 1.5–2.5 by 1.5–2.5 mm; pedicels 0.5–1 mm long, not articulated, glabrous to very sparsely pilose; calyx c. 0.8 by 1 mm, sepals (3–)4(–5), free or nearly so, c. 0.6 mm wide, deltoid to ovate, apically acute to shortly acuminate, glabrous outside, pilose inside, margin entire, long fimbriate; disc cushion-shaped, fully enclosing the bases of the filaments and, if present, the pistillode, glabrous; stamens 2–3, 1.5–2 mm long, exserted 1–1.5 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.5 by 0.6 mm; pistillode absent or subulate, c. 0.2 by 0.1 mm, shorter than the sepals, glabrous. Pistillate inflorescences 3–10 cm long, axillary to almost cauline, simple, solitary or up to 4 per fascicle, very slender, axes ferrugineous-hispid to nearly glabrous; bracts narrowly elliptic, 0.5–1 by c. 0.3 mm, pilose. Pistillate flowers 1–2 by 1–2 mm; pedicels 0–1.5 mm long, glabrous to sparsely pilose; calyx c. 1 by 1–1.5 mm, sepals (3 or) 4, free or nearly so, 0.5–1 mm wide, deltoid, ovate or orbicular, apically acute, acuminate or rounded, glabrous outside, pilose inside, margin slightly erose, fimbriate; disc shorter than the sepals, glabrous; ovary ellipsoid, glabrous, style terminal, stigmas 3–6, rather long and thick. Infructescences 5–15(–28) cm long, axes 0.5–0.8(–1) mm thick; fruiting pedicels 0–4 mm long, glabrous to pilose. Fruits ellipsoid to ovoid, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a terminal style, 5–8(–10) by 4–5(–6) mm, glabrous, sometimes finely white-pustulate, reticulate when dry.

    Distribution — New Guinea.

    Habitat & Ecology — In undergrowth of primary rain forest (rarely old secondary forest), sometimes by rivers and seasonally flooded; Metroxylon swamp; near the beach. On old, well-drained volcanic soil, over sandstone. Altitude: 1–1200 m.

    Uses — The wood is used in house construction.

    Vernacular names — Indonesia: Papua: Ara kra mkek, Ara mkek, Tfan kek; Papua New Guintea: Fe-ce (Tokples).

 

11. Antidesma coriaceum Tul.

 

    Antidesma coriaceum Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 204; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 210; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 91, Fig. 9a, b, Map 10. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Hb. Wallich (G. Porter coll.) 8584 (P, holo; iso: CGE, E, G, G-DC [microfiche], K, L, NY, OXF, TCD), Peninsular Malaysia, Penang.

    Antidesma fallax Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865–66) 68. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Hb. Wallich (G. Porter coll.) 9101 (G-DC [microfiche], holo; iso: Ke), Malaysia, in collibus ins. Penang.

    Aporosa griffithii Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 353. — Type: Griffith KD 4955 (K), Burma and Malay Peninsula.

    Antidesma pachyphyllum Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 11 (1916) 58. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Hose 69 (K, holo; iso: A [photo of destroyed holotype ex PNH], E, L, P), Sarawak,

Baram distr., Miri R.

    Antidesma nitens Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 136. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Beccari PB 1404 (K, holo; iso: P), Nord-Borneo.

    Antidesma cordatum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 465; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 210. — Type: KEP (Kochummen) 94034 (K, holo; iso: A, KEP, L, SING), Malay Peninsula, Selangor, Ulu Gombak Forest Reserve.

 

Tree, rarely shrub, up to 29 m, clear bole up to 15 m, diameter up to 75 cm, usually straight; twigs light greyish brown; young twigs terete or striate, ferrugineous-hispid, brown. Bark whitish, grey or brown, sometimes white-pink, red-greenish or reddish brown, thin (c. 3 mm thick), smooth, more or less fissured longitudinally, soft, fibrous, inner bark whitish, cream, yellowish brown, brown, reddish brown, red, pink or green, thin (2–5 mm thick), fibrous, laminated, soft; cambium brownish or light yellow; wood very hard, sapwood orange, yellow, yellowish brown, brown or whitish grey. Stipules early-caducous, subulate to linear, 5–7(–15) by 0.5–1(–2) mm, ferrugineous-hispid. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, (4–)8–20(–30) by 1–2 mm, basally and distally sometimes slightly pulvinate and geniculate, shortly ferrugineous-hispid, becoming glabrous when old; blades oblong to ovate or obovate, (6–)10–15(–21) by (2–)4–6(–9) cm, length/width ratio (2.1–)2.6(–3.3), eglandular, coriaceous, basally acute to cordate, apically long acute to acuminate-mucronate (mucro up to 4 mm long), glabrous, or ferrugineous-hispid only along the major veins abaxially, shiny on both surfaces, midvein impressed adaxially, tertiary veins coarsely reticulate, quaternary veins hardly visible, drying grey to reddish brown adaxially, reddish brown abaxially, domatia absent. Staminate inflorescences 2–7 cm long, cauline or axillary, simple or branched mostly near the base, consisting of up to 12 branches, axes ferrugineous-hispid; bracts elliptic to deltoid, 0.5–1 by c. 0.5 mm, apically acute, hispid. Staminate flowers c. 1.5 by 1 mm; pedicel absent; calyx 0.5–1 mm long, sepals 4 or 5, free or nearly so, 0.3–0.5 mm wide, deltoid, apically acute, hispid outside, hispid to glabrous inside, long hairs at least at the base, margin entire; disc consisting of 3–5 free alternistaminal lobes, lobes ± obconical, sometimes with two shallow imprints apically, c. 0.5 by 0.5–1 mm, glabrous; stamens 3–5, 1–1.5 mm long, exserted 1–1.5 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.3–0.4 by 0.4–0.5 mm; pistillode cylindrical to obconical, 0.3–0.5 by c. 0.2 mm, extending to the same length or exserted from the sepals, hispid. Pistillate inflorescences 2–3 cm long, cauline or axillary, simple or consisting of up to 10 branches, axes ferrugineous-hispid; bracts elliptic to deltoid, c. 1 by 0.5 mm, apically acute, ferrugineous-hispid. Pistillate flowers c. 2 by 1.5 mm; calyx 0.7–1.2 mm long, sepals 4 or 5, free or nearly so, c. 0.5 mm wide, deltoid, apically acute, hispid outside, hispid to glabrous inside, margin entire; disc shorter than the sepals, glabrous; ovary ellipsoid, glabrous, style slightly subterminal, usually thick, stigmas 4–10, often conspicuously short and thick. Infructescences 2–5(–9) cm long, weak and often bent; fruiting pedicels 0.3–1.5 mm long, ferrugineous-hispid. Fruits lenticular to ellipsoid, sometimes wider than long, laterally compressed, very rarely terete, basally symmetrical to slightly asymmetrical, with a subterminal to nearly terminal style, (3–)4–8(–13) by 4–6 mm, glabrous, often white-pustulate, areolate or fleshy when dry.

    Distribution — Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Borneo.

    Habitat & Ecology — Mostly in peat swamp forest, associated with Casuarina; in mangroves; also in “kerangas” (dry shrubby heath forest on poor sand), associated with Agathis and Dacrydium; more rarely in lowland dipterocarp forest and sugar plantations; often in much disturbed but also in primary vegetation; open to shaded habitats. On sandy soil, (giant) podsol, black soil, over white sandstone/granitic sand. Altitude: sea level up to 1200 m.

    Vernacular names — Malay Peninsula: Sebasa (name for Aporosa). Sumatra: Buruk butu (Indonesian), Kawa kawa (Minangkabau), Mangas (Indonesian), Mempadu padang, Palempangmerawat, Sepatjet, Sungkai alas.  Borneo: Sabah: Cheremai (Kedayan), Lagas lagas (Dusun), Rayan; Sarawak: Buah jerawai, Dolkuyat (Milanau), Nepis kalit; Brunei: Ubis (Dusun); Kalimantan: Cabi-cabi, Mempene item, Pomjut.

    Note — The leaf shape in Antidesma coriaceum is very variable and ranges continuously from acute to a cordate leaf base. The latter corresponds with a higher number of secondary veins because it occurs in specimens with larger leaves.

 

12. Antidesma cruciforme Gage

 

    Antidesma cruciforme Gage, Rec. Bot. Surv. India 9 (1922) 226; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 95, Fig. 10, Map 11. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Wray 912 (SING, Kew Negative No. 11316), Perak, Gunong Batu Puteh.

 

Shrub or tree, up to 6 m, diameter 8 cm; young twigs terete to striate, spreading-ferrugineous-pubescent, brown. Stipules persistent or caducous, subulate, 7–14 by 0.5–1.5 mm, apically acute, ferrugineous-pubescent. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, (12–)17–35 mm long, 1.2–2 mm wide in the middle, basally and distally slightly pulvinate and geniculate, ferrugineous-pubescent, becoming glabrous when old; blades oblong to elliptic, (11–)16–21(–25.5) by (4–)6–8(–10) cm, length/width ratio(2–)2.6(–3.2), eglandular, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, basally obtuse to rounded, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous adaxially, pilose all over abaxially, shiny adaxially, shiny or dull abaxially, midvein impressed adaxially, tertiary veins percurrent to almost reticulate, close together, drying reddish brown to olive-green, domatia absent. Staminate plants unknown. Pistillate inflorescences 3–5 cm long, axillary, simple, axes densely ferrugineous-pubescent; bracts elliptic to subulate, 0.7–1.5 by 0.3–0.5 mm, ferrugineous-pubescent. Pistillate flowers 1–1.5 by 1–1.5 mm; calyx c. 1 mm long, sepals 4, free, 0.3–0.5 mm wide, narrowly deltoid, apically acute, pubescent outside, glabrous inside except for long hairs at the base, margin entire; disc much shorter than the sepals, glabrous; ovary ellipsoid, glabrous or with few hairs, style subterminal to terminal, stigmas 4–6, rather regular, flatly spread out. Infructescences 12–17 cm long; fruiting pedicels 0–1(–3) mm long, pilose to pubescent. Fruits ellipsoid, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, more rarely asymmetrical, with a terminal, more rarely subterminal style, 8–10 by 6–8 mm, glabrous, sometimes white-pustulate, fleshy to reticulate when dry.

    Distribution — Peninsular Malaysia: Kedah, Pahang, Perak, Selangor.

    Habitat & Ecology — In forest. Altitude: 130–1450 m.

 

13. Antidesma curranii Merr.

 

    Antidesma curranii Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 9 (1914) 466; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 97, Map 11. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Type: FB (Curran) 5087 (US), Philippines, Luzon, Subprov. Benguet, Baguio.

 

Shrub or tree, up to 10 m, diameter up to 20 cm; young twigs terete to angular, sparsely spreading-pilose, very light to medium brown. Wood reddish. Stipules early-caducous, deltoid to linear, 3–5 by 1–1.5 mm, apically acute, appressed-pilose. Leaves: petioles narrowly channelled adaxially, 3–15 by 0.7–1.2 mm, basally and distally sometimes slightly pulvinate, pilose, soon becoming glabrous, rugose and whitish; blades elliptic, more rarely ovate, oblong or obovate, (4.5–)6–10(–15.5) by (2–)3–5(–6.5) cm, length/width ratio (1.5–)2–2.3(–2.5), eglandular, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, basally acute to obtuse, more rarely rounded, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous except for some hairs along the major veins, dull, more rarely shiny on both surfaces, midvein impressed adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate to weakly percurrent, drying olive-green, usually lighter abaxially, domatia absent. Staminate inflorescences 4–7 cm long, axillary to terminal, consisting of 3–6 branches, axes pilose; bracts elliptic to ovate, 0.7–1 by 0.5–0.7 mm, glabrous, margin erose. Staminate flowers 1.5–2 by 1–2 mm; pedicels 0–0.2 mm long, not articulated, glabrous; calyx 0.8–1 by 1–1.5 mm, cupular to bowl-shaped, sepals 4, fused for 1/2–2/3 of their length, apically acute to rounded, glabrous on both surfaces, margin erose; disc consisting of 4 free alternistaminal lobes, lobes ± obconical, with two shallow imprints apically, c. 0.6 by 0.6–0.8 mm, exserted from the sepals, ferrugineous-pilose apically; stamens 4, c. 1.5 mm long, exserted c. 1 mm from the disc, exserted c. 1.5 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.3–0.4 by c. 0.7 mm; pistillode obconical to cylindrical, 0.4–0.5 by 0.3–0.4 mm, slightly exserted from the disc, ferrugineous-pubescent, especially apically. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, sometimes terminal, simple or once-branched, more rarely consisting of up to 6 branches, sometimes in fascicles of 2 inflorescences, axes glabrous to spreading-pilose; bracts elliptic to ovate, 0.5–1 by 0.5–0.6 mm, glabrous, margin erose, apically acute. Pistillate flowers not known; calyx in fruit 1–1.5 by 1.5–2 mm, sepals 4, at anthesis probably fused to halfway, in fruit irregularly laciniate, apically obtuse to rounded, glabrous outside and inside, margin erose, fimbriate; disc much shorter than the sepals, ferrugineous-pubescent, especially at the margin; stigmas 4–6. Infructescences 3–6 cm long; fruting pedicels 0.5–2 mm long, glabrous to pilose. Fruits ellipsoid to lenticular, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a terminal to slightly subterminal style, 4–5 by 3–4 mm, glabrous, sometimes white-pustulate, pale yellow to light brown, more rarely brick-red when dry, areolate when dry.

    Distribution — Philippines: Bucas Grande, Dinagat, Leyte, Mindanao, Samar.

    Habitat & Ecology — In (dry) dipterocarp forest; in primary or secondary vegetation; in shady or half-shady habitats. On clay soil, also reported from ultrabasic soil. Altitude: 50–700 m.

    Vernacular name — Samar: Aalimara (Bis.).

 

14. Antidesma cuspidatum Mόll.Arg.

 

    Antidesma cuspidatum Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865–1866) 67; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 210; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 99, Map 12. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006):   Leman [Lemann] s.n. (G-DC [microfiche], holo; iso: G, K), In Malacca, Indiae or.

 

Tree, rarely shrub, up to 17 m, clear bole up to 4 m, diameter up to 20 cm, straight, branching, twisted or crooked, sometimes fluted; twigs grey-green or bright green; young twigs terete to striate, shortly pubescent, brown. Bark whitish grey, grey, brown, greenish grey or greenish brown, thin, smooth, flaky or slightly cracking, brittle, soft; inner bark brown, pink, red, yellow or white, thin, fibrous; cambium white, hard; sapwood white, red, reddish brown or pale yellow, heartwood red. Stipules persistent or caducous, elliptic to ovate, 5–10 by 1–3 mm, apically acute to acuminate, pubescent. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, (5–)7–20(–25) by 1–1.5 mm, basally and distally sometimes slightly pulvinate and geniculate, pubescent; blades oblong to ovate, (7–)11–16(–23) by (2.5–)4–6(–9) cm, length/width ratioa (2–)2.5(–3), eglandular, chartaceous, basally obtuse to truncate, apically long-acute to acuminate-mucronate, glabrous except for some hairs along the major veins on both surfaces or only abaxially, shiny on both surfaces, midvein impressed adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, drying dark olive-green to reddish brown, lighter abaxially, domatia absent. Staminate inflorescences 5–12 cm long, terminal and axillary, simple or consisting of up to 10(–20) branches, axes shortly pubescent; bracts linear to deltoid, 0.4–1.5 by 0.2–0.3 mm, apically acute, pubescent. Staminate flowers 1.5–3 by c. 2 mm; pedicels 0.3–1 mm long, not articulated, pubescent; calyx 0.5–0.8 mm long, sepals 3–5, free, sometimes unequal, 0.5–1 mm wide, spreading, nearly orbicular, apically truncate to obtuse, pubescent outside, pilose to glabrous inside, long hairs at least at the base, margin erose, glandular-fimbriate to lacerate; disc cushion-shaped, fully enclosing the bases of the filaments and pistillode, constricted at the base, shortly pubescent to glabrous; stamens 3–5, c. 2 mm long, exserted 1.5–2 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.3–0.4 by 0.3–0.4 mm; pistillode clavate and apically crateriform to subulate, 0.3–0.5 by 0.2–0.4 mm, extending to the same length or slightly exserted from the sepals, shortly pubescent to glabrous. Pistillate inflorescences 6–12(–18) cm long, terminally or axillary, simple or branched regularly, mostly near the base, consisting of up to 5 branches, axes shortly pubescent; bracts linear to deltoid, 0.4–1.5 by c. 0.4 mm, apically acute, pubescent. Pistillate flowers 1.5–2 by 0.8–1.5 mm; pedicels 0.5–1.5 mm long, pubescent; calyx 0.5–1 mm long, sepals 3–6, free or fused for c. 2/3 of their length, pilose to pubescent outside, pilose to glabrous inside with but long hairs at least at the base, margin erose, glandular-fimbriate to lacerate; disc shorter than the sepals, shortly hirsute to glabrous; ovary lenticular, glabrous to pilose, style subterminal, stigmas 3–6. Infructescences 12–18 cm long, straight and robust; fruiting pedicels 1–4 mm long, pubescent. Fruits lenticular, distinctly laterally compressed, basally symmetrical to slightly asymmetrical, with a lateral style, 5–7 by 4–6 mm, glabrous to pilose, sometimes white-pustulate, often conspicuously black and shiny when dry, areolate when dry.

 

14a. var. cuspidatum

 

    Antidesma cuspidatum Mόll.Arg. var. cuspidatum: Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 210; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 100, Map 12.

    Antidesma rotatum Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 256; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 360 (pro synon.); Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 3 (1924) 232 (pro synon). — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): , Jagor  (Jaeger) 303 (NY ex B), Malacca Indiae or.

    Antidesma cuspidatum Mόll.Arg. var. leiodiscus Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 3 (1924) 232. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Scortechini s.n. (K), Malaysia, Perak, Larut.

    Antidesma cuspidatum Mόll.Arg. var. borneense Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 210. — Type: S (Banyeng & Sibat) 24915 (K, holo; iso in A, SAR), Sarawak, Kuching Distr., 12th mile, Penrissen Road.

 

Stipules usually persistent, elliptic to ovate, 5–10 by 1–3 mm, apically acute to acuminate, pubescent. Pistillate flowers 1–1.5 mm wide; calyx 0.5–0.8 mm long, sepals 3–6, free, c. 0.5 mm wide, spreading, deltoid to nearly orbicular, sometimes unequal, apically acute to truncate; disc shortly hirsute to glabrous; ovary glabrous to pilose.

    Distribution — Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Borneo (Kalimantan, western Sarawak). Chakrabarty & Gangopadhyay (J. Econ. Taxon. Bot., 1997: 479) reported Antidesma cuspidatum also from Java on the basis of Forbes 895 (CAL), but the duplicates of this collection in BM and L are Antidesma tetrandrum.

    Habitat & Ecology — In dipterocarp forest; sometimes on marshy or swampy ground; primary to disturbed, sometimes partly open vegetation. On yellow sand, loam or peat. Altitude: sea level up to 1600 m.

    Uses —  The wood is hard and fine-grained but usually only available in small quantities so that it is mainly used for small pieces of work (Ridley, Bull. Kolon. Mus. 27, 1903: 92); it is also suitable as firewood.

    Vernacular names — Malay Peninsula: Buni, Kayu buloh (Temuan), Okor kuching, Selumar. Sumatra: Kayu bata, Kayu dakka tolu, Kayu manuk-manuk, Kayu simburo. Borneo: Kalimantan: Uhai.

    Notes — 1. Former variety "leiodiscus" differs from the type mainly by its glabrous disc. The indumentum of the calyx, disc, pistillode and ovary in Antidesma cuspidatum is, however, very variable. Interestingly, in most specimens a glabrous disc is correlated with bracts shorter than 1 mm while most collections with a hairy disc have bracts 1–2 mm long. Several specimens, including that cited by Ridley for var. leiodiscus, combine a glabrous disc with short bracts. Both forms occur in the same locality (e.g., KEP FRI 11326 & 11350) in what seems to be the same population.

    2. In Sumatra, the boundary between Antidesma cuspidatum and Antidesma montanum becomes blurred. There are groups of collections with different combinations of characters from both species: (1) The staminate collection de Wilde & de Wilde-Duijfjes 18518 from Gunung Leuser National Park has short Leaves: petioles (4 mm long) and thin leaves like Antidesma montanum, but the leaf shape and flowers are typical of Antidesma cuspidatum, with a hairy disc and completely free, fairly wide, rounded sepals. (2) The pistillate and fruiting collections de Wilde & de Wilde-Duijfjes 12099, 12318, 12372, 12834, 18150, 18219, also from Gunung Leuser National Park, have longer Leaves: petioles (7–12 mm long), but also thin leaves with sometimes acute bases, which is atypical of Antidesma cuspidatum, but normal for Antidesma montanum. The inflorescences, flowers and fruits are, again, typical of Antidesma cuspidatum. These specimens are here identified as Antidesma cf. cuspidatum.

 

14b. var. orthocalyx

 

    Antidesma cuspidatum Mόll.Arg. var. orthocalyx Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 28 (1973) 274; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 102, Map 12. — Type: Meijer 7657 (K, holo; iso: L, SING), Sumatra, Res. West Coast (Padangsche Bovenlanden), Mt Merapi.

 

Stipules not seen. Staminate plants not known. Pistillate flowers c. 0.8 mm wide; calyx c. 1 by 0.7 mm, urceolate, sepals 4, fused for c. 2/3 of their length, erect, sinuses rounded; disc glabrous; ovary pilose. Infructescences and fruits not known.

    Distribution — West Sumatra.

    Habitat & Ecology — Altitude: c. 1400 m.

    Note — This specimen might well represent a different species, as pointed out in the protologue, but the material is too incomplete to be certain. It is also similar to Antidesma forbesii but differs in the large, coriaceous leaves with stout Leaves: petioles, as well as in the stiff and much-branched inflorescences.

 

15. Antidesma digitaliforme Tul.

 

    Antidesma digitaliforme Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 191; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 103, Map 12. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Callery 42 (P, holo; iso: A, G), Philippines, Luzon, apud Igolotas, in sylvis montium, prope Manillam.

    Antidesma lucidum Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 1, suppl. (1906) 78. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Whitford 1135 (US, holo; iso G, K, NY), Philippines, Lamao Forest Reserve.

    Antidesma luzonicum Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 9 (1914) 464.— Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006):  Ramos (Phil. Pl.) 1555 (L, holo; iso: A, BO, G, NY, SING), Philippines, Luzon, Prov. Camarines, Mount Isarog.

 

Shrub or tree, up to 12 m, diameter up to 27 cm; young twigs terete, shortly pubescent to glabrous, brown. Stipules early-caducous, deltoid, c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm, apically acute, pubescent. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, 3–8(–10) by 0.7–1.3(–1.5) mm, often becoming rugose when old, pilose to glabrous, sometimes very light brown; blades elliptic (margins often apically and distally concave), more rarely ovate, (4–)5–9(–11.5) by (1–)2–3.5(–5.5) cm, length/width ratio (1.7–)2.5(–3), eglandular, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, basally acute, more rarely obtuse or decurrent, apically acuminate-mucronate, often with an obtuse apiculum, glabrous, or with some short hairs only along the major veins abaxially, shiny on both surfaces, midvein impressed adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, drying dark olive-green to greyish brown adaxially, lighter olive-green to reddish brown abaxially, distinctly discolorous to almost concolorous, domatia usually present. Staminate inflorescences 2–8(–12) cm long, axillary, solitary or 2 per fascicle, simple or consisting of up to 5(–8) branches, axes glabrous to pilose; bracts deltoid to ovate, 0.5–1 by 0.3–1 mm, apically acute to rounded, pilose to glabrous, margin fimbriate. Staminate flowers 1.5–2 by 1.5–2 mm; pedicel absent; calyx 0.5–0.8 by 1–1.5 mm, bowl-shaped to cupular, sepals 4–6, fused for 2/3 or more of their length, broadly deltoid, apically acute, glabrous to slightly pilose outside, glabrous inside, margin entire; disc consisting of 4–6 free alternistaminal lobes, lobes ± obconical, with two shallow imprints apically, 0.3–0.4 by 0.5–0.6 mm, or partly or completely extrastaminally fused, usually exserted from the calyx, shortly ferrugineous-pubescent to pilose; stamens (1–)4–6, 1–1.5 mm long, exserted c. 1 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.3 by 0.5–0.6 mm; pistillode cylindrical to globose, 0.5–0.8 by 0.3–0.5 mm, extending to the same length or exserted from the sepals, slightly ferrugineous-pilose. Pistillate inflorescences 2–3 cm long, axillary, simple or consisting of 1–4 branches, sometimes in fascicles of 2 inflorescences, axes glabrous to pilose; bracts deltoid to ovate, 0.4–0.5 by 0.3–0.5 mm, glabrous to pilose, apically acute to obtuse margin entire, sometimes fimbriate. Pistillate flowers c. 1.5 by 0.5–1 mm; pedicels 0–0.5 mm long, glabrous; calyx 0.8–1 by 0.5–1 mm, urceolate, sepals 4 (or 5), fused for c. 3/4 of their length, broadly deltoid, apically acute to rounded, glabrous on both sides, margin sometimes fimbriate or erose; disc shorter than the sepals, but indumentum usually exserted from the sepals, ferrugineous to ochraceous hairs at the margin, otherwise glabrous; ovary ellipsoid, laterally compressed, glabrous, more rarely sparsely pilose, style subterminal, stigmas 3–5. Infructescences 2–5 cm long; fruiting pedicels 0.5–1.2 mm long, glabrous or pilose. Fruits ellipsoid to lenticular, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical or asymmetrical, the narrow calyx usually conspicuous, with a subterminal style, (2.5–)3–6 by 2–4 mm, glabrous, sometimes white-pustulate, areolate when dry.

    Distribution — Philippines: Leyte, Luzon, Mindoro, Negros, Palawan, Samar, Sibuyan.

    Habitat & Ecology — In the understorey of dipterocarp and elfin/montane forest; in primary or secondary vegetation; sometimes on exposed ridges. On clay-loam or loose rocky soil. Altitude: 10–1600 m.

    Use — Firewood.

    Notes — 1. Some specimens (including the type) have deformed staminate flowers: the calyx is almost globose with only a very small apical opening; the disc is often enlarged and the number of stamens reduced, sometimes to one stamen only. Similar aberrations occur in Antidesma japonicum. These flowers seem to be affected by some genetic or pathological disorder.

    2. The collection Soejarto et al. 7790 from Luzon differs by its staminate flowers on pedicels 0.5–1 mm long, and the lack of a pistillode.

    3. In PNH (Mendoza & Convocar) 10273 from Mindanao the stipules are exceptionally large (10 by 2 mm).

    4. Elmer 7005 from Luzon has fruits up to 8 by 6 mm which are also less oblique and more fleshy than in other collections. The calyx is missing on the mature fruit and the disc is nearly glabrous. Although an original syntype of former Antidesma lucidum, this specimen is therefore included here only doubtfully.

 

16. Antidesma edule Merr.

 

    Antidesma edule Merr., Bur. Govt. Lab. Bull. (Philippines) 17 (1904) 26; Sp. Blancoan. (1918) 219; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 105, Fig. 11, Map 13. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): FB (Barnes) 167 (US, holo; iso: BM, K, NY), Philippines, Luzon, Bataan prov., Lamao R.

 

Tree, up to 20 m, diameter up to 30 cm; young twigs terete to striate, densely pubescent, brown. Stipules early-caducous, deltoid, 3–6 by 1–2 mm, apically acute, pubescent. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, (4–)10–20(–30) by 1.2–2(–3) mm, basally and distally sometimes slightly pulvinate, pilose to pubescent; blades elliptic to ovate or obovate, (7.5–)13–17(–23) by (2.3–)5–8(–12) cm, length/width ratio (1.4–)2.4(–3.4), eglandular, thinly chartaceous to thickly coriaceous, basally rounded to acute, more rarely slightly cordate, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous to sparsely pilose all over and pubescent along the major veins adaxially, pubescent all over or only along the midvein abaxially, dull on both surfaces, midvein impressed, rarely flat adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate to weakly percurrent, widely spaced, drying grey, more rarely reddish brown adaxially, reddish brown, more rarely olive-green abaxially, domatia absent. Staminate inflorescences up to 10 cm long, axillary, consisting of up to 25 branches, axes pubescent; bracts elliptic to elliptic or orbicular, 0.5–1 by 0.5–1 mm, apically acute, pubescent to sparsely pilose. Staminate flowers 1.5–2 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicels 0–1 mm long, not articulated, pubescent; calyx c. 1 by 1–1.5 mm, cupular, sepals usually 6, fused for c. 1/2 of their length, unequal, pilose to pubescent outside, glabrous inside; disc consisting of 5–8 ± free lobes placed between and in front of the stamens; lobes of unequal size, ± obconical, tightly adhering to one another, c. 0.5 by up to 0.5 mm, initially appearing cushion-shaped, pubescent; stamens 4–5(–7), sometimes fused, 1.5–2 mm long, exserted 1–1.5 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.5 by 0.5–0.6 mm; pistillode subulate, 0.2–0.5 by 0.1–0.2 mm, much shorter to rarely exserted from the disc, pubescent. Pistillate inflorescences 1–9 cm long, axillary, but often aggregated at the end of the branch, simple or consisting of 1–25 branches, axes pubescent; bracts elliptic, 1–1.5 by 0.5–1 mm, pubescent. Pistillate flowers c. 1.5 by 1 mm; pedicels c. 0.5 mm long, pilose; calyx 0.5–1 by c. 1 mm, urceolate, sepals 4–5, fused for c. 2/3 of their length, often unequal, apically acute, pilose, rarely glabrous outside, glabrous inside; disc shorter than the sepals, but indumentum extending to the same length as or exserted from the sepals, long (0.3–0.5 mm) hairs at the margin extending to the same length as the sepals, otherwise glabrous; ovary ellipsoid, pilose, style lateral, distinct, stigmas 3–6. Infructescences 2–10 cm long; fruiting pedicels c. 1 mm long, pilose. Fruits bean-shaped to lenticular, laterally compressed, basally asymmetrical, with a distinctly lateral style, 3–4(–8) by 2.5–3(–9) mm, glabrous to sparsely pilose, white-pustulate, areolate or reticulate when dry.

    Note — Merrill (1918: 219–220) reduced this species to Antidesma spicatum Blanco, but did not cite any original material. He selected two “illustrative specimens” of Antidesma edule for his Species Blancoanae (nos. 718 & 915) to represent Antidesma spicatum. As this term is not equivalent to the term “type” in the sense of Art. 7.11. (Greuter et al. 2000), this did not effect neotypification. There are several inconsistencies between Blanco’s description and the types of Antidesma edule. The name may well represent Antidesma ghaesembilla, as Pax & Hoffmann (1922: 155) suggested with reference to Index Kewensis. As Merrill gave no satisfactory proof that Blanco’s species is identical with Antidesma edule, the latter name is used here, and Antidesma spicatum treated as incompletely known until original material is found.

 

16a. var. edule

 

    Antidesma edule Merr. var. edule: Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 106, Map 13.

 

Tree, up to 13 m, diameter up to 30 cm. Leaves: petioles basally and distally sometimes slightly pulvinate, (5–)10–20(–30) by 1.5–2(–3) mm, pilose to pubescent; blades elliptic to ovate, thinly chartaceous to coriaceous, glabrous to sparsely pilose all over and pubescent along the major veins adaxially, pubescent all over abaxially. Staminate inflorescences 3–10 cm long, consisting of 7–25 branches. Pistillate inflorescences consisting of 2–25 branches. Fruits bean-shaped to obliquely lenticular, 3–4(–6) by 2.5–3(–4) mm, glabrous to sparsely pilose.

 

    Distribution — Philippines: Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Polillo, Samar.

   Habitat & Ecology — In mixed lowland to hill forest; sometimes in damp forests by streams. On rocky volcanic/ultrabasic soil. Altitude: 70–400 m.

    Use — The fruits are edible.

    Vernacular names — Apanaug (Waray waray); Tanigi (T., Pamp.).

 

16b. var. apoense Petra Hoffm.

 

    Antidesma edule Merr. var. apoense Petra Hoffm., Kew Bull. 54 (1999) 350; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 107, Fig. 11, Map 13. — Type: Co 3142 (A), Philippines, Mindanao, North Cotabato prov., Kidapawan municipality, Mt Apo Geothermal Project Site B, 7°05'N, 125°14'E.

 

Tree, up to 20 m. Leaves: petioles not pulvinate, 4–12 by 1.2–1.8 mm, pilose, soon becoming glabrous and rugose; blades elliptic to obovate, thickly coriaceous, glabrous, or sparsely pilose only at the base of the midvein adaxially and along the midvein abaxially. Staminate inflorescences (only young inflorescences seen) up to 3 cm long, consisting of up to 7 branches, sometimes in fascicles of 2–3 inflorescences. Pistillate inflorescences simple. Flowers not known. Fruits lenticular, slightly wider than long, 6–8 by 7–9 mm, glabrous.

    Distribution — Philippines, Mindanao. 

    Habitat & Ecology — In montane forest with average canopy height of c. 20 m. Altitude: 1400 m.

 

17. Antidesma elbertii Petra Hoffm.

 

    Antidesma elbertii Petra Hoffm., Kew Bull. 54 (1999) 352; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 109, Fig. 12, Map 13. — Type: Elbert 3139 (L), Southeastern Sulawesi, Landschaft Rumbia, Lawankudu Fluss.

 

Shrub or treelet, up to 9 m, diameter up to 7 cm; young twigs terete, densely ochraceous spreading-hirsute, brown. Bark dark purplish, thin; wood very hard, sapwood white, heartwood very dark red. Stipules persistent, linear to narrowly deltoid, 3–7 by 0.5–1.2 mm, densely hirsute. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, 3–8 by 1–2 mm, densely spreading-hirsute; blades oblong, oblong-ovate or elliptic, (5–)9–13(–20) by (2.5–)3.5–5(–7) cm, length/width ratio (1.8–)2.5–3(–3.8), eglandular, membranaceous to chartaceous, basally acute to rounded, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous except along the major veins, more rarely pilose all over adaxially, spreading-hirsute all over abaxially, especially along the veins, shiny to dull adaxially, dull to moderately shiny abaxially, midvein impressed adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate to weakly percurrent, usually widely spaced, drying olive-green, greyish or dark reddish green, lighter abaxially. Staminate inflorescences 4–6 cm long, axillary, simple or once-branched, axes spreading-hirsute; bracts elliptic, 0.5–0.7 by 0.2–0.3 mm, hirsute, margin sometimes glandular. Staminate flowers 2–3 by c. 2 mm; pedicels 0.2–1 mm long, not articulated, glabrous to pilose; calyx 0.8–1 by 0.8–1 mm, conical, sepals 4, fused for 1/3–2/3 of their length, deltoid, apically acute, hirsute outside, glabrous inside, margin fimbriate to almost lacerate, sometimes glandular; disc cushion-shaped, enclosing the bases of the filaments (deeply inserted) and pistillode (shallowly inserted), 0.7–0.8 by 0.7–0.8 mm, constricted at the base, glabrous at the sides, whitish-pubescent to sparsely pilose apically, hairs 0.2–0.3 mm long, extending to the length of the pistillode; stamens 4, 2–2.5 mm long, exserted 1.5–2 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.3–0.5 by 0.3–0.5 mm; pistillode obconical to cylindrical, slightly crateriform apically, c. 0.3 by 0.2–0.3 mm, exserted from the sepals, pilose. Pistillate inflorescences (4–)7–8 cm long, cauline to terminal, simple, more rarely once-branched (consisting of up to 6 branches in s. coll. CEL/III32), axes c. 1.2 mm wide, spreading-hirsute; bracts narrowly deltoid, 0.7–1 by 0.2–0.5 mm, spreading-hirsute. Pistillate flowers 2–3 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicels 0.2–0.5 mm long, spreading-hirsute; calyx c. 1 by 1.5–2 mm, sepals 4–5, free to fused for up to half of their length (then calyx conical), c. 0.5 mm wide, deltoid to semiorbicular, apically acute to rounded, hirsute outside, glabrous inside but with long hairs at the base, margin entire to erose, sometimes glandular-fimbriate; disc shorter than the sepals, glabrous or sparsely hirsute; ovary globose to lenticular, spreading-hirsute, style lateral to subterminal, thin, very distinct, stigmas 3–6, c. 0.5 mm long, not particularly thin. Infructescences (4–)8–23 cm long (in s. coll. CEL/III-32: 2–3 cm long), axes 1–2 mm wide; fruiting pedicels 1–3 mm long, spreading-hirsute. Fruits lenticular to ellipsoid, often distinctly (c. 2 mm long) beaked, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical to slightly asymmetrical, with a lateral style, 6–8 by 4–6 mm, spreading-pilose to nearly glabrous, usually conspicuously and coarsely white-pustulate, reticulate when dry.

    Distribution — Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Islands (Sumbawa) and Moluccas (Bacan Island).

    Habitat & Ecology — In forests up to 60 m tall in river valleys; often in damp places; in primary to disturbed vegetation. On deep clayey soil derived from granite, coralline limestone and volcanic sand. Altitude: 20–1150 m.

    Vernacular names — Sulawesi: Maitam bokas.

 

18. Antidesma excavatum Miq.

 

    Antidesma excavatum Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavum 1 (1864) 218; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 112, Fig. 5d-f, Map 14. —  Type: Teijsmann HB 5589 (U holo; iso: BO), Sulawesi, Menado distr.

 

Tree, rarely shrub, up to 25 m, clear bole up to 11 m, diameter up to 50 cm, bole crooked or straight, sometimes twisted, sometimes with more than one stem; thick, equal buttresses of 7.5 cm reported from the Solomon Islands (BSIP (Mauriasi) 8807); young twigs terete, pilose to tomentose, medium to light brown. Bark brown, grey, greyish green, reddish brown, yellow-brown, fawn or white, smooth or rough, flaky or ± deeply vertically fissured, fibrous, often pustular or warty, soft; inner bark green-white, green, pink, red, reddish brown, orange brown, brown, dark red, straw or cream, 6–12 mm thick, weakly and short-fibrous; clear, white or yellowish exudate reported by some collectors; sapwood white, yellow, straw or reddish; heartwood pink, dark pink, red-brown or brown, hard (some collectors report soft slash wood) and dense, fine-grained, dense fine medullary rays, minute pores in short radial chains. Stipules early-caducous, linear to narrowly deltoid, apically acute, 1.5–6 by 0.4–1 mm, pubescent. Leaves: petioles flat to channelled adaxially, (2–)6–20(–30) by 1–2(–3) mm, basally and distally sometimes pulvinate and geniculate for up to 10 mm, pubescent to glabrous; blades elliptic, more rarely oblong, ovate or slightly obovate, (5–)10–15(–30) by (2–)4–6(–13.5) cm, length/width ratio (1.5–)2.5–3(–5), eglandular, chartaceous to coriaceous, basally acute to rounded, often decurrent (“pseudo-petiole”), very rarely truncate or subcordate, apically acuminate-mucronate, more rarely with a slightly retuse apiculum, glabrous or pubescent only along the major veins adaxially, glabrous to pubescent abaxially, shiny adaxially, shiny or dull abaxially, major veins flat to impressed adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate to percurrent, usually widely spaced, drying olive-green, sometimes more reddish brown abaxially, more rarely greyish-green, domatia present. Staminate inflorescences 2–12 cm long, axillary, consisting of 2–5(–10) branches, more rarely simple, robust, axes pilose to pubescent; bracts deltoid to orbicular, 0.5–1.2 by 0.3–0.6 mm, apically acute to rounded, glabrous to pubescent, margin slightly erose. Staminate flowers 1.5–2 by 1– 2 mm; pedicel absent; calyx 0.5–0.8 by 0.8–1.2 mm, cupular to globose or bowl-shaped with a truncate base, sepals usually 4, fused for 2/3–4/5 of their length, usually deltoid, apically obtuse to acute, sinuses usually wide, rounded, glabrous to very shortly pilose on both sides, glabrous inside, margin fimbriate to entire; disc extrastaminal-annular, more or less lobed, lobes pointing inwards, sometimes appearing cushion-shaped, exserted from or extending to the same length as the sepals, constricted at the base, glabrous at the sides, ferrugineous- to ochraceous-pubescent apically; stamens 3–4, 1–1.7 mm long, exserted 0.5–1 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.2–0.3(–0.5) by 0.3–0.4(–0.7) mm; pistillode subulate, more rarely clavate, 0.4–1 by 0.1–0.5 mm, extending to the same length or exserted from the sepals, ferrugineous- to ochraceous-pubescent to ochraceous-pilose. Pistillate inflorescences 2–7(–17) cm long, axillary, but often aggregated at the end of the branch, branched regularly, consisting of 2–7(–11) branches, more rarely simple, sometimes in fascicles of 2–3 inflorescences, axes glabrous to pubescent; bracts deltoid to orbicular, 0.4–0.8 by 0.3–0.6 mm, apically acute to rounded, pilose, margin erose. Pistillate flowers 1.5–2.5 by 1–2 mm; pedicels 0.2–1 mm long, glabrous to pubescent; calyx 0.5–1 by (0.5–)1–2 mm, bowl-shaped, more rarely cupular, sepals 3–5, fused for 2/3–4/5 of their length, erect, usually deltoid, often unequal, apically obtuse to acute, sinuses wide, rounded, glabrous to pubescent outside, glabrous inside, margin erose or entire, slightly fimbriate; disc exserted from or extending to the same length as, in fruit sometimes slightly shorter than the sepals, ochraceous- to ferrugineous-tomentose at the margin, indumentum usually exserted from the sepals; ovary lenticular, glabrous to tomentose, style lateral, stigmas (3–)4–6, sometimes long, thick, irregularly fused. Infructescences 4–7(–17) cm long; fruiting pedicels 0.5–3(–5) mm long, glabrous to pubescent. Fruits lenticular, more rarely bean-shaped, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical or asymmetrical, with a distinctly lateral style, 3–8(–15) by 3–6(–10) mm, pilose to glabrous, sometimes white-pustulate, areolate or fleshy when dry.

    Notes — 1. The name Antidesma excavatum was treated as a synonym of Antidesma celebicum by Pax & Hoffmann (in Engl., Planzenr. IV.147.xv, 1922: 129), who followed the observations of Mόller (in DC., Prodr. 15, 2, 1866: 256). The type of Antidesma excavatum in the Miquel Herbarium in Utrecht was probably not consulted by Airy Shaw, and the name Antidesma excavatum is not included in his account on Central Malesia (Kew Bull. 37, 1982: 5–7) or on New Guinea (Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8, 1980a: 208–219).

    2. A very variable species, especially in size and indumentum of all parts. This includes the abaxial leaf indumentum which Airy Shaw used (l.c. 1980a: 209–210) to distinguish between four species, all of which are here treated under Antidesma excavatum. There are transitions from completely glabrous leaves to a dense indumentum all over the abaxial leaf surfaces. However, as the latter occurs only in New Guinea, these plants are here recognised as var. indutum.

    3. Leaf shape is also extremely variable and although some forms are rather conspicuous, they intergrade too much with the typical forms to be recognised as distinct taxa. This includes the large- and narrow-leaved forms described as Antidesma tagulae and Antidesma katikii as well as the forms with very small, coriaceous leaves with only 3–6 pairs of secondary veins from Rossel Island, Louisiade Archipelago (e.g., Brass 28430, LAE (Katik) 70937).

    4. Another name to be subsumed here is Antidesma sphaerocarpum. The only differential character given by Airy Shaw (l.c. 1980a: 209–210, 218) is the length of the petioles: under 1.5 cm for Antidesma moluccanum, Antidesma olivaceum and Antidesma polyanthum (here all synonyms of Antidesma excavatum), and 1.5– 3 cm for Antidesma sphaerocarpum in the key, but 1–3 cm for the latter species in the description on p. 218. The petioles of the type of Antidesma excavatum are 10–13 mm long and the range of the petiole length on Samoa is (7–)13–23(–30) mm.

    5. The leaf domatia in Antidesma excavatum and Antidesma celebicum from Sulawesi are glabrous, whereas those in Antidesma excavatum from New Guinea are usually covered with hairs. The infructescences sometimes bear characteristic clavate galls 0.5–2 by 0.2–0.4 cm in size (e.g., Robinson 1799 (A, BM, K, L), Kostermans 1658 (A, K, L)).

 

18a. var. excavatum

 

    Antidesma excavatum Miq. var. excavatum: Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 114, Fig. 5d-f, Map 14.

    Antidesma sphaerocarpum Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 255; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 28 (1973) 276; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 218. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Herb. U.S. Explor. Expedition, Capt. Wilkes (G-DC [microfiche], holo; iso: K), insulis Archipelagi Samoa juxta Fidji Ins.

    Antidesma polyanthum K.Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Schutzgeb. Sόdsee (1900) 392; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 112, fig. 12 B, F; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 217. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Lauterbach 102 (WRSL), Bismarck-Archipel, Neu-Lauenburg-Gruppe, Insel Kerawara.

    Antidesma oligonervium Lauterb. in K.Schum. & Lauterb., Nachtr. Fl. Schutzgeb. Sόdsee (1905) 294; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 216 ('oligoneurum'). — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Schlechter 14311 (WRSL, holo; iso: BM, BO, K, P), New Guinea, Kaiser Wilhelmsland, Torricelli-Gebirge.

    Antidesma warburgii K.Schum. in K.Schum. & Lauterb., Nachtr. Fl. Schutzgeb. Sόdsee (1905): 293. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Lauterbach 1434 (WRSL), Neu Guinea, Kaiser Wilhelmsland, bei Finschhafen.

    Antidesma novoguineense Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 153; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 215. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Ledermann 9415 (B, holo; iso: L), Neu Guinea, Kaiser Wilhelmsland, Etappenberg.

    Antidesma kusaiense Kaneh., Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 46 (1932) 456. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Kanehira 1325 (NY, holo; iso: US), Caroline Islands, Kusai.

    Antidesma moluccanum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 284; Kew Bull. 28 (1973) 276; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 214. —  Type: Kostermans 624 (K, holo; iso: A, L), Moluccas, Morotai, Totodoku.

    Antidesma sarcocarpum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 288; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 218. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Brass 3677 (K, holo; iso: A, NY, US), Papua New Guinea, Central Division, Rona, Laloki R.

    Antidesma tagulae Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 289; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 218. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Brass 27947 (K, holo; iso: A, L, US), Louisiade Arch., Sudest Island (Tagula), Mt Riu, west slopes.

    Antidesma katikii Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 28 (1973) 278; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 214. —  Type: NGF (Coode & Katik) 32762 (K, holo; iso: A, CANB, L), New Guinea.

    Antidesma boridiense Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 33 (1978) 16; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 210. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Carr 14942 (K, holo; iso: A, CANB, BM, K, L, NY), Papua New Guinea, Boridi.

    Antidesma orarium Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 33 (1978) 17; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 216. —  Type: Jacobs 9587 (L, holo; iso: US), North-eastern New Guinea, Morobe Distr., south-east of Lae, on the coast, opposite Lasanga Island, 147°10'E, 07°25'S.

    Antidesma pseudopetiolatum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 33 (1979) 423; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 217 —  Type: BW (Versteegh) 3824 (K, holo; iso: L), Indonesia: Papua, subdistr. Hollandia, “Dok II”.

    Antidesma hylandii Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 636. —  Type:  Hyland 10265 (K, holo; iso: CANB, KEP, L, MEL), Australia, Queensland, Cook distr., Cape York Peninsula, between Lockerbie and Somerset, 10°47'S, 142°31'E.

 

Tree, rarely shrub, up to 25 m, clear bole up to 11 m, reported to be a climber on some specimen labels; young twigs shortly pilose. Bark 1–8 mm thick, outer bark 0.2 mm thick. Stipules 1.5–3 by 0.4–0.7 mm. Leaves: petioles shortly pubescent to glabrous; blades glabrous, sometimes some short bristly hairs at the base of the midvein and in the axils between midvein and secondary veins abaxially, shiny on both surfaces. Bracts broadly elliptic to orbicular, c. 0.5 by 0.5–0.6 mm, apically obtuse to rounded, glabrous to pilose. Staminate sepals glabrous or rarely pilose outside. Ovary pilose to glabrous, rarely tomentose. Fruiting pedicels glabrous to spreading-pilose. Fruits sparsely pilose to glabrous.

    Distribution — This is the most widespread Eastern Malesian species: Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea incl. Bismarck and Louisiade Archipelagos, Solomon Islands, Australia (Queensland, Cape York Peninsula), Caroline Islands (Kusaie), Fiji (Rotuma Islands), Wallis & Futuna Islands, Samoa. Its occurrence in Borneo and the Philippines is somewhat doubtful. Only one collection is known from Borneo: East Kalimantan, Berau, 1°30'N, 117°20'E, Kato, Okamoto & Ueda B-11736 (L). There are three collections from the Philippines: BS (Ramos & Edaρo) 39026 from Mindanao is the only typical specimen; BS (Barbos) 24836 and BS (Ramos) 33057 from Luzon are doubtful. New Caledonia has a distinct, endemic species, Antidesma messianianum.

    Habitat & Ecology — In (rain) forest, associated with Anisoptera, Araucaria, Calophyllum, Castanopsis, Cunoniaceae, Eucalyptopsis, Eugenia, Hopea, Melaleuca, Quercus, Semecarpus and Vatica; Agathis forest; low shrubby forest; coastal plain forest; gallery forest; sometimes on alluvial, swampy or seasonally flooded ground; on grassland; in mangrove forest with Bruguiera, Rhizophora, Sonneratia, Xylocarpus; at  back of beaches, associated with Pandanus and Cocos; on coral shores; on an extinct volcano; on semi-cultivated and cultivated land; in lowland to mid-montane, primary or secondary vegetation. On white sand, sandy loam soil, alluvial soil derived from granite, volcanic and ultrabasic soil, limestone rock. Altitude: sea level lup to 3600 m.

    Uses — The fruits are eaten; they are said to make a good jam and yield a purple dye. Antidesma excavatum seems to be cultivated as a minor fruit tree in eastern Malesia (similar to Antidesma bunius in western Malesia) which means that there may have been a certain amount of dispersal by humans. The wood is used for construction, posts, taro planting and digging sticks (does not blunt easily), bird hide sites and firewood. Wasku people in New Guinea use it to extract sago from the palm trunk prior to washing.

    Vernacular names — Sulawesi: Hikulu (Besoa). New Guinea: Irian Jaya: Adap (Papua); Kawian kek, Tefan kek; Papua New Guinea: Agor (Wanigela, Onjob, Koreaf), Agoro (Onjob, Naukwate, Minufia), As imendal (Mianmin), Babe (Kabuli) or Babi (Lessau), Domu (R), Eta-kanki’pe, Gira, Gitapo (Wario), Hinuha, Ipeipa (Mekeo), Katechomi (Mbuke), Kupuki, Miel (Wagu), Pipen (Kurte), Sigoreh (Orokaiva), Sisila (Baruga), Sisira (Mambare and Minufia), Tue tue, Uluwinik (Waskuk).

    Notes — 1. Besides the type of former Antidesma tagulae, there is one very similar collection from Tagula (LAE (Katik et al.) 70851) and one from Maipa, Central province (Darbyshire 933). These collections have long, narrow leaves (19–22 by 3.5–6.5 cm, 4–5 times as long as wide) and long, unbranched to once-branched inflorescences. Leaf shape and habitat information indicates a mildly rheophytic ecology, but more material is be needed to establish this. The leaf shape in Antidesma excavatum is extremely variable, and all intermediates from the typical, elliptic leaves to ovate and elliptic-elongate leaves can be observed without correlation to other morphological characters, ecology or geography. See also next note.

    2. Former Antidesma katikii is known only from the type collection which has long, narrow leaves (13–23 by 5– 6 cm, 3–5 times as long as wide), but is Antidesma excavatum in all other respects. The specimen bridges the gap between Antidesma tagulae and typical Antidesma excavatum with respect to leaf shape and size, but the infructescence is robust and branched as in typical Antidesma excavatum.

 

18b. var. indutum (Airy Shaw) Petra Hoffm.

 

    Antidesma excavatum Miq. var. indutum (Airy Shaw) Petra Hoffm., Kew Bull. 54 (1999) 355; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 119, Map 14. — Antidesma moluccanum Airy Shaw var. indutum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 33: 16 (1978); Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 215. — Type: Hoogland 8977 (K, holo; iso: A, CANB, L), North-eastern New Guinea, Morobe Distr., Huon Peninsula, between Masba Creek and Pependango, 3 km south of Pindiu.

    Antidesma olivaceum K.Schum. in K.Schum. & Hollrung, Fl. Kais. Wilh. Land (1889) 76; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 216. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 1999): Hollrung 757 (WRSL, holo; iso: BO, K, L, MEL, P), New Guinea, Kaiser Wilhelmsland, Lagerberg der 2. Augusta-Station.

 

Tree, rarely shrub (fide NGF 35125: woody vine), up to 17 m, clear bole up to 8 m, diameter up to 38 cm, crooked or straight, sometimes twisted; young twigs pale yellow to ferrugineous-tomentose. Bark 5–8 mm thick, outer bark c. 1 mm thick. Stipules 4–6 by 0.7–1 mm. Leaves: petioles densely pubescent; blades glabrous except for the pubescent major veins, more rarely sparsely pilose all over adaxially, ochraceous- to ferrugineous-pubescent all over abaxially, dull or shiny adaxially, dull abaxially. Bracts deltoid to elliptic, 0.8–1.2 by 0.3–0.5 mm, apically acute, pubescent. Staminate sepals sparsely pilose to pubescent outside. Ovary tomentose to pilose. Fruiting pedicels ochraceous- to ferrugineous-pubescent. Fruits pilose.

    Distribution — Moluccas (Aru Islands only), New Guinea, Solomon Islands.

    Habitat & Ecology — In (rain) forest, associated with Ficus, Hopea, Pometia and Syzygium; on river banks; in beach rain forest; in gardens; sometimes on swampy ground; in primary and secondary vegetation. On sand and clay over limestone. Alitude: sea level up to 1700 m.

    Uses — See under var. excavatum.

    Vernacular names — Moluccas: Kwada atam. New Guinea: Irian Jaya: Kabiu (Amberbaken), Pukepga (Manikiong), Wohhoika; Papua New Guinea: Banamih’van (Asengseng), Kamia (Kukukuku, Tauri), La malas tititili (W. Nakanai), Samanga (Waskuk); New Britain: Range biara (Garumaia).

 

19. Antidesma ferrugineum Airy Shaw

 

    Antidesma ferrugineum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 462; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 213; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 120, Map 9. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): NGF (Millar) 23458 (K, holo; iso: A, L), New Guinea, Morobe distr., Wagau, 6°50'S, 146°50'E.

 

Shrub or tree, up to 6 m; young twigs terete, ferrugineous-pubescent, brown. Stipules early-caducous, linear to deltoid, 2–4 by 0.5–1.5 mm, apically acute, ferrugineous-tomentose to glabrous. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, 7–18 by 1–2 mm, basally and distally sometimes slightly pulvinate and geniculate, ferrugineous-tomentose to glabrous; blades elliptic to ovate, 7–13.5 by 3–7.7 cm, length/width ratio 1.6–3.1, eglandular, chartaceous, basally acute to rounded, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous except for the pubescent major veins adaxially, ferrugineous-pubescent all over abaxially (NGF 29932 glabrous except for the sparsely puberulent midvein on both surfaces), dull on both surfaces, major veins impressed adaxially, tertiary veins percurrent to reticulate, drying olive-green to reddish brown, lighter abaxially. Staminate inflorescences 2–7 cm long, axillary, sometimes cauline, consisting of 2–11 branches, sometimes in fascicles of 2 inflorescences, axes densely ferrugineous-tomentose; bracts ovate to elliptic, 1–1.2 by 0.5–1 mm, apically acute to rounded, pubescent. Staminate flowers c. 2 by 2 mm; pedicels (0.5–)1–2 mm long, not articulated, glabrous to sparsely pilose; calyx 0.5–1 by 1–1.5 mm, cupular with a truncate base, sepals usually 5, fused for 2/3–4/5 of their length, sometimes hard to make out individually, apically usually acute, sinuses rounded to acute, glabrous to pilose outside, glabrous inside, margin erose; disc extrastaminal-annular, more or less lobed, extending to the same length as the sepals, glabrous at the sides, pubescent apically; stamens 3–4(–5), 1.5–1.8 mm long, exserted 1–1.2 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.2–0.4 by 0.4–0.7 mm; pistillode subulate to cylindrical, 0.3–0.6 by 0.1–0.3 mm, exserted from the sepals, pubescent. Pistillate inflorescences axillary or terminal, branched regularly, consisting of 2–20 branches, sometimes in fascicles of 2 inflorescences, axes densely ferrugineous-tomentose; bracts deltoid to linear, 0.7–1 by c. 0.5 mm, ferrugineous-pubescent. Pistillate flowers not known; calyx in fruit c. 1 by 1–1.5 mm, campanulate with a truncate base, sepals 4–6, fused for 1/2–2/3 of their length, deltoid, apically acute, pilose to glabrous outside, glabrous inside, margin erose or entire, fimbriate; disc shorter than the sepals, ferrugineous-tomentose at the margin, indumentum not exserted from the sepals; stigmas 4 or 5. Infructescences 2–8 cm long; fruiting pedicels 0.2–1.5 by c. 0.3 mm, ferrugineous-pilose. Fruits lenticular to almost bean-shaped, laterally compressed, basally asymmetrical, with a distinctly lateral style, 2.5–3.5 by 2–3 mm, pilose, white-pustulate, areolate when dry.

    Distribution — Papua New Guinea: Eastern Highlands and Morobe provinces.

    Habitat & Ecology — In (disturbed) rain forest. Altitude: 1300–2000 m.

    Vernacular names — Abuk - possum food; Ikabin (Fore).

 

20. Antidesma forbesii Pax & K.Hoffm.

 

    Antidesma forbesii Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 153; Petra Hoffm.in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 64; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 122, Map 15. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Forbes 1972 (BM, holo; iso: L), Sumatra.

    Antidesma plagiorrhynchum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 28 (1973) 272; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 356, fig. C12, 363. —  Type: Beccari PS 55 (K, holo; iso: BM, L, MEL), Sumatra, West Coast Res., Padangsche Bovenlanden, Mt Singalan.

    Antidesma pradoshii Chakrab. & Gang., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 21 (1997) 479–480, fig. 1. — Type: Forbes 2451 (CAL (herb. acc. no. 407806), holo; iso: BM, CAL (herb. acc. no. 407807), L), Sumatra, W. Paue.

 

Treelet, up to 8(–12.5) m, diameter 8(–15.6) cm; young twigs terete, glabrous to puberulent, first dark brown with conspicuous lenticels, then whitish to light grey. Stipules early-caducous, deltoid, apically acute, c. 1 by 0.5 mm, glabrous. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, (4–)6–17 by 0.5–1 mm, basally and, more so, distally often pulvinate and geniculate, pilose to puberulent; blades ovate to elliptic, (4.5–)6–11(–16) by (1.5–)2–4(–5.5) cm, length/width ratio 2.3–4.1, chartaceous to submembranaceous, basally acute to obtuse, apically acuminate-mucronate, with a rounded apiculum, glabrous, or pilose only along the midvein adaxially and/or abaxially, dull on both surfaces, midvein impressed adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, drying olive-green, lighter abaxially. Staminate inflorescences 2–4 cm long, axillary, simple or consisting of up to 4 branches, slender, axes pubescent; bracts elliptic, 0.4–0.5 by c. 0.4 mm, apically acute, pilose. Staminate flowers 1–1.5 by 1–2 mm; pedicel absent; calyx c. 0.5 by 0.8–1 mm, bowl-shaped, sepals 5, fused for 2/3 of their length, apically rounded, shortly pilose outside, glabrous inside but with long hairs at the base, margin hyaline, ciliate; disc consisting of 4–5 free alternistaminal lobes, lobes ± obconical, with two shallow imprints apically, c. 0.2 by 0.3 mm, extending to the same length as the sepals, glabrous; stamens 4 or 5, 1–1.5 mm long, exserted c. 0.5 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.2 by 0.3 mm; pistillode cylindrical, c. 0.8 by 0.3 mm, exserted from the sepals, pubescent. Pistillate inflorescences 2–5 cm long, axillary, simple, solitary or sometimes 2 per fascicle, axes shortly pubescent; bracts elliptic, c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm, pilose. Pistillate flowers c. 1.5 by 1.5 mm; pedicels 0.7–1.2 mm long, pilose; calyx c. 0.7 by 1 mm, cupular, sepals 4 or 5, fused for 1/2 or a little more of their length, apically rounded, pilose outside, glabrous inside but with long hairs at the base, margin fimbriate; disc shorter than the sepals, glabrous; ovary nearly globose, laterally compressed, glabrous to sparsely pilose, style lateral, thick, stigmas 3–6. Infructescences 5–11 cm long; fruiting pedicels 2–5 mm long, puberulent. Fruits roughly bean-shaped, with a ventral bulge, laterally compressed, basally asymmetrical, with a lateral style, 5–8 by 4–6 mm, glabrous to very sparsely pilose, usually white-pustulate, areolate or fleshy when dry.

    Distribution — Peninsular Thailand (one collection from Pangnga province), Peninsular Malaysia (only Cameron Highlands, Pahang), Sumatra.

    Habitat & Ecology —  In montane rain and mossy forest. On limestone (but very little geological data available). Altitude: 1000–1900 m.

    Vernacular name — Peninsular Malaysia: Mata pelanduk.

    Note — Soepadmo & Suhaimi s9 from the Cameron Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia with terminal infructescences, shorter calyx and fruits only 6 by 4 mm is included here doubtfully.

 

21. Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn.

 

    Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1 (1788)189, t. 39; Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 3(1) (1844–45) t. 820; Gagnep. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5 (1926) 505, fig. 64.11–19; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 211; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 213; Petra Hoffm. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 65; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 124, Fig. 13e-j, Map 16 (as map 15 on p. 126). — Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn. var. genuinum Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 251, nom. inval. — Lectotype (designated by Philcox in Dassan. & Clayton, Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 11, 1997: 276): Gaertner, Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1: t. 39.

    Antidesma pubescens Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 2 (1802): 35, pl. 167. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Icones Roxburghianae No. 108 (K).

    Antidesma paniculatum Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4, vol. 4.2 (1806) 764 (“paniculata”). — Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn. var. paniculatum (Willd.) Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 251. — Type: Roxburgh s.n. (B-W!, Cat. No. 18350), India orientalis.

    Antidesma vestitum C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1849) 232. — Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn. var. vestitum (C.Presl) Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 251. — Type: Cuming 986 (PRC, holo; iso: CGE, E, G, K, L, MEL, NY, TCD), Philippines, Luzon, Prov. Pangasanar.

 

Antighae-photo1.jpg (100202 bytes)    Antighae-photo2.jpg (47170 bytes)    Antighae-photo3.jpg (53765 bytes)

 

Shrub, treelet or tree, up to 20 m, clear bole up to 8 m, diameter up to 32 cm (SAN 30313: height 32 m, clear bole 24 m, diameter 33 cm), mostly crooked and gnarled, usually low-branched with dense crown (sometimes flat or umbrella-shaped); twigs greenish, brown, grey, young twigs sometimes pinkish; young twigs terete, pubescent, brown. Bark whitish, green, grey, brown, red-brown or almost black, smooth or rough, often vertically cracked or flaky, fibrous, soft, 2–6 mm thick; inner bark pink, pale green, yellow, brown or reddish brown, 10–12 mm thick, fibrous; purplish sap reported on Hartley 9877; cambium whitish; sapwood whitish, yellow or green-yellow, soft. Stipules early-caducous, subulate, 3–6 by 0.5–1 mm, pubescent. Leaves: petioles terete or narrowly channelled adaxially, 4–10(–17) by 0.7–1 mm, pubescent, becoming glabrous when old; blades oblong, rarely slightly ovate or obovate, (2–)4–7(–16) by (2–)3–4.5(–9) cm, length/width ratio (1–)1.3–1.7(–2.25), eglandular, chartaceous to coriaceous, basally rounded to cordate, very rarely acute, apically rounded, more rarely obtuse, very shortly acuminate, truncate or retuse, usually shortly mucronate, pubescent to glabrous, often only the major veins of both surfaces and the margin pubescent, dull or shiny adaxially, dull abaxially, midvein flat adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate to weakly percurrent, drying olive-green. Staminate inflorescences 4–8 cm long, axillary, consisting of 10–20 branches, axes ferrugineous-pubescent; bracts elliptic, c. 0.5–1 by 0.5 mm, pubescent. Staminate flowers 2–3 by 2–3 mm; pedicel absent; calyx 0.5–1 by c. 1.5 mm, sepals 4–6, free, deltoid to oblong, apically acute to obtuse, pubescent outside, more or less glabrous inside, margin entire; disc consisting of 4–6 free alternistaminal lobes, lobes ± obconical, well-separated from each other, c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm, pubescent; stamens 4 –6, c. 2 mm long, exserted 1–1.5 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm; pistillode obconical, c. 0.5 by 0.2–0.3 mm, extending to the same length or slightly exserted from the sepals, pubescent. Pistillate inflorescences 2–3 cm long, axillary, consisting of (1–)10–20 branches, axes ferrugineous-pubescent; bracts elliptic, 0.8 by 0.4 mm, pubescent. Pistillate flowers 1.5–2 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicels 0–1 mm long, pubescent; calyx c. 0.7 by 1–1.5 mm, sepals 5–6, free, deltoid, apically acute, pubescent outside, glabrous inside, margin entire; disc shorter than the sepals, glabrous to pubescent especially at the margin; ovary ovoid to globose, pubescent, style usually subterminal, glabrous, stigmas (2–)3(–5). Infructescences 4–7 cm long; fruiting pedicels 0–1 mm long, pubescent. Fruits lenticular, more rarely ellipsoid, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a terminal, more rarely subterminal style, 3–4(–5) by 2.5–3(–3.5) mm, pilose, areolate when dry.

    Distribution — India incl. Nicobar Islands, Sri Lanka, southern China (Hainan, Guangdong prov.), Bangladesh, Burma, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo (Kalimantan, Sabah), Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Islands, Moluccas, New Guinea, northern Australia.

    Habitat & Ecology — In savannah, grassland, open forest, dense scrubby forest and vine thickets; in fresh-water swamps, at the edge of mangrove, in coastal fringes; in secondary vegetation around human habitation (Malay: “belukar”); also in mixed evergreen or deciduous forest, associated with Bischofia, Dipterocarpaceae, Eucalyptus, Ficus, Grevillea, Macaranga, Quercus, Terminalia; in teak-forest in Java; along roadsides and river banks; on dry to swampy ground; usually in secondary vegetation. On clay, sand, lateritic soil, black peat, limestone; sometimes on ultrabasic soil; over shale and granite bedrock. Altitude: 0–1250 m.

    The label of the Kew specimen Hyland 7819 from Australia was annotated by Reid: “Rust is Crossopsora antidesmae-dioicae”.

    The plant occurs often in regularly burnt habitats and is said to be fire resistant (Gruθzo, PROSEA 2, 1991: 78; label of NGF 9809, see also under Antidesma rumphii in Dubious Species). In the 1920’s, the species escaped from the Botanic Gardens in Georgetown, British Guiana (now Guyana) and became a troublesome weed (for details see p. 12).

    Uses — The fruits are eaten locally. The wood is cheap but soft and splits when dried. It is nevertheless used for roof construction (Ridl., Bull. Kolon. Mus. 27, 1903: 92).

    Vernacular names — Malay Peninsula: Guncak or Cuncak. Sumatra: Banoton, Bohneh, Bohnei, Bungorak, Kucir, Mekremie, Monton, Tingiran puni. Java: Andi, Ki valot, Onjam, Sepat, Wuni dedek, Wuni jaran dawuk. Borneo: Sabah: Andarupis, Anjarubi, Anjuripes, Indarupis, Ondurupis, Tandurupis or Tendrupis (Dusun), Borotindik (Dusun), Dempul (Dusun), Guchek, Gunchin, Gunipot (Dusun), Kakapal (Bisaya). Philippines: Anyam, Arosep (Il.), Bananyo (Tagbanua), Barunasi, Baso-baso, Bignay-pugo, Binayuyo, Bignai-pogo, Bignayoyo (Tagbanua), Dangol, Grumun, Holat-baguis, Imian, Inang or Iniam, Kabogbog (Tagbanua). Lesser Sunda Islands: Kunfunu (Mollo), Luna, Piras, Wuler ku or Wuler satar. Moluccas: Babine igo, Bidara, Kutikata-gunung, O lalade (Tobelorese). New Guinea: Irian Jaya: Kwaik (Bian); Papua New Guinea: Fair (Wanigela), Sigoreh (Orokaiva), Sila, Tagi (Onjob).

    Note — The spelling of the epithet in the original publication of the name is twice “ghaesembilla” and twice “ghesaembilla”. As the name is derived from the vernacular name “Ghaesembilla”, it seemed best to follow current usage and Art. 60.1., Ex. 2 (Greuter et al. 2000: 92) and to adopt the former spelling.

 

22. Antidesma helferi Hook.f.

 

    Antidesma helferi Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 357; Petra Hoffm. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 66; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 129, Map 17. — Type: Helfer KD 4942 (K), Tenasserim (or Andaman Isl.).

    Antidesma pachystemon Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 279; Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 354, as synon. nov. — Type: Kerr 16928 (K, holo; iso: L), Thailand, peninsular region, Puket Circle, Kao Pawta Luang Kκo, Ranawng.

 

Shrub or tree, up to 20 cm, diameter up to 15 cm; twigs grey-white; young twigs terete to striate, glabrous or nearly so, light grey. Stipules caducous or persistent, rarely foliaceous (Geesink & Santisuk 5166 from Thailand), linear to obelliptic, 3–8(–20) by 0.5–1(–5) mm, apically acute, glabrous. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, 3–10 by (0.7–)1–2 mm, becoming rugose when old, sometimes sharply keeled abaxially, the keel not extending into the leaf blades, glabrous; blades elliptic, oblong or ovate, (5–)9–14(–19) by (2–)3.5–5.5(–7.5) cm, length/width ratio (1.9–)2.6(–4.3), eglandular, chartaceous to coriaceou, basally acute, sometimes decurrents, apically acute- or acuminate-mucronate, glabrous, shiny or dull on both surfaces, midvein flat to shallowly impressed adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, widely spaced (4–7 between every two secondary veins), drying greyish green to reddish brown, domatia absent. Staminate inflorescences 3–8 cm long, axillary to almost cauline, simple or once-branched at the base, axes pilose to glabrous; bracts deltoid to linear, 0.7–1.2 by 0.3–0.5 mm, pilose or glabrous. Staminate flowers 2–3 by 1.5–2 mm; pedicels 0–1 mm long, not articulated, pilose to glabrous; calyx 0.7–1 by 1.2–1.5 mm, sepals 4, fused for c. 1/3 of their length, 0.7–1 mm wide, apically rounded, pilose to glabrous outside, glabrous inside; disc cushion-shaped, enclosing the bases of the filaments and pistillode, pilose; stamens 4, 2–2.5 mm long, exserted 1.5–2 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.5–0.7 by 0.5–1 mm; pistillode conical or globose, 0.1–0.3 by 0.1–0.3 mm, shorter than the sepals, glabrous. Pistillate inflorescences 4–10 cm long, terminal, axillary or almost cauline, simple, rarely branched once or twice at the base, solitary or sometimes 2 per fascicle, axes spreading-pubescent to glabrous; bracts narrowly deltoid to linear, 0.5–1(–1.5) by 0.3–0.4 mm, pubescent to glabrous. Pistillate flowers 1.5–3 by 1.5–2 mm; pedicels 0–1 mm long, setulous; calyx 0.7–1.2 by 1.2–1.5 mm, sepals 4–5(–6), free or nearly so, 0.5–0.8 mm wide, orbicular to almost linear, apically rounded to acuminate, pilose to glabrous outside, glabrous inside, margin entire to erose; disc shorter than or extending to the same length as the sepals, setulous outside and at the margin; ovary ellipsoid to globose, sparsely to densely setulous, style subterminal to lateral, stigmas (2–)3–4, very (up to 1.5 mm) long. Infructescences 4–15 cm long; fruiting pedicels 0.5–2.5 mm long, glabrous to setulous. Fruits ellipsoid to lenticular, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical or asymmetrical, with a subterminal to lateral, rarely terminal style, 6–8 by 4–6 mm, glabrous to setulous, sometimes finely white-pustulate, often brick-red when dry, areolate or reticulate when dry.

    Distribution — Peninsular Burma, Peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Northern Sumatra.

    Habitat & Ecology — In primary evergreen or mossy forest; often near water or on marshy ground. On alluvial and greyish clay-mud soil. Altitude: 100–1300 m.

    Note — The specimens from Peninsular Malaysia and from Sumatra have larger, more elliptic, thinner and duller leaves than those from Burma and Thailand, whereas the floral and fruiting characters are uniform throughout the distribution area.

 

23. Antidesma heterophyllum Blume

 

    Antidesma heterophyllum Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826–27) 1123; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 132, Map 17. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Hb. Blume s.n., (L, herb. no. 910222-1244), North Java.

    Antidesma zippelii Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 6. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Zippelius 32/6 (L, herb. No. 910222-1193, holo; iso: L), Timor.

 

Shrub or tree, up to 8 m, diameter up to 6 cm; young twigs terete, shortly spreading-pilose to pubescent, brown. Stipules persistent, linear, 3–5(–10) by 0.5–1 mm, glabrous to pilose. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, 2–5(–10) by 1–1.5(–2) mm, pilose to pubescent; blades oblong, more rarely elliptic or obovate, (4–)10–15(–25) by (1.5 –)3–5(–8.5) cm, length/width ratio (2.1–)3.1(–4.6), eglandular, chartaceous to membranaceous, basally acute, more rarely obtuse to rounded, apically acuminate-mucronate to acute-mucronate, often with a rounded apiculum, glabrous, sometimes pilose only along the midvein, dull or shiny on both surfaces, midvein impressed adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate to weakly percurrent, widely spaced, rather oblique, quarternary and finer veins hardly prominent on either leaf surface in dry material, intersecondary veins not conspicuous, drying olive-green. Staminate inflorescences 3–5 cm long, axillary, simple or consisting of up to 10 branches, axes pilose to pubescent; bracts deltoid to linear, 0.3–1 by 0.3–0.5 mm, glabrous to pilose. Staminate flowers c. 2 by 1–2 mm; pedicels 0–2 mm long, not articulated, glabrous to pilose; calyx 0.5–0.7 mm long, sepals 3 or 4, free to fused for 1/2 of their length, deltoid to nearly orbicular, apically acuminate to rounded, glabrous outside, glabrous inside but sometimes with long hairs at the base, margin erose, sometimes glandular-fimbriate; disc cushion-shaped, hemispherical, fully enclosing the bases of the filaments and pistillode, often 3-lobed, glabrous; stamens 3 or 4, 1–1.5 mm long, exserted 1–1.5 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.3–0.4 by 0.3–0.4 mm; pistillode subulate to flat, 0.2 –0.5 by 0.1–0.2 mm, shorter than to exserted from the sepals, glabrous. Pistillate inflorescences 3–6 cm long, axillary, may be aggregated at the end of the branch, simple, more rarely consisting of up to 3 branches, axes pilose to pubescent; bracts deltoid to linear, 0.5–1.5 by 0.3–0.4 mm, glabrous to pilose, margin sometimes glandular-fimbriate. Pistillate flowers c. 2 by 1 mm; pedicels 0.5–1 mm long, spreading-pilose; calyx 0.5–0.8 mm long, sepals 3 or 4(5), free to fused for up to 1/2 of their length, deltoid to almost orbicular, apically acute to rounded, glabrous outside, glabrous inside but sometimes with long hairs at the base, margin glandular-fimbriate, erose or entire; disc shorter than the sepals, glabrous; ovary pyriform to globose, laterally compressed, glabrous, style subterminal to almost lateral, stigmas 3–5, rather long, sometimes irregularly fused. Infructescences 5–9 cm long; fruiting pedicels 1–3 mm long, glabrous to pilose. Fruits ellipsoid to lenticular, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical to slightly asymmetrical, with a terminal to slightly subterminal style, 5–7 by 4–6 mm, glabrous, rarely finely white-pustulate, areolate when dry.

    Distribution — Java, south-eastern Sulawesi (Binongko Island), Lesser Sunda Islands, Moluccas (Ambon, Manipa Island).

    Habitat & Ecology — In primary or secondary forest, thickets or dry shrubby heath forest (“kerangas”). On coral sand, sandy loam and limestone; andesite breccia. Altitude: 1–750 m.

    Use — Used as a remedy against toothache (Hasskarl, Aantek. nut Java, 1845: 71).

    Vernacular names — Hachunian or Huhunian (Sundanese), Seueur (Sundanese), Tamandilang. Hasskarl (l.c., 1845: 71): Kibangbara, Kitakketan, Kitjalikket.

    Note — Very close to Antidesma montanum. Staminate specimens can only tentatively be identified. Antidesma heterophyllum is confined to a coherent geographic area characterised by a drier and more seasonal climate than ever-wet western Malesia. Whether it is a good species or a mere ecological variant of Antidesma montanum cannot be answered by morphological analysis alone.

 

24. Antidesma japonicum Siebold & Zucc.

 

    Antidesma japonicum Siebold & Zucc., Abh. Math.-Phys. Cl. Kφnigl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 4(3) (1846) 212, repr. as Fl. Jap. Fam. Nat. 2 (1846) 88; Petra Hoffm in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 66; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 134, Map 18. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Siebold & Zuccarini s.n. (L, herb. No. 903154-234, holo; iso: L, LE?), Japan.

 

Shrub, treelet or tree, up to 5(–8) m, diameter up to 10 cm; young twigs terete, pubescent to pilose, brown. Stipules usually caducous, narrowly deltoid to subulate, 2–5 by 0.7–1 mm, apically acute, puberulent to pilose. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, 2–8 by 0.5–1.5 mm, basally and distally sometimes slightly pulvinate, pubescent to almost glabrous; blades narrowly elliptic-oblong to ovate or obovate, (3.5–)6–10(–13) by (1–)2–3.5(–4.7) cm, length/width ratio (1.2–)3(–4.4), eglandular, subcoriaceous to chartaceous, basally acute to rounded, apically acuminate-mucronate to acute-mucronate, sometimes caudate, glabrous, sometimes some hairs only along the midvein, shiny on both surfaces, midvein impressed to flat or distinctly raised adaxially, tertiary veins weakly percurrent in wider, reticulate in narrower leaves, widely spaced, tertiary veins and finer venation thin, inconspicuous, drying light olive- to greyish green. Staminate inflorescences 2–6 cm long, axillary, sometimes aggregated at the end of the branch, simple or consisting of up to 5 branches, slender, axes pilose; bracts deltoid to elliptic, 0.5–0.7(–1) by 0.3–0.5 mm, glabrous to pilose, margin often glandular-fimbriate. Staminate flowers 1–1.5 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicels (0.5–)1–1.5 mm long, not articulated, pilose; calyx 0.4–0.6 mm long, sepals 3–5, free, spreading, deltoid to elliptic, apically acute to rounded, glabrous outside and inside, margin erose; disc cushion-shaped, fully or partially enclosing the bases of the filaments and pistillode, glabrous; stamens 3–5, 1–2 mm long, fully exserted from the spreading sepals, anthers 0.3–0.5 by 0.3–0.5 mm; pistillode absent, flat, clavate, cylindrical or 3-fid, 0.1–0.5 by c. 0.2 mm, extending to the same length and blending into the disc to distinctly exserted from the disc, glabrous. Pistillate inflorescences 2–5 cm long, axillary to terminal, simple or branched once, rarely twice, axes nearly glabrous to puberulent; bracts deltoid to linear, 0.3–1 by 0.2–0.5 mm, apically acute, pubescent to almost glabrous, margin sometimes glandular-fimbriate. Pistillate flowers 1–1.5 by 1 mm; pedicels (0.5–)1–1.5 mm long, pilose; calyx 0.5–0.7 by c. 0.7 mm, sepals 3–5(–7), free, 0.3–0.5 mm wide, deltoid, apically acute to rounded, glabrous outside, glabrous inside but sometimes with long hairs at the base, margin entire to erose; disc much shorter than or extending to the same length as the sepals, glabrous; ovary fusiform to ellipsoid, glabrous, style terminal, stigmas 3–5. Infructescences 4–9 cm long; fruiting pedicels (0–)3–6 mm long, pilose to glabrous. Fruits ellipsoid to lenticular, laterally compressed, basally asymmetrical to slightly symmetrical, with a subterminal, rarely nearly terminal style, 5–6(–8) by 4–5(–6) mm, glabrous, rarely white-pustulate, areolate or fleshy when dry.

 

Only variety in Malesia:

 

24a. var. japonicum

 

    Antidesma japonicum Siebold & Zucc. var. japonicum: Petra Hoffm. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 67; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 135, Map 18.

    ?Antidesma gracillimum Gage, Rec. Bot. Surv. India 9 (1922) 227. —  Lectotype (designated by Chakrabarty & Gangopadhyay,  J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 21, 1997: 479): Wray 4064? (CAL, herb. acc. no. 409068, holo; iso: CAL), Malaysia, Perak, Gunong Inas.

    Antidesma acuminatissimum Quisumb. & Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 37 (1928) 159. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): BS (Ramos & Edaρo) 45189 (A, holo; iso: B, K, P, US), Philippines, Luzon, Tayabas Prov., Casiguran.

 

Leaves: petioles basally and distally sometimes pulvinate, 0.5–1 mm wide in the middle; blades (3.5–)6–10(–13) by (1–)2–3.5(–4.7) cm, midvein impressed to flat adaxially. Pistillate sepals apically acute. Infructescences slender; fruiting pedicels very thin, spreading, (2–)3–6 mm long.

    Distribution — Japan (Kyushu and Ryukyu Islands), Taiwan, southern China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Guangxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang provinces, not in Yunnan province), Burma (Tenasserim & Thaton distr.), Vietnam, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia (Kedah, Perak, Pahang), Philippines (Luzon, Mindanao).

    Habitat & Ecology — In (evergreen) forest; in virgin forest, dipterocarp forest and dry thickets; on limestone cliffs; along roadsides; in primary or secondary vegetation; on wet or dry ground. On sandy soil, clay, limestone, over granite bedrock. Altitude: sea level up to 1700 m.

    Use — Firewood.

    Notes — 1. Staminate flowers are often deformed throughout the distribution area, with irregularly fused filaments and aberrant anthers, similar to Antidesma digitaliforme.

    2. Antidesma gracillimum was subsumed under Antidesma japonicum by Airy Shaw (Kew Bull. 26, 1972: 354) and Whitmore (Tree Fl. Mal. 2, 1973: 57). The two syntypes Wray 3237 (in staminate bud) and Wray 2946 (in pistillate flower and young fruit) were examined for this revision and support this conclusion. Chakrabarty & Gangopadhyay (1997), however, maintained Antidesma gracillimum as a separate species on account of its sessile flowers as well as the subglobose, somewhat fleshy fruits, 4–5 mm in diameter with terminal or almost terminal styles. The lectotype chosen by Chakrabarty & Gangopadhyay could not be examined for this revision. It may, unlike the two original syntypes, not belong to Antidesma japonicum. From the description given by Chakrabarty & Gangopadhyay this is most likely to be the very similar Antidesma montanum Blume. In any event, the differential characters do not justify specific rank for Antidesma gracillimum.

 

25. Antidesma jucundum Airy Shaw

 

    Antidesma jucundum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 33 (1979) 426; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 213; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 138, Map 19. — Type: Pullen 8163 (K, holo; iso: B, CANB, L), Papua New Guinea, Central province, Abau subdistrict, Cape Rodney, 10°04'S, 148°32'E.

 

Shrub or tree, up to 4 m, with drooping branchlets; young twigs terete, very slender, long spreading-pubescent, brown. Stipules persistent, subulate, 2–6 by 0.1–0.5 mm, pilose. Leaves: petioles nearly terete to narrowly channelled adaxially, 1–3 by 0.5–1 mm, long spreading-pubescent; blades ovate, rarely elliptic, (2.2–)3–5(–6.5) by 1–3 cm, length/width ratio 1.7–3 times, eglandular, chartaceous, basally rounded to obtuse, more rarely acute, apically acuminate-to caudate-mucronate, with a rounded to retuse apiculum, glabrous except along the midvein, rarely pilose all over adaxially, long spreading-pilose all over abaxially, more densely so along the veins, shiny adaxially, dull abaxially, midvein impressed adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, drying olive-green, domatia absent. Staminate plants — see below under Antidesma cf. jucundum. Pistillate inflorescences c. 2.5 cm long, axillary, simple or once-branched, axes long spreading-pilose; bracts ovate, c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm, almost laciniate, long spreading-pilose. Pistillate flowers 1.5–2 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicels c. 0.5 mm long, long spreading-pilose; calyx c. 0.5 by 1 mm, bowl-shaped, with a truncate base, sepals 4, fused for 2/3–4/5 of their length, apically acute, sinuses wide, rounded, long spreading-pilose outside, glabrous inside, margin fimbriate to laciniate; disc extending to the same length as the sepals, long spreading-pilose at the margin, indumentum exserted from the sepals; ovary lenticular, long spreading-pilose, style lateral, stigmas 4–7, thin. Infructescences 1.5–4 cm long, axes c. 0.5 mm wide; fruiting pedicels 1–2 mm long, long spreading-pilose. Fruits lenticular, distinctly laterally compressed, basally symmetrical or asymmetrical, with a distinctly lateral style, 4–6 by 4–6 mm, long spreading-pilose, not white-pustulate, areolate when dry.

    Distribution — Papua New Guinea, Central and Milne Bay provinces; staminate paratype of doubtful affinity from Northern province, see below under Antidesma cf. jucundum.

    Habitat & Ecology — In mixed rainforest; in primary or disturbed vegetation. On grey-brown heavy soil over red clay, lateritic soil or riverine alluvium. Altitude: 10–200 m.

    Note — The long, spreading indumentum, slender habit and small, mainly ovate leaves make the collections cited by Airy Shaw in the protologue rather conspicuous. However, the pistillate flowers and fruits of the type are identical with those of Antidesma excavatum which is vegetatively so variable that it would hardly be justified to recognise a species on the basis of leaf shape and size alone. The only staminate paratype, on the other hand, has pedicellate flowers and a glabrous disc, both characters that are not observed in Antidesma excavatum. Airy Shaw included it only doubtfully because of its larger leaves and distant locality. For these reasons, Antidesma jucundum is maintained here until more material can be examined, but separate descriptions are given for the type and matching pistillate paratypes from the Central province and the possibly mis-matched staminate paratype from the Northern province.

 

Antidesma cf. jucundum

 

    Antidesma cf. jucundum: Staminate paratype: Hoogland 4621 (K, L, MEL, US), Papua New Guinea, Northern province, Tufi subdistrict, near Budi Barracks.

 

Bark grey-brown, 1 mm thick, thin-flaky, wood pinkish-straw; young twigs terete, very slender, spreading-pubescent, brown. Stipules persistent, subulate, 3–5 by 0.2–0.5 mm, pilose. Leaves: petioles nearly terete, 2–3 by c. 0.5 mm, spreading-pubescent; blades ovate, oblong or obovate, 6–8.5 by 1.5–3 cm, length/width ratio 2.3–3.5, eglandular, chartaceous, basally acute to obtuse, apically acuminate- to caudate-mucronate, with an acute apiculum, glabrous except along the midvein adaxially, spreading-pilose all over abaxially, more densely so along the veins, shiny adaxially, dull abaxially, midvein impressed adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, drying olive-green, domatia absent. Staminate inflorescences c. 2 cm long, axillary, simple, axes 0.2–0.3 mm wide, spreading-pubescent; bracts ovate, c. 1 by 0.2–0.3 mm, almost laciniate, spreading-pilose. Staminate flowers c. 2 by 1.5 mm; pedicels c. 1.5 mm long, not articulated, spreading-pilose; calyx c. 1 by 1.5 mm, bowl-shaped, sepals 4, fused for 1/2–3/4 of their length, irregularly shaped, apically usually rounded, spreading-pilose outside, glabrous inside, margin fimbriate to laciniate; disc extrastaminalannular, much shorter than the sepals, lobed towards the centre or lobes ± detached from the annular part of the disc, subulate and standing between the stamens, glabrous; stamens 4, c. 2 mm long, exserted c. 1 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.3 by 0.7 mm; pistillode subulate, c. 0.5 by 0.1–0.2 mm, distinctly exserted from the disc, extending to the same length as the sepals, sparsely pilose at the tip.

 

26. Antidesma kunstleri Gage

 

    Antidesma kunstleri Gage, Rec. Bot. Surv. India 9 (1922) 225; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 140, Map 20. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Ridley 2975 (SING), Malaysia, Perak, Maxwell’s Hill.

 

Shrub, 1.2 m; young twigs terete, spreading-ferrugineous-pilose, brown. Stipules persistent, foliaceous, ovate, 10–30 by 5–12 mm, basally asymmetrical, apically caudate, reticulately veined, pilose or glabrous. Leaves: petioles terete or channelled adaxially, 10–20 by 1–1.5 mm, basally and distally slightly pulvinate and geniculate, spreading-pilose or glabrous; blades oblong to slightly ovate or obovate, 13–21 by 3.5– 6.5 cm, length/width ratio 3–4, eglandular, subcoriaceous to chartaceous, basally obtuse to rounded, apically caudate-mucronate, glabrous adaxially, glabrous or pilose only along the midvein abaxially, shiny on both surfaces, midvein impressed to flat adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate to percurrent, drying olive-green. Staminate inflorescences (only young inflorescences seen) 2–3.5 cm long, axillary, simple, axes ochraceous-pubescent; bracts deltoid, c. 0.8 by 0.5 mm, ochraceous-pubescent. Buds sessile just before anthesis. Staminate flowers not known at anthesis; calyx in bud c. 0.8 mm long, sepals 4, fused only at the base, deltoid, apically acute, densely pilose outside, glabrous inside, margin entire; stamens 4; pistillode apparently present, probably hairy. Pistillate inflorescences 4–12 cm long, axillary, simple or once-branched, axes densely ferrugineous-pubescent; bracts elliptic, 0.7–1 by c. 0.5 mm, ferrugineous-pubescent. Pistillate flowers c. 2 by 1.5 mm; pedicels c. 0.5 mm long, pubescent; calyx c. 1.2 by 1.5 mm, sepals 4, fused only at the base, deltoid, apically acute, pubescent outside, glabrous inside but with long hairs at the base, margin entire; disc much shorter than the sepals, glabrous; ovary ellipsoid, glabrous or with few hairs, style subterminal, stigmas 6, rather regular. Fruits not known.

    Distribution — Peninsular Malaysia: Perak, only known from Maxwell’s Hill.

    Habitat & Ecology — In forest. Altitude: c. 1300 m.

 

27. Antidesma laurifolium Airy Shaw

 

    Antidesma laurifolium Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 356; Petra Hoffm. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 68; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 141, Map 20. — Type: Kerr 18012 (K, holo; iso: L), Thailand, Kao Sabap, Chantaburi (“Chantabun”).

 

Shrub or slender tree, up to 4 m; young twigs terete, glabrous, whitish grey or brown. Stipules caducous, linear, 4–10 by 0.5–1.5 mm, apically acute, ferrugineous-pilose, becoming glabrous. Leaves: petioles distinctly channelled adaxially, (4–)6–9 by 1–3 mm, glabrous; blades narrowly elliptic to oblong, 13–27 by 2.5–8 cm, length/width ratio 4–5.5, eglandular, coriaceous, basally acute, rarely obtuse, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous, shiny on both surfaces, major veins distinctly raised adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, widely spaced, drying greyish green to reddish brown adaxially, reddish to greyish abaxially. Staminate plants unknown. Pistillate inflorescences c. 3 cm long, axillary, simple, axes ferrugineous-pubescent; bracts ovate to deltoid, 0.3–0.7 by 0.3–0.5 mm, apically acute, shortly acuminate or obtuse, ferrugineous-pubescent. Pistillate flowers c. 1.5 by 1 mm; pedicel absent; calyx 0.7–0.8 by c. 1 mm, sepals 4 (sometimes an additional smaller sepal present), fused only at the base, 0.5–0.8 mm wide, apically acute, shortly acuminate or rounded, ferrugineous-pubescent outside, glabrous inside, margin fimbriate; disc shorter than the sepals, glabrous; ovary ellipsoid, appressed-pubescent, style terminal, stigmas 3–6. Infructescences 7–15 cm long; fruiting pedicels 0–1 mm long, glabrous to sparsely pilose. Fruits ellipsoid to slightly ovoid, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a terminal style, 8–11 by 5– 8 mm, pilose, not white-pustulate, reticulate when dry.

    Distribution — Cambodia (Kampot province), South-East Thailand (Chon Buri, Chanthaburi and Trat provinces) and Southern Peninsular Malaysia (Johore). The disjunction between the everwet Malay Peninsula and the slopes and foothills of the Cardamon mountains extending eastwards into Cambodia as well as to the islands off-shore has been described by Whitmore (Trop. Rain forests Far East, 1975: 164) for Diospyros hermaphroditica (Ebenaceae). This indicates the existence of small, isolated patches of true evergreen rain forest in the “Chantaburi pocket”, set in more seasonal forest.

    Habitat & Ecology — In evergreen forest and secondary growth. Altitude: sea level up to 600 m.

    Note — Erroneously published as “sp. nov.” a second time (Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26, 1972: 458).

 

28. Antidesma leucocladon Hook.f.

 

    Antidesma leucocladon Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 358; Petra Hoffm. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 68; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 143, Map 21. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): King’s collector [759] (K, holo; iso: BM), Malaysia, Perak, at Sunga Ryah.

 

Shrub or tree (Wray 2042: climber), up to 13 m, diameter up to 10 cm; young twigs terete to angular, glabrous or pilose and soon becoming glabrous, whitish grey. Stipules usually caducous, narrowly deltoid, 2–5(–10) by 0.5–1 mm, apically acute, pilose to glabrous. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, 2–8(–11) by 0.7–1.5 mm, pilose to glabrous; blades elliptic-oblong to ovate-oblong, (5–)8–15(–20) by (2–)3.1(–4.7) cm, length/width ratio (2–)3.1(–4.7), eglandular, membranaceous to chartaceous, basally acute to rounded, apically acuminate- to caudate-mucronate, glabrous, or pilose only along the midvein on both surfaces, shiny on both surfaces, midvein slightly raised to flat adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, widely spaced, drying olive-green to brownish. Staminate inflorescences 6–12 cm long, axillary, sometimes aggregated at the end of the branch, simple or once-branched, slender, axes shortly pubescent; bracts elliptic to linear, 0.5–1.2 by 0.2–0.3 mm, pilose to glabrous. Buds elongate-ellipsoid, widely spaced on inflorescence axes. Staminate flowers 2–3 by c. 2 mm; pedicel absent; calyx 0.6–0.8 by c. 1 mm, cupular to cylindrical, sepals 4, fused for 2/3–3/4 of their length, apically rounded, glabrous to sparsely pilose outside, glabrous inside, margin erose; disc consisting of 4 free alternistaminal lobes, lobes ± obconical, c. 0.3 by 0.5 mm, sometimes extrastaminally fused, hirsute; stamens 4, 2–2.5 mm long, exserted 1.5–2 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.4–0.5 by 0.4–0.5 mm; pistillode clavate to cylindrical, c. 0.8 by 0.3 mm, exserted 0.5 mm from the sepals, pilose, especially at the base. Pistillate inflorescences 4–10 cm long, axillary or terminal, simple or consisting of 1–2(–4) branches, axes shortly pubescent; bracts elliptic, 0.5–1 by c. 0.3 mm, apically acute, pilose. Pistillate flowers c. 2 by 1 mm; pedicels 1–1.5 mm long, relatively thick, shortly hirsute; calyx 0.5–0.8 by c. 1 mm, cylindrical to urceolate, sepals 4, fused for 2/3–3/4 of their length, apically broadly rounded to broadly acute, glabrous to shortly pilose outside, glabrous inside, sometimes long hairs at the base, margin erose; disc shorter than the sepals, shortly hirsute at the margin; ovary ovoid, appressed-hirsute, style terminal to subterminal, stigmas 3–5. Infructescences 7–10 cm long; fruiting pedicels 1–2.5 mm long, pubescent to pilose. Fruits ovoid to almost lens- or slightly bean-shaped, up to 2 mm long beaked, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a subterminal to lateral style, 10–11 by 6–7 mm, pilose to almost glabrous, sometimes white-pustulate, areolate to reticulate when dry.

    Distribution — Thailand (Peninsula and one collection from Southeast), Peninsular Malaysia, East Sumatra.

    Habitat & Ecology — In primary evergreen forest, sometimes along streams or in fresh water swamps. Altitude: sea level up to 800 m.

    Vernacular names — Malay Peninsula: Dada ruan; Gurusek puteh.

 

29. Antidesma leucopodum Miq.

 

    Antidesma leucopodum Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 465; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 212; Petra Hoffm. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 69. 2005; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 145, Fig. 18a-c, Map 22. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Teysmann HB 3816 (U, holo; iso: BO), Sumatra or., prov. Palembang, prope Muara-enim.

    Antidesma clementis Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 9 (1914) 465, non Merr. 1917. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): M.S. Clemens 884 (G), Philippines, Mindanao, Distr. Lanao, Camp Keithley.

    Antidesma cauliflorum W.W.Sm., Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 8 (1915) 316, non Merr. (1917). —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Haviland 730 [or 981/730] (K, holo; iso: BM, CGE, K, L, SAR), Borneo, Sarawak, near Kuching.

    Antidesma trunciflorum Merr., Bibl. Enum. Born. Pl. (1921) 333, nom. nov. — Antidesma cauliflorum Merr., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 76: 89 (1917), nom. illeg. (non W. W. Sm. 1915). —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006):  M.S. Clemens 10790 (A, photo of destroyed holotype ex PNH), Sabah, Mt Kinabalu, Gurulau Spur and Kiau.

    Antidesma hirtellum Ridl., Bull Misc. Inform., Kew 1923 (10) (1923) 366. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Ridley 9581 (K, holo; iso: SING), Malaysia, Perak, Bujong Malacca.

    Antidesma caudatum Pax & K.Hoffm., Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 7 (1931) 223. —  Type: Hans Winkler 210 (HBG, holo; iso: BO), West-Borneo, am Unterlauf des Serawei.

    Antidesma leucopodum Miq. var. kinabaluense Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 28 (1973) 273; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 213. —  Type: Chew & Corner RSNB 4067 (K, holo; iso: A, L, NY, SAR, US), Borneo, Sabah.

    Antidesma leucopodum Miq. var. platyphyllum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 28 (1973) 273; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 213. —  Type: Haviland & Hose 3263 (K, holoe; iso: SAR), Borneo, Sarawak, 4th Division, Baram.

 

Tree or treelet, rarely shrub, up to 30 m, clear bole up to 8 m, diameter up to 22 cm, usually straight, sometimes with more than one stem; twigs medium to whitish grey; young twigs terete to angular, pubescent to glabrous, brown. Bark white, greenish, brown, pale yellowish, c. 0.5 mm thick, smooth, sometimes scaly, papery or brittle, easily detaching; inner bark grey-white, greenish, yellow, brown, pink or red, 0.5–3 mm thick, fibrous, soft; cambium white, brownish or red; wood hard and dense; sapwood grey, white, cream, yellow, reddish or brown; heartwood reddish. Stipules usually persistent, sometimes almost foliaceous, linear to elliptic, slightly falcate, 8–17 by 1–3(–4) mm, apically acute, pubescent. Leaves: petioles 4-angular to slightly channelled adaxially, 2–7(–15) by 1.5–2.5(–4) mm, pubescent, becoming glabrous when old; blades oblong to narrowly elliptic, (7–)13–24(–50) by (2.5–)4–8(–15) cm, length/width ratio (2.1–)3.3(–6.6), eglandular, chartaceous to coriaceous, basally obtuse to rounded, more rarely acute or subcordate, apically caudate-mucronate, glabrous, or pilose only along the midvein adaxially, pilose all over abaxially, pubescent along the major veins, moderately shiny, usually with minute, regularly spaced white pustules adaxially, moderately shiny to dull abaxially, midvein impressed, secondary veins often raised adaxially, tertiary veins percurrent, close together (10–20 between every two secondary veins), prominent on both surfaces, drying olive-green to dark reddish brown adaxially, lighter abaxially. Staminate inflorescences (4–)15–24 cm long, cauline, very rarely axillary, simple or branched once or twice at the base, solitary or up to 10 per fascicle, axes pubescent; bracts deltoid, 0.5–0.7 by 0.4–0.5 mm, apically acute, pubescent. Staminate flowers 1.5–2 by 1.5–2 mm; pedicels 0.2–1 mm long, not articulated, pubescent to pilose; calyx c. 0.5 by 1 mm, sepals 3–5, almost free to fused for 1/2 of their length, c. 0.7 mm wide, usually spreading, broadly deltoid to orbicular, apically acute to rounded, shortly pubescent to glabrous outside, pubescent or glabrous inside but with long hairs at least at the base, margin often fimbriate; disc consisting of 3–4 alternistaminal lobes (lobes ± obconical, 0.2–0.3 by 0.2–0.3 mm), free or fused intrastaminally and partially enclosing the stamens, or completely fused and fully enclosing the stamens, constricted at the base, glabrous to shortly pubescent; stamens 3–5, 1–1.5 mm long, exserted 1–1.5 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.3–0.4 by 0.4–0.5 mm; pistillode absent or subulate, up to  0.2 by c. 0.1 mm, hardly exserted from the disc, pubescent. Pistillate inflorescences 5–7 cm long, cauline, very rarely axillary, simple or branched once or twice at the base, in fascicles of up to 13 inflorescences, axes pubescent; bracts deltoid, 0.5–1 by 0.4–0.5 mm, pubescent. Pistillate flowers c. 1.5 by 1 mm; pedicels 0–1 mm long, pubescent to glabrous; calyx 0.3–0.5 by 0.7–1 mm, sepals 3–5, almost free to fused for up to 1/2 of their length, c. 0.5 mm wide, broadly deltoid to orbicular, apically acute to rounded, shortly pubescent to glabrous outside, pubescent or glabrous inside with long hairs at the base, margin often fimbriate; disc extending to about the same length as the (usually spreading) sepals, glabrous to densely pubescent; ovary ellipsoid, pubescent to nearly glabrous, style terminal, often large and deeply 2- to 4-fid, stigmas 4–6. Infructescences 10–25(–69) cm long; fruiting pedicels 0.5–4(–9) mm long, pilose. Fruits lenticular to ellipsoid, rarely ovoid and beaked, distinctly laterally compressed to terete, basally symmetrical or slightly asymmetrical, with a terminal to subterminal style, 4–8(–10) by 3–6(–7) mm, pilose to glabrous, white-pustulate, often pale yellow to light brown, areolate with a finely wrinkled epidermis when dry.

    Distribution — Peninsular Thailand (Narathiwat and Yala provinces), Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines (Basilan, Mindanao).

    Habitat & Ecology — In lowland to lower montane (mixed) dipterocarp forest up to 50 m tall; in mossy forest; in riverine forest; usually in damp understorey, associated with Castanopsis, Dipterocarpus, Durio, Shorea; also along roadsides; in primary or secondary vegetation. On loam and clay over sandstone and shale, alluvial soil and limestone rocks. Altitude: sea level up to 2200 m.

    Use — Firewood.

    Vernacular names — Sumatra: Bernai paddie, Bernai talang. Borneo: Sabah: Erayu gabok, Jarupis (Malay), Kilas primpiam, Rain laki (Kedayan), Rainbini (Kedayan), Rayan (Kedayan); Brunei: Engkuni (Iban), Rambai tikus; Sarawak: Bajan (Iban), Lembai temai (Kenyah); Kalimantan: Kayu mawar, Ubah tatau, Uhai puruk. Philippines: Teksanbagia (Sub.).

    Note — Airy Shaw distinguished the variety kinabaluense as follows: “In the glabrous ovary, glabrous tumid disk and large fruits this differs strikingly from the common form of this species...”. In the type specimens of Antidesma leucopodum var. leucopodum in U (which he may not have seen), however, the discs are glabrous and the fruits up to 6 mm long. Specimens with a densely setulous disc (tumidity of the disc and large fruits are not good diagnostic characters) may be more common than those with glabrous discs, but they do not correspond with the type of the species. Specimens with glabrous discs were collected in Sumatra, Borneo and the Malay Peninsula. There are also some intermediate collections with sparsely pilose discs (Clemens & Clemens 40878 (A, K, L) and 26530 (A, B, K, L, NY) from Sabah; Ridley 9581 (K, SING) from Peninsular Malaysia).

 

30. Antidesma macgregorii C.B.Rob.

 

    Antidesma macgregorii C.B.Rob., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 6 (1911) 207; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 145, Map 21. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): BS (McGregor) 10280 (US, holo; iso: K), Philippines, Polillo.

 

Shrub or tree, up to 7 m, diameter up to 13 cm; young twigs terete, glabrous, whitish grey, more rarely dark brown and puberulent to begin with. Stipules early caducous, linear, 2–5(–10) by 0.5–1(–1.5) mm, apically acute, pilose. Leaves: petioles strongly channelled to flat adaxially, (2–)4–11 by 1.2–2 mm, puberulent, soon becoming glabrous, rugose and whitish grey; blades elliptic, more rarely slightly obovate or ovate, (5–)9–13(–18.5) by (2–)3.5–5.5(–9.5) cm, length/width ratio (1.5–)2.2–2.7(–3.2), eglandular, coriaceous to chartaceous, basally acute, more rarely obtuse, margin usually concave, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous, dull, more rarely shiny on both surfaces, midvein flat adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, widely spaced (3–5 between every two secondary veins), drying dark reddish brown to purplish grey adaxially, lighter reddish brown abaxially, more rarely light greyish brown. Staminate inflorescences 5–9 cm long, axillary to almost cauline, simple or consisting of up to 3 branches, axes ferrugineous-pilose; bracts elliptic to spathulate, 0.3–0.7 by 0.2–0.4 mm, ferrugineous-pilose. Staminate flowers 1.5–2 by 1.5–2 mm; pedicels 0–0.2 mm long, not articulated, glabrous; calyx 0.5–1 by 1–1.2 mm, cupular, sepals 3 or 4, fused for 3/4 or more of their length, apically obtuse to rounded, glabrous to sparsely pilose outside, glabrous inside, margin entire, slightly fimbriate; disc cushion-shaped, enclosing the bases of the filaments, very small, much shorter than the sepals, glabrous; stamens 3 or 4, 1.2–1.5 mm long, exserted 1–1.2 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.3–0.4 by 0.4–0.6 mm; pistillode absent. Pistillate inflorescences 2–4 cm long, axillary, simple, more rarely branched once or twice at the base or in fascicles of 2–3 inflorescences, axes ferrugineous-puberulent; bracts broadly ovate to elliptic, 0.2–0.7 by 0.3–0.5 mm, ferrugineous-pubescent. Pistillate flowers 1.5–2 by c. 1 mm; pedicels 0–0.5 mm long, glabrous; calyx 0.5–1 by c. 1 mm, cupular to urceolate (bowl-shaped in fruit), sepals 3–5, fused for 2/3–3/4 of their length, apically acute to rounded, pilose to glabrous outside, glabrous inside but sometimes with long hairs at the base, margin entire, sparsely ciliate; disc shorter than the sepals, glabrous; ovary ellipsoid, glabrous to pubescent, style terminal, not distinct, thick, stigmas 5–8(–10). Infructescences 3–14 cm long, robust; fruiting pedicels 0–1.5 mm long, glabrous. Fruits ellipsoid, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a terminal to slightly subterminal style, 7–10 by 5–7 mm, glabrous to puberulent, usually white-pustulate, areolate or fleshy when dry.

    Distribution — Philippines: Catanduanes, Leyte, Luzon, Negros, Polillo, Samar, Sibuyan. The specimen Curran 3477(A) from Masamba, southern Sulawesi, is the only collection of Antidesma macgregorii from outside the Philippines. It matches the Philippine specimens but bears only very young fruits and is therefore here regarded as doubtful.

    Habitat & Ecology — In dipterocarp forest; along forest edges; primary or disturbed vegetation. On brown clay and ultrabasic soil. Altitude: 50–900 m.

    Uses — Firewood.

    Vernacular name — Luzon: Buhlong.

 

31. Antidesma microcarpum Elmer

 

    Antidesma microcarpum Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 2 (1908) 487; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 150, Map 23. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Elmer 9668 (E, holo; iso: G), Philippines, Negros, Prov. Negros Oriental, Cuernos Mts, Dumaguete.

    Antidesma santosii Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 16 (1920) 550. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): FB (Santos) 26300 (US, holo; iso: K), Philippines, Luzon, Laguna Prov., Mount Banahao.

    Antidesma maesoides Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 164. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Ramos 15251 (A), Philippines, Leyte, Dagami.

    Antidesma frutiferum Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 10 (1939) 3731, nom. inval. as diagnosis not in Latin. — Based on: Elmer 14508 (BM, BO, G, GH, K, L, NY, U, US), Philippines, Luzon, Prov. Sorsogon, Irosin (Mt. Bulusan).

 

Tree, rarely shrub, up to 11 m, diameter up to 20 cm; young twigs terete, spreading-pilose but soon becoming glabrous, first brown, whitish grey when older. Bark grey, smooth; wood moderately soft to hard. Stipules early-caducous, linear, 1.5–3 by 0.5–1 mm, pubescent. Leaves: petioles narrowly channelled adaxially, basally and distally pulvinate for 2–4 mm, 6–18(–27) by 1–1.5 mm, densely pilose to glabrous; blades ovate to oblong or elliptic, (5–)10–15(–20) by (2.5–)4–7(–10) cm, lenght/width ratio (1.5–)2–2.4(–3.3), often slightly folded when dry, eglandular, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, basally rounded to obtuse, apically acuminate- to caudate-mucronate, sometimes with a rounded apiculum, glabrous, or slightly pilose only along the major veins on both surfaces, shiny or dull on both surfaces, midvein impressed to flat adaxially, tertiary veins percurrent to weakly percurrent, drying olive-green, often lighter abaxially. Staminate inflorescences 4–14 cm long, axillary, lax, consisting of 2–10 branches, sometimes fascicles of 2 inflorescences, axes pilose; bracts elliptic to ovate, 0.6–0.8 by 0.4–0.5 mm, glabrous to pilose, margin ciliate. Staminate flowers 1.5–2 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicel absent; calyx 0.5–1 by c. 1 mm, cupular to bowl-shaped, sepals 4, fused for c. 3/4 of their length, pointing inwards, apically rounded, glabrous on both sides, margin slightly erose, ciliate; disc extrastaminal-annular (but appearing cushion-shaped), extending to the same length as the sepals, constricted at the base, (3–)4-lobed, the lobes filling the space between the filaments and the pistillode, ferrugineous-tomentose; stamens (3–)4, c. 1.5 mm long, exserted c. 1 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.2 by 0.3 mm; pistillode cylindrical, 0.4–0.5 by 0.2–0.3 mm, exserted from the disc, white pilose. Pistillate inflorescences 2–10 cm long, axillary, branched regularly, consisting of 2–14 branches, sometimes in fascicles of 2 inflorescences, axes pilose to pubescent; bracts elliptic to ovate, 0.3–0.7 by 0.3–0.4 mm, apically acute to rounded, pilose. Pistillate flowers 1–2 by 0.7–1 mm; pedicels 0.2–0.5(–0.8) mm long, pilose; calyx 0.7–1 by 0.7–1 mm, urceolate, sepals 4, fused for (1/2–)3/4–4/5 of their length, deltoid to oblong, apically acute to rounded, glabrous, more rarely pilose outside, glabrous inside, margin erose, fimbriate; disc shorter than the sepals but indumentum usually exserted from the sepals, ferrugineous-pubescent at the margin, otherwise glabrous, hairs as long as or longer than the disc; ovary ellipsoid, glabrous to sparsely pilose, style terminal, stigmas 4 or 5. Infructescences 2–10 cm long; fruiting pedicels 0.2–0.5(–1.5) mm long, glabrous. Fruits ellipsoid to nearly globose, terete (but see note under the synonym Antidesma santosii), basally symmetrical, with a terminal style, 2–3(–4) by 1–1.5(–2) mm including the calyx, glabrous to very sparsely pilose, not white-pustulate, usually wrinkled (neither areolate nor reticulate), rarely areolate when dry, calyx not splitting, staying intact and usually as narrow as at anthesis.

    Distribution — Philippines: Biliran, Bohol, Leyte, Luzon, Mindanao, Negros, Panay, Samar.

    Habitat & Ecology — Mainly in secondary forest. Altitude: 60–1050 m.

    Uses — Used as firewood, and also for fish poisoning (PNH (Anonuevo) 13568).

    Vernacular names — Baruruan, bignai-pugo (Tag.), Buro-bignai (Bic.), Putukan (If.); Tagobinlod.

    Note — The type of Antidesma santosii and four other fruiting collections from Luzon and Panay (PNH (Banlugan et al.) 72730 (A, K, L), Elmer 18105 (A, BM, G, K, L, NY, U, US), BS (Edaρo & Martelino) 35715 (A, BM, K, L, US), PNH (Sulit) 6911 (K, L, US)) correspond in all vegetative and calyx characters to Antidesma microcarpum, whereas the fruits are 3–4 mm long, laterally compressed, the pistillate pedicels up to 0.8 mm and fruiting pedicels 1–1.5 mm long, as in Antidesma celebicum. The name is included here under Antidesma microcarpum because of the tightly urceolate calyx, the leaf shape and texture and the light colour of the young twigs.

 

32. Antidesma minus Blume

 

    Antidesma minus Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826–27) 1123; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 153, Map 23. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Blume s.n. (L. herb. no. 903154-263), Java.

    Antidesma zollingeri Mόll.Arg., in sched., nom. nud., fide Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 132.

 

Shrub or tree, up to 10 m, diameter up to 16 cm; young twigs terete, long spreading-pubescent but soon becoming glabrous, whitish grey. Stipules caducous, subulate, 2–8 by 0.5–1 mm, pilose to pubescent. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, 2–5(–10) by c. 1 mm, pilose to pubescent (especially adaxially), becoming glabrous, rugose and white when older; blades narrowly elliptic, (6.5–)8–13(–15.5) by (1.5–)2–4(–5) cm, length/width ratio (2.7–)3.4(–4.2), eglandular, chartaceous, basally acute, apically long acuminate-mucronate, glabrous, or pilose only along the midvein, moderately shiny on both surfaces, midvein impressed adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, finer veins distinctly prominent on both surfaces in dry material, dense intersecondary and perpendicular tertiary veins conspicuous near the midvein, drying dark reddish brown adaxially, lighter abaxially. Staminate inflorescences 4–7 cm long, axillary, simple, slender, axes glabrous to pubescent; bracts narrowly deltoid, 0.4–0.7 by 0.2–0.3 mm, apically acute, pilose, margin fimbriate. Staminate flowers c. 1.5 by 1.5–2 mm; pedicels 0.2–1 mm long, not articulated, glabrous to pilose; calyx 0.5–1 mm long, sepals 4, free, 0.3–0.5 mm wide, ± reflexed, deltoid, apically acute, glabrous outside, glabrous inside but with dense hairs at the base, margin entire, fimbriate; disc cushion-shaped, hemispherical to almost mushroom-shaped, fully enclosing the bases of the filaments and pistillode, glabrous; stamens 4, 0.8–1.2 mm long, exserted c. 1.2 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.3–0.5 by 0.4–0.5 mm; pistillode absent or subulate, up to 0.2 by c. 0.1 mm, hardly exserted from the disc, glabrous. Pistillate inflorescences 3–4 cm long, axillary, simple, axes glabrous to pilose; bracts deltoid, 0.5–1 by 0.2–0.3 mm, apically acute, pubescent. Pistillate flowers c. 1.5 by 1 mm; pedicels 0–1 mm long, glabrous to pilose; calyx c. 0.5 mm long, sepals 4 (or 5), free, 0.3–0.5 mm wide, deltoid, apically acute, glabrous outside, glabrous inside with dense hairs at the base, margin entire, fimbriate; disc extending to the same length as the sepals, conspicuous and fleshy, glabrous; ovary ellipsoid to cylindrical, glabrous, style terminal, not distinct, thick, stigmas 3. Infructescences 7–9 cm long; fruiting pedicels 0–1 mm long, glabrous to pilose. Fruits ellipsoid to ovoid or obovoid, sometimes slightly beaked, distinctly laterally compressed, basally asymmetrical or symmetrical, with a subterminal to terminal style, 7–13 by 5–8 mm, glabrous, sometimes slightly white-pustulate, reticulate when dry.

    Distribution — West Java, and one specimen from south-western Sumatra, Benkulu province.

    Habitat & Ecology — In (primary) rain forests. On red volcanic sand. Altitude: 300–1350 m.

    Vernacular names — Huhunian, Huni monjet, Ki mimis, Ki seueur (seueur = many, refers to the many edible fruits), Kipeen, Onjam, Walin kecil (all Sundanese).

 

33. Antidesma montanum Blume

 

    Antidesma montanum Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826–27) 1124, non Thwaites 1861; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 213; Petra Hoffm. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (20050 70; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 154, Fig. 14, Map 24, 25. —  Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Blume s.n. (L, herb. no. 903154-278, holo; iso: L), Java.

 

Shrub or tree (reported to be a climber on several herbarium labels), up to 20 m (fide Noermawati 16: 45 m), clear bole up to 7 m, diameter up to 40 cm, often branching from base or below the middle, sometimes with more than one stem, crown round, branches spreading, ultimate branches often drooping; twigs brown, grey or green; young twigs terete, very slightly pilose to densely pubescent, brown. Bark brown, grey, green or white, 0.5–3 mm thick, smooth, more rarely rough, sometimes vertically fissured or scaly, fibrous, soft; inner bark white, greenish-white, yellow, pink, orange, red or brown, 1–5 mm thick, fibrous, soft; cambium white, yellow, brown, red or pink; wood hard, somewhat brittle, finely grained, odourless and tasteless, brown, red, orange, yellow or white. Stipules often caducous, foliaceous and ovate only in var. wallichii, otherwise linear to subulate, 2–7(–15) by 0.5–1.5(–7) mm, pilose to pubescent. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, (0–)2–6(–15) by (0.7–)1–2 mm, pilose to pubescent, rarely glabrous; blade elliptic to oblong, more rarely slightly ovate or obovate, or elliptic to linear, (1.5–)9–15(–30) by (0.4–)3–6(–12) cm, length/width ratio (2–)2.5–3.5(–10), eglandular, membranaceous to chartaceous, more rarely coriaceous, basally acute to rounded, rarely truncate, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous except along the major veins, rarely pilose abaxially all over, moderately shiny on both surfaces, major veins impressed, rarely flat adaxially, tertiary veins weakly percurrent (reticulate in rheophytes), widely spaced, rather oblique, quarternary and finer veins hardly prominent on either leaf surface when dry, intersecondary veins not conspicuous, drying olive-green, sometimes lighter abaxially. Staminate inflorescences (1–)3–13 cm long, axillary, sometimes aggregated at the end of the branch, simple to consisting of up to 10(–40) branches, axes pilose to pubescent; bracts deltoid or linear, 0.3–1.2 by 0.2–0.7 mm, apically acute, pilose to pubescent, margin sometimes glandular-fimbriate. Staminate flowers 1–2.5 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicels 0–1.5(–2) mm long, not articulated, glabrous to pilose; calyx 0.5 –0.8 by 1–1.5 mm, cupular to bowl-shaped, sepals 3 or 4(5), free to fused for c. 1/2 of their length, apically rounded to obtuse, more rarely acute, pilose to glabrous outside, glabrous inside but often with some long hairs at the base, margin erose to entire, glandular-fimbriate to lacerate; disc cushion-shaped, fully or partially enclosing the bases of the filaments and pistillode, shorter than the sepals, glabrous, very rarely with some short hairs; stamens 3–6, 1–2 mm long, exserted (0.5–)1–1.5 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.2–0.5 by 0.2–0.5 mm; pistillode variable, hemispherical, globose, clavate and crateriform apically, or subulate, 0.1–1 by 0.1–0.3 mm, shorter than to exserted from the sepals, glabrous, more rarely slightly pilose. Pistillate inflorescences (2–)4–10 cm long, axillary, sometimes aggregated at the end of the branch, simple to consisting of up to 13 branches, axes glabrous to pubescent; bracts deltoid to linear, apically acute, 0.3–1.5 by 0.2–0.7 mm, glabrous to pubescent, margin sometimes glandular-fimbriate. Pistillate flowers 1–2 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicels 0.2–1.5 mm long, glabrous to pubescent; calyx 0.4–1 by 0.5–1.5 mm, cupular, sepals 3–5(–6), free to fused for up to 1/2 of their length, thin, apically rounded to obtuse, more rarely acute to acuminate, pilose or glabrous, rarely pubescent outside, glabrous inside but often with some long hairs at the base, rarely pilose, margin glandular-fimbriate, lacerate, erose or entire; disc much shorter than the sepals (especially in fruit), glabrous, very rarely pilose; ovary ovoid, glabrous, style terminal or slightly subterminal, stigmas 3–6. Infructescences (2.5–)6–20 cm long; fruiting pedicels 1–4 mm long, glabrous to pilose, rarely pubescent. Fruits ellipsoid to globose or ovoid, terete to slightly laterally or dorsiventrally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a terminal, rarely slightly subterminal style, (3–)4–6(–8) by 2.5–4(–6) mm, glabrous, rarely pilose, mostly white-pustulate, areolate when dry.

    Notes — This is the most common and most variable species of the genus. It is treated here in a broad sense, i.e. including forms such as the slender, almost glabrous Antidesma leptocladum as well as the robust, big-leaved Antidesma phanerophlebium.

    Another extreme is the small-leaved, pubescent form Antidesma pentandrum, retained as a separate species by Airy Shaw (Euphorb. Philipp., 1983: 6). It is found in the Ryukyu Islands (Japan), Taiwan, Hainan and in the northern part of the Philippines. South of Mindoro it intergrades imperceptibly into the typical form of Antidesma montanum. The characters used to distinguish both forms in the literature (leaves smaller, acuminate with rounded-mucronate apiculum, drying yellowish green, bracts long and linear, twigs, Leaves: petioles and axes of inflorescences densely pubescent) are neither consistent nor strong enough to justify specific recognition. The leaves and, in some specimens, the fruits can resemble Antidesma japonicum.

    Antidesma japonicum and, at the southern border of the distribution area, Antidesma heterophyllum, are accepted here as separate species although there are several transitional specimens.

 

33a. var. montanum

 

    Antidesma montanum Blume var. montanum: Petra Hoffm. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 71; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 156, Map 24.

    Antidesma oblongifolium Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826–27) 1125, non Boerl. & Koord., 1910. — Antidesma oblongifolium Blume var. genuinum Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2(1866) 264, nom. inval. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Blume s.n. (L, herb. no. 903154-312), Java.

    Cansjera pentandra Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 73 (“Cansiera”); Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 53 (“Cansiera”). — Antidesma pentandrum (Blanco) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 9 (1914) 462; Sp. Blancoan. (1918) 219. — Antidesma pentandrum (Blanco) Merr. var. genuinum (Mόll.Arg.) Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 125, nom. inval. — Neotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Merrill Species Blancoanae 31 (A, holo; iso: GH, K, L, NY, P, US), Philippines, Luzon, Rizal prov., Pasay (but “Bulacan prov., Angat” in Merrill, Sp. Blancoan.: 219, 1918).

    Antidesma barbatum C.Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1849) 233. — Antidesma rostratum Tul. var. barbatum (C.Presl) Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 257. — Antidesma pentandrum (Blanco) Merr. var. barbatum (C.Presl) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 9: 463 (1914). — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Cuming 1246 (PRC, holo; iso: CGE, E, G, K, L, MEL, P, PRC), Philippines, Luzon, prov. Ilocos borealis.

    Antidesma salicifolium C. Presl, Epimel. Bot. (1849) 233, non Miq. 1861. — Type: Cuming 1316 (PRC, holo; iso: CGE, E, G, FHO, K, L, MEL, P), Philippines, Luzon, prov. Cayagan.

    Antidesma leptocladum Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 199; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 6. — Antidesma leptocladum Tul. var. genuinum Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 253, nom. inval. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Cuming 1513 (CGE, holo; iso: A, CGE, E, G, G-DC [microfiche], L, K, NY, P, PRC), Philippines, Luzon, Prov. Batangas.

    Antidesma nitidum Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 193. — Antidesma leptocladum Tul. var. nitidum (Tul.) Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 253. l. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Cuming 1511 (P, holo; iso: A, CGE, E, G, G-DC [microfiche], K, L, NY, P, PRC), Philippines, Luzon, circa Manillam.

    Antidesma pubescens Roxb. var. menasu Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 215. — Antidesma menasu (Tul.) Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 257, not Kurz, Forest Fl. Burma 2: 360 (1877), as cited in Index Kewensis. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Hohenacker Pl. Ind. Or. 104 (P, holo; iso: A, FHO, G, G-DC [microfiche], K, L, MEL, TCD), India, prope urb. Mangalor.

    Antidesma pubescens Roxb. var. moritzii Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 215. — Antidesma pubescens auct. non Roxb., 1802: Moritzi, Syst. Verz. (1846) 73, nom. illeg. according to Art. 53.1. (Greuter et al. 2000). — Antidesma moritzii (Tul.) Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865–66) 67. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Zollinger 485 (P, holo; iso: BM, G, G-DC [microfiche], K, L, MEL, P, U), Java.

    Antidesma rostratum Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 218. — Antidesma rostratum Tul. var. genuinum Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 257, nom. inval. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Perrottet s.n. (P, holo; iso: G, L), Philippines, Luzon, circa Manillam.

    Antidesma rostratum Tul. var. lobbianum Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 219, in adnot. (“lobbiana”). — Antidesma lobbianum (Tul.) Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 254. — Antidesma pentandrum (Blanco) Merr. var. lobbianum (Tul.) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 9: 463 (1914). — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Lobb 460 (CGE [Hb.

Lindl.], holo; iso: BM, G, G-DC [microfiche], K, L, OXF), Java or Luzon.

    Antidesma acuminatum Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Or. 6 (1853) 12, t. 1991; Chakr.y & Gangop., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 24: 28 (2000) as synon. nov. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Herb. Wight s.n. (K, holo; iso: K), Hort. Bot. Calcutt.

    Antidesma diversifolium Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 468. — Type: Teijsmann HB 4431 (U, holo; iso: BO), Sumatra austr., in prov. Lampong, secus fl. Tarabangi.

    Antidesma palembanicum Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 465. — Type: Teijsmann HB 3733 (U, holo; iso: BO), Sumatra or., in prov. Palembang, in Ogan-ulu.

    Antidesma simile Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865–66) 67. Type: Wallich 7282B (G), India or., Silhet.

    ?Antidesma erythrocarpum Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 258. — Type: Teijsmann (B ex hb. Miq., not located), Java.

    Antidesma leptocladum Tul. var. glabrum Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 254. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Cuming 1820 (G-DC [microfiche], holo; iso: CGE, FHO G, K, P, PRC, TCD), Philippines.

    Antidesma refractum Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 257. — Epitype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): J. D. Hooker & T. Thomson s.n. (G), India or., Khasia; India; Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): J. D. Hooker s.n. (G), India orient., prov. Sikkim.

    Antidesma menasu (Tul.) Mόll.Arg. var. liniiifolium Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 364 (“linearifolia”). — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Dalzell s.n. (K), Bombay Herbarium.

    Antidesma henryi Hemsl. in H. O. Forbes & Hemsl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot., 26 (1894) 431; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 159, as synon. nov.; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 358; Li Ping Tao, Fl. Reip. Pop. Sin. 44(1) (1994) 60, non Pax & K.Hoffm. 1922: 132. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): B.C.Henry 8562 (K), China, Hainan.

    Antidesma mucronatum Boerl. & Koord. in Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 2 (1910) 27 (“mucronata”). — Type: Koorders 10302b (BO), Sumatra, bei Langgam.

    Antidesma oblongifolium Boerl. & Koord. in Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 2 (1910) 27, nom. illeg. (non Blume 1826–27) (“oblongifolia”). — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Koorders 21753 (BO), Sumatra, bei Biwak.

    Antidesma kerrii Craib, Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1911(10) (1911) 462 — Type: Kerr 618a (K, holo; iso: TCD), Thailand, Chiengmai, Doi Sootep (see note 3).

    Antidesma mindanaense Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 7 (1912) 383. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Williams 2117 (NY, holo; iso: K, NY), Philippines, Mindanao, Distr. of Zamboanga, Sax R., San Ramon

    Antidesma obliquinervium Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 9 (1914) 466. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Merrill 9294 (A, holo; iso: BM, L, NY, P, US), Philippines, Palawan, Taytay-Lake Manguao trail (see note 4).

    Antidesma palawanense Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 9 (1914) 467; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 131; Merr., Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 2 (1923) 416; Airy Shaw, Euphorb. Philippines (1983) 6. — Neotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Elmer 12808 (K, holo; iso: A, E, G, L, NY, U, WRSL), Philippines, Palawan, Palawan prov., Puerto Princesa (Mt Pulgar).

    Antidesma pentandrum (Blanco) Merr. var. angustifolium Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 9 (1914) 464. — Antidesma angustifolium (Merr.) Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922): 165. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Elmer 6327 (US, holo; iso: G, K, NY, P), Philippines, Luzon, Benguet subprov., Twin Peaks.

    Antidesma ramosii Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 9 (1914) 468. — Antidesma pentandrum (Blanco) Merr. var. ramosii (Merr.) Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 126. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): BS (Ramos) 1002 (US, holo; iso: NY, P), Philippines, Luzon, Prov. Rizal, Bosoboso.

    Antidesma agusanense Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 7 (1915) 2632. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Elmer 13549 (GH, holo; iso: E, G, K, L, NY, P, U, US), Philippines, Cabadbaran (Mt Urdaneta), Prov. Agusan, Mindanao (see note 5).

    Antidesma phanerophlebium Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 11 (1916) 59. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): BS (Native collector) 1384 (US, holo; iso: A [photo of destroyed holotype ex PNH], K), Borneo, Sarawak.

    ?Antidesma aruanum Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 149; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 210. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Warburg 20640 (A), Aru Inseln (see note 6).

    Antidesma pseudomontanum Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 163; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 4 (1975) 214, as synon. nov. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Haviland & Hose 3104 (P, holo; iso: BM, CGE, K (“Haviland 3104”), SAR (“coll. = Kalong”), SING (“Haviland 3104”)), Borneo, Sarawak, Kuching.

    Antidesma teysmannianum Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 144. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Warburg 1325 (B), Java.

    Antidesma salicinum Ridl. var. latius Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 3 (1924) 229 (“latior”). — Type: Kelsall 4020 (K, holo; iso: SING “Lake & Kelsall”), Malaysia, Johore, Gunong Janeng.

    Antidesma paxii F.P.Metcalf, Lingnan Sci. J. 10 (1931) 485, as nom. nov. — Antidesma henryi Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 132, nom. illeg. (non Hemsl. 1894). — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Henry 13667 (K, holo; iso: US), China, Yόnnan, Wδlder im Sόden des Roten Flusses (see note 7).

    Antidesma discolor Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 212, as nom. nov. — Antidesma bicolor Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 126, nom. illeg. (non Hassk. 1844). — Neotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Warburg 20650 (A), Niederlδndisch Neu Guinea (Indonesia: Papua).

    Antidesma montanum Blume var. microcarpum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 363. — Type: Rahmat Si Boea 9612 (L, holo; iso: A, GH, K, NY, US), Sumatra, vicinity of Aek Salaat, Asahan (north-east of Tomoean Dolok).

    Antidesma leptocladum Tul. var. schmutzii Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 37 (1982) 5. — Type: Schmutz 4513 (L), Lesser Sunda Isl., Flores, Manggarai.

 

Antimont-photo1.jpg (62193 bytes)    Antimont-photo2.jpg (69974 bytes)    Antimont-photo3.jpg (70266 bytes)

 

Stipules not foliaceous, linear to subulate, 2–7(–13) by 0.5–1.5(–3) mm. Leaves: petioles 2–6(–15) by 1–2 mm; blades elliptic to oblong, more rarely slightly ovate or obovate, (6–)9–15(–30) by (2–)3–6(–12) cm, length/width ratio (2–)2.5–3.5(–6.6), membranaceous to chartaceous, more rarely coriaceous, basally acute to obtuse, rarely rounded, glabrous except along the major veins, on one or both surfaces, rarely slightly pilose abaxially. Staminate inflorescences 3–13 cm long, axillary, simple to consisting of up to 10(–40) branches; stamens exserted 1–1.5 mm from the calyx. Pistillate inflorescences 4–10 cm long, axillary, sometimes aggregated at the end of the branch, simple to consisting of up to 5 branches. Infructescences 6–20 cm long.

    Distribution — India incl. Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Bhutan, Bangladesh, southern China (Hainan, Guangxi, Yunnan provinces), Japan (only Ryukyu Islands), Taiwan, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Philippines, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Islands, Moluccas, Indonesia: Papua, Australia (only Prince of Wales Island, northern Queensland).

    Habitat & Ecology — In primary and secondary evergreen to deciduous vegetation; in mixed dipterocarp forest; in riparian and littoral forest; in coastal forest and on beaches; in monsoon forest and teak-forest (“djatibosch”), in Agathis forest; in bamboo groves; in peat swamp forest; in heath forest, thickets, grasslands and along roadsides; around human habitation (Malay: “belukar”); also in mossy montane forest; usually in understorey; from deep shade to total exposure; on dry to wet or seasonally flooded ground. Common in most places, with extremely high ecological amplitude; it is the dominant species in inland Krakatau (Whittaker, pers. comm.). On sand, clay, loam, peat, volcanic and ultrabasic soil, over limestone, sandstone or granite. Altitude: sea level up to 2000 m.

    Uses — The fruits are eaten locally. They are also used to adulterate black pepper. The Malay name “Madang lada” refers to the yellowish wood similar to “Madang” = Litsea (Lauraceae) and to the fruits (“lada” = pepper), thus meaning “Litsea with pepper fruits” (Yii, SAR, pers. comm.). The wood is used in house construction, for rice pestles and firewood. The leaves are applied to ulcers and lumber pains, the roots for stomach ache, and the fruits or tea from the leaves “as tonic after childbirth” (Philippines, fide PNH 37987, 38059, 38372, Zwickey 699).

    Vernacular names — Malay Peninsula: Re’mool. Sumatra: Burunai pajo, Kayu aritan, Kayu simburo, Kayu djuhut tasu, Kayu laman, Kayu manuk-manuk, Kayu motton, Kayu si balik hangin, Kayu si basa, Kayu si kala, Kayu si loppur, Kayu si losu, Kukunaw (Bisaya), Lagas-lagas (Kedayan), Palse palse, Tutun burunai silai. Java: Honi pasir, Ki jebak (Sundanese), Ki seueur or Seueur bener sud (Sundanese, seueur = many, refers to the many edible fruit), Wuni dedek. Borneo: Sabah: Antatanud (Murut Bokan), Apid-apid timba, Bengu (Dusun), Bilin sagit (Dusun), Dampirut (Sungai), Gagarit (Murut Tenom), Gibih (Dusun), Hunron (Orang Sungai), Ipo-ipo (Dusun), Lulunib (Murut Bu.), Manggis tara rata (Dusun), Menempuru (Dusun), Mentegiras (Dusun), Pachar ambok (Malay), Ranting paya (Banjar), Sinpaladuk (Sungei), Tanduripis (Dusun), Tanggirangir (Kwijau), Tendurusuh (Dusun), Tenggilang (Dubu), Totopis (Dusun); Sarawak: Bruin (Iban), Madang lada (Malay), Kalimantan: Cabi cabi, Kosaumpo. Philippines: Agosep, Agosip or Agusit (Tagbanua), Aihip (Neg.), Banuang (Cebuano), Bignay pogo or Binayoyo (Tagbanua) [pogo = small, chicken-like ground bird, bignay = Antidesma bunius], Bulinai (Pint. Sbl) or Bulinay (Tagbanua), Malabignay (Tagbanua) [looks like bignay (= Antidesma bunius)], Mataindo (Manobo), Matelok (Lan.), Misalagon (Tagbanua), Mongay (Buk.), Pagakpatulangan (Sub), Pagpas (Bilaan), Tegas (Sub.), Tuba. Lesser Sunda Islands: Ai burumi (Tetum), Ai panah, Eikahodok, Lingko-sosor-rona (Ladju), Rawamuga (Waijewa), Toro.

    Notes — 1. The staminate disc is sometimes not fully closed around the filaments which may be due to flower size. Three collections from the Philippines, Merrill 9295 (A, L, NY), 9336 (K, US) from Palawan and BS (Fenix) 15665 (E, US) from Calusa Island, have staminate discs with free lobes but are like Antidesma montanum in all other respects.

    2. For galls see Pax & Hoffmann (1922: 159–160).

    3. The hairy ovary is the only distinguishing character of Antidesma kerrii, which is only known from the type material. Although the ovary of Antidesma montanum is glabrous in the vast majority of specimens, there are several collections from different localities with a more or less pilose ovary. Antidesma kerrii is therefore regarded as representing an aberrant population of Antidesma montanum.

    4. The two staminate Merrill paratypes of former Antidesma obliquinervium have free disc lobes which is unusual for Antidesma montanum, but no other distinguishing features. The remaining paratype which is also staminate, has a normal, cushion-shaped disc.

    5. The fruits of the type of former Antidesma agusanense are slightly laterally compressed, with a slightly asymmetric fruit base and stigma. This can be found in several collections from the Philippines and blurs the boundaries between Antidesma montanum and Antidesma japonicum. In the case of Antidesma agusanense, however, the habit is much more indicative of Antidesma montanum.

    6. Former Antidesma aruanum is only known from the type in pistillate flower. It is distinguished by glabrous leaves and calyces as well as the minutely hairy disc, found only rarely in Antidesma montanum. The slightly compressed ovary with a subterminal style might develop into a fruit that looks quite different from those of typical Antidesma montanum. Unfortunately, this is impossible to judge from the type specimen. As it stands, this specimen is not distinctive enough to be granted specific status. Antidesma montanum, on the other hand, is the most variable and widespread species of the genus, and all measurements of the type of Antidesma aruanum are well within its variability. Airy Shaw (Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8, 1980: 210) did not include the species in his key and commented on it: “Until further material can be collected in the Aru Islands this plant is probably unidentifiable”. A similar specimen from West Papua, Waigeo Island, P. van Royen 5258 (K, L), has both pistillate flowers and near-mature fruits. The fruits are laterally compressed with a terminal style as in Antidesma heterophyllum, but the disc is rather densely hairy. It is possible that more and better material from the Moluccas and West Papua will show that Antidesma heterophyllum intergrades into Antidesma montanum and does not deserve specific rank, or that Antidesma aruanum is a distinct entity after all.

    7. Metcalf had not seen the types of former Antidesma paxii but published a nomen novum only because the name Antidesma henryi had been used before by Hemsley. Airy Shaw (Kew Bull. 26, 1972: 359) kept Antidesma paxii apart from Antidesma montanum on the grounds of leaf size and puberulence of the branches, both of which are variable in Antidesma montanum. Li Ping Tao (Fl.  Reipub. Pop. Sin. 44, 1994: 62) incorrectly included this name in the synonymy of Antidesma acidum.

 

33b. var. salicinum (Ridl.) Petra Hoffm.

 

    Antidesma montanum Blume var. salicinum (Ridl.) Petra Hoffm., Kew Bull. 54 (1999) 359; in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 72; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 168; Fig. 14a-e; Map 25. — Antidesma salicinum Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 3 (1924) 228; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 28 (1973) 276; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 215. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 1999): Ridley s.n. (K), Malaysia, Kelantan, Kelantan R.

 

Shrub, more rarely tree, usually 1–3 m, up to 6 m (fide Soepadmo 781: tree 17 m). Bark grey-brown to grey, smooth. Stipules not foliaceous, linear to subulate, 2–7(–13) by 0.5–1.5(–3) mm. Leaves: petioles (0–)2(–5) by 1–2 mm; blades elliptic, (3–)5–11(–16) by (0.5–)1–2(–3.5) cm, length/width ratio (4–)6(–10), membranaceous to chartaceous, more rarely coriaceous, basally acute, glabrous except along the major veins, on one or both surfaces, rarely slightly pilose abaxially. Staminate inflorescences 3–13 cm long, slender, axillary; stamens exserted 0.5–1 mm from the calyx. Pistillate inflorescences c. 2 cm long, axillary, sometimes aggregated at the end of the branch, simple or branched once or twice. Infructescences slender. Fig. 14A–E.

    Distribution — Bangladesh, Vietnam, Peninsular and South-East Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo (West and Central Kalimantan).

    Habitat & Ecology — In riverine rain forest along rivers; often on swampy or seasonally flooded ground; among boulders or in river beds; sometimes partly submerged in river. On sandstone. Altitude: sea level up to 700 m.

    Vernacular names — Malay Peninsula: Penawar (Ba tek), Mata pelanduk, Mempenai ayer, Wamhanu. Sumatra: Krinom masim.

    Notes — Antidesma salicinum was described only because of its elliptic leaves as opposed to the elliptic leaves of Antidesma montanum. Under the former variety, however, Ridley also described Antidesma salicinum var. latius with wider leaves (synonym of var. montanum). Airy Shaw (Kew Bull. 28, 1973: 276) called Antidesma salicinum “the stenophyllous extreme of the Antidesma montanum Bl. complex” and Antidesma salicinum var. latius “an almost perfect link between the two” (i.e. Antidesma salicinum and Antidesma montanum).

 

34. Antidesma montis-silam Airy Shaw

 

    Antidesma montis-silam Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 28 (1973) 269; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 214; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 170, Map 26. — Type: SAN (Ahmad Datu) 52772 (K, holo; iso: L), Sabah, Lahad Datu district, Mt Silam, Virgin Jungle Reserve.

 

Tree, up to 20 m, clear bole up to 10 m, diameter up to 22 cm, straight; young twigs terete to striate, pilose to glabrous, brown. Bark whitish, greyish, reddish brown to red, c. 6 mm thick, outer bark 1–2 mm thick, fissured or scaly, lenticelled; inner bark greenish, grey, yellow, orange, ochre, brown or red, 2–5 mm thick, fibrous; cambium yellow; sapwood white, pink or yellow. Stipules usually caducous, linear to falcate, 5–10(–20) by 1–2(–3) mm, apically acute, pilose to pubescent. Leaves: petioles flat to channelled adaxially, becoming rugose when old, 3–12 by 2–3 mm, glabrous or pilose; blades elliptic, oblong or slightly obovate, 15–33 by 6–11 cm, length/width ratio 2.6–3.5 times, eglandular, coriaceous to chartaceous, basally acute, apically acuminate-mucronate, sometimes caudate, glabrous, or some hairs only along the major veins abaxially, dull on both surfaces, midvein impressed to flat adaxially, tertiary veins weakly percurrent to reticulate, close together or widely spaced, drying yellowish olive-green. Staminate plants unknown. Pistillate inflorescences 10–15 cm long, axillary, simple, axes 1.5–4 mm wide, pilose; bracts deltoid, 0.7–1.5 by c. 0.5 mm, apically acute, pilose. Pistillate flowers 2.5–3 by 1.5–2 mm; pedicels 0.2–0.5 mm long, pilose to glabrous; calyx 1–1.2 by 1.5–2 mm, sepals 4 or 5, fused for c. 3/4 of their length, apically acute, sinuses rounded, shallow, pilose to nearly glabrous outside, glabrous inside; disc slightly shorter than the sepals (in fruit often exserted from the sepals), hirsute; ovary globose, laterally compressed, pilose to pubescent, style lateral to subterminal, stigmas 4 or 5. Infructescences 14–28 cm long; fruiting pedicels stout, 0.5–3 mm long, pilose to glabrous. Fruits ellipsoid, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical or asymmetrical, with a lateral to subterminal style, (8–)10–14 by 6–10 mm, sparsely pilose, sometimes white-pustulate, reticulate to areolate when dry.

    Distribution — Borneo: eastern Sabah (Sandakan and Tawau divisions).

    Habitat & Ecology — In primary, sometimes disturbed, dipterocarp forest. On black soil. Altitude: 70–700 m.

 

35. Antidesma myriocarpum Airy Shaw

 

    Antidesma myriocarpum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 46; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 215; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 172, Map 19. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Hoogland 8829 (K, holo; iso: A, CANB, L), New Guinea, Morobe Distr., Huon Peninsula, near Pindiu, Mongi Valley.

 

Tree, rarely shrub, up to 23 m, clear bole up to 4 m, diameter up to 34 cm; young twigs terete, shortly pilose to densely ferrugineous-pubescent, brown. Bark brown, c. 6 mm thick, flaky, pustular and thinly ridged; inner bark whitish, pink or pinkish brown, fibrous; wood whitish brown, straw, pink or orange brown, hard to moderately hard, rays broad and narrow, pores minute, solitary or in short chains. Stipules early-caducous, linear, c. 10 by 1.5 mm, apically acute, appressed ferrugineous-pubescent. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, basally and, more so, (5–)7–18 by 0.5–1.5 mm, distally often slightly pulvinate and geniculate for 2–3 mm, almost glabrous to densely ferrugineous-pubescent; blades ovate or oblong, (4–)6–11(–16) by (2–)3–5(–6.5) cm, length/width ratio (1.5–)2–2.5(–2.8), eglandular, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, basally rounded to cordate, more rarely obtuse, often slightly folded when dry, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous, or hairy only along the midvein adaxially, sparsely puberulous to ferrugineous-pubescent along the major veins or all over abaxially, shiny adaxially, shiny or dull abaxially, midvein impressed to flat adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate to percurrent, hardly thicker than fine venation, drying olive-green, lighter abaxially, hairtuft domatia present. Staminate inflorescences 4–5.5 cm long, axillary, sometimes aggregated at the end of the branch, consisting of 3–9 branches, axes ferrugineous-pubescent; bracts deltoid to linear, 0.5–0.7 by 0.2–0.3 mm, apically acute, pubescent. Staminate flowers 1–2 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicels 0–1.2 mm long, not articulated, pilose; calyx 1–1.2 by 0.8–1 mm, cupular to bowl-shaped, sepals 4 or 5, fused for c. 2/3 of their length, deltoid to narrowly deltoid, apically acute to rounded, sinuses rounded to acute, glabrous outside, glabrous inside but with long hairs at the base, margin erose; disc consisting of 4 or 5 free alternistaminal lobes, lobes ± obconical, 0.3–0.5 by 0.3–0.5 mm, often not well-separated, appearing cushion-shaped, pubescent; stamens 4 or 5, c. 1.5 mm long, exserted c. 1 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.2–0.3 by 0.4–0.5 mm; pistillode clavate, 0.4–0.7 by 0.2–0.3 mm, exserted from or extending to the same length as the sepals, glabrous or very sparsely puberulent. Pistillate inflorescences 4–7 cm long, axillary or terminal, simple or consisting of up to 10 branches, axes puberulous to pubescent; bracts deltoid, 0.4–1 by 0.3–0.5 mm, apically acute, pilose. Pistillate flowers c. 1.5 by 1 mm; pedicels 0.2–1 mm long, glabrous; calyx 0.7 –1 by 0.7–1 mm, cupular to urceolate, sepals 4 or 5(6), fused for 1/2–2/3 of their length, deltoid, apically acute, sinuses rounded to obtuse, glabrous to pilose outside, glabrous to pilose inside, margin entire; disc shorter than the sepals, shortly pubescent or glabrous outside and at the margin, glabrous inside; ovary ovoid, glabrous, very rarely sparsely pilose, style terminal, stigmas 4–6. Infructescences 3–6 cm long, axes 0.7–1.5 mm wide; fruiting pedicels 0–1 mm long, sparsely puberulous to glabrous. Fruits ellipsoid to globose, laterally compressed, probably terete when fully mature, basally symmetrical, with a terminal style, 3–3.5 by 2–3 mm, glabrous, very rarely sparsely pilose, sometimes white-pustulate, areolate or fleshy when dry.

 

35a. var. myriocarpum

 

    Antidesma myriocarpum Airy Shaw var. myriocarpum: Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 215; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 173, Map 19.

 

Tree, rarely shrub, up to 10 m, clear bole up to 4 m, diameter up to 34 cm; young twigs shortly pilose to ferrugineous-pubescent, becoming glabrous when older. Leaves: petioles shortly puberulous to almost glabrous; blades glabrous, or sparsely puberulous only along the midvein adaxially and along the major veins abaxially, shiny on both surfaces. Disc shortly pubescent outside and at the margin, glabrous inside.

    Distribution — Indonesia: Papua and Papua New Guinea (Central, Eastern Highlands, Madang, Morobe, Western Higlands provinces).

    Habitat & Ecology — In secondary forest; at forest margins leading to grassland; in open scrub; on river banks; in gardens; often in regrowth. On stoney clay or sand. Altitude: 800–2300 m.

    Vernacular names — Indonesia: Papua: Pupabee or Popawee (Dani); Papua New Guinea: Assafa (Dunatina), Kinskins (Wahgi: Mini), Koril (Chibu: Masul), Mupuruma (Asaro: Kefamo).

 

35b. var. puberulum Airy Shaw

 

    Antidesma myriocarpum Airy Shaw var. puberulum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 33 (1978) 17 (“Antidesma myrianthum var. puberulum”); Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 215; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 174, Map 19. — Type: Brass 29141 (K, holo; iso: A, CANB, L, NY, US), North-eastern New Guinea, Morobe Distr., Wau-Edie Creek Road.

 

Tree, 13–23 m, diameter 15–30 cm; young twigs densely ferrugineous-pubescent. Leaves: petioles densely ferrugineous-pubescent; blades glabrous except for the ferrugineous-pubescent major veins adaxially, pilose all over abaxially, densely ferrugineous-pubescent along the veins, shiny adaxially, dull abaxially. Disc glabrous.

    Distribution — Papua New Guinea: Morobe province. All three known specimens come from a small area between 7°10'–7°20'S and 146°40'–146°45'E.

    Habitat & Ecology — In rainforest. Altitude:1400–1600 m.

 

36. Antidesma neurocarpum Miq.

 

    Antidesma neurocarpum Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 466; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 214; Petra Hoffm. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 73; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 175, Map 27, 28. — Antidesma microcarpum Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv.: 184 (1861), nom. nud. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Teijsmann HB 4532 (U, holo; iso: K), Sumatra austr., in prov. Lampong, prope Siringkebau, Mangala.

 

Shrub, treelet or tree (fide Wiriadinata 1324: climber), up to 23 m, clear bole up to 17 m, diameter up to 20 cm (fide Soepadmo 626: 50 m, diameter 70 cm); twigs usually white to grey, also cream, yellowish brown or light brown; young twigs terete, spreading-ferruginous-pubescent but white when becoming glabrous, first brown, whitish grey when older. Bark brown, grey, white, beige green or reddish brown, 1–2 mm thick, smooth, often flaking, non-fissured, soft; inner bark white, green, grey, brown, pink, purple, red or yellow, 1–2.5 mm thick, fibrous, soft; cambium yellow, white, green, pink or reddish; wood hard and dense, sapwood white, yellow, brown, pink or red, heartwood pinkish brown, red or red-ochre. Stipules persistent, foliaceous or not, cordate to elliptic, more rarely linear to subulate, 4–15(–25) by (0.5–)2–10(–18) mm, chartaceous, basally more or less symmetrical, apically acuminate to acute, often long mucronate, pilose, becoming glabrous, venation more or less reticulate. Leaves: petioles slightly channelled to flat adaxially, becoming rugose when old, (0–)3–7(–10) by c. 1 mm, spreading-ferruginous-pubescent, becoming glabrous when old; blades elliptic, oblong, obovate, elliptic to linear, sometimes falcate, (3–)9–14(–20) by (0.7–)3–4(–7) cm, length/width ratio (2.2–)3.3(–11), chartaceous to coriaceous, basally acute, apically acuminate-mucronate, sometimes caudate, glabrous adaxially, ferrugineous-pilose along the veins abaxially, more rarely all over, shiny adaxially, dull to shiny abaxially, midvein shallowly impressed to flat adaxially, tertiary veins weakly percurrent to reticulate, perpendicular tertiary and intersecondary veins conspicuous near the midvein, drying dark reddish brown to grey. Staminate inflorescences 2–6 cm long, axillary, simple or branched mostly near the base, consisting of up to 7 branches, axes ferrugineous-pubescent; bracts deltoid, c. 0.5 by 0.3 mm, apically acute, ferrugineous-pubescent. Staminate flowers c. 1 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicels 0–4 mm long, not articulated; calyx c. 0.7 by 1 mm, sepals (4)5(6), nearly free to irregularly fused for up to 1/2 of their length, c. 0.4 mm wide, more or less reflexed, deltoid, apically acute, pubescent to pilose outside, pilose inside with particularly long hairs at the base, margin entire; disc cushion-shaped, hemispherical, fully or partially enclosing the bases of the filaments and, if present, the pistillode, constricted at the base, glabrous; stamens (3)4 or 5, 0.8–1 mm long, exserted 0.8–1 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.2–0.3 by 0.2–0.3 mm; pistillode usually absent, rarely hemispherical, up to 0.1 by c. 0.2 mm, glabrous or sparsely pilose. Pistillate inflorescences 1.5–6 cm long, axillary, simple, rarely once-branched or in fascicles of 2 inflorescences, axes spreading-ferrugineous- to ochraceous-pubescent; bracts deltoid, 0.5–0.8 by 0.3–0.5 mm, apically acute, pubescent. Pistillate flowers 1.5–2 by c. 1 mm; pedicels 0.3–0.5(–1.5) mm long, pilose to pubescent; calyx 0.3–0.8 by c. 0.8 mm, sepals 3–5(–7), fused only at the base, rarely irregularly fused for up to 1/2 of their length, apically acute, ferrugineous-pubescent to glabrous outside, glabrous or with long hairs inside especially at the base (but not exceeding the calyx); disc exserted from or shorter than the sepals but always conspicuous, glabrous; ovary globose, glabrous, rarely pilose, style terminal to lateral, stigmas 3 or 4. Infructescences 3–16 cm long; fruiting pedicels 1–8(–20) mm long, ferrugineous-pubescent to almost glabrous. Fruits ellipsoid, globose, ovoid or obovoid, dorsiventrally compressed, terete or laterally compressed, basally symmetrical or asymmetrical, with a subterminal to lateral style, 5–13 by 3–9 mm, glabrous, rarely thinly puberulent, sometimes white-pustulate, reticulate when dry.

    Note — A very variable species. The fruit shape has caused some taxonomic confusion; this character is constant in almost all other Antidesma species. In Antidesma neurocarpum, however, there are all intermediates between the dorsiventrally compressed fruits of the typical Antidesma neurocarpum on the one hand and the laterally compressed fruits of Antidesma alatum on the other (cf. also Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 28, 1973: 272). Sometimes both are found on the same specimen (e.g., Soepadmo 626 (K) from Pahang, SAN 88850 (K, L) from Sabah). No correlation of fruit shape with stipule size, indumentum or other morphological characters could be found.

    Throughout the geographic range of the species, some collections have puberulous ovaries and fruits (e.g., Argent et al. 93188 (E, K, L) and Burley et al. 2983 (E, K, L)). This ranges from a very sparse indumentum (e.g., Church 571 (L)) to a dense pubescence of the ovary (e.g., Church et al. 1825 (L)).

 

36a. var. neurocarpum

 

    Antidesma neurocarpum Miq. var. neurocarpum: Petra Hoffm. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 73; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 175, Map 27.

    Antidesma salicifolium Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 467, nom. illeg. (non C.Presl, 1849). — Type: Diepenhorst HB 2352 (U, holo; iso: CAL, K, MEL), Sumatra occ., in prov. Priaman.

    Antidesma alatum Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 358; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 358, as synon. nov. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Wallich [no. 8583] (K, holo; iso: K), Singapore.

    Antidesma hallieri Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 11 (1916) 57; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 4 (1975) 214, as synon. nov. e descr. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Hallier 1773 (K, holo; iso: A [photo of destroyed holotype ex PNH], BO, L, U), Borneo, s. loc.

    Antidesma rubiginosum Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 11 (1916) 61; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 358, as synon. nov. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Hose 297 (BM, holo; iso: A [photo of destroyed holotype ex PNH], K, L, P), Sarawak, Baram Distr., Baram.

    Antidesma inflatum Merr., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 76 (1917) 91; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 358, as synon. nov. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Villamil 235 (US, holo; A [photo of destroyed holotype ex PNH], K), Sabah, Kalabakan watershed.

    Antidesma urophyllum Pax & K.Hoffm., Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 7 (1931) 224. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Winkler 883 (HBG), West-Borneo, auf dem Bukit Raja.

    Antidesma cf. hosei Pax & K.Hoffm. var. oxyurum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 362. — Type: De Voogd 1071 (L!, holotype), West Sumatra, Benkoelen, Rimbo-pengaden.

 

Stipules foliaceous, cordate to elliptic, more rarely linear to subulate, 5–15(–25) by 2–10(–18) mm, chartaceous, basally more or less symmetrical, apically acuminate to acute, often long mucronate, venation more or less reticulate. Leaves: petioles 3–7 mm long; blades elliptic, oblong or obovate, (6–)9–14(–20) by (2–)3–4(–7) cm, length/width ratio(2.2–)3.3(–4.6), without conspicuous stomata abaxially, drying dark reddish brown. Pedicel absent. Infructescences 4–16 cm long; fruiting pedicels 1–8(–20) mm long. Fruits dorsiventrally compressed, terete, or laterally compressed, 6–10 by 4–7 mm, glabrous, rarely thinly puberulent, sometimes white-pustulate.

    Distribution — Peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Borneo. The specimen from Mergui, Peninsular Burma (Parker 2741, CAL) attributed to this species by Chakrabarty & Gangopadhyay (J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 21, 2000) could not be examined for this study.

    Habitat & Ecology — In lowland to montane forest up to 45 m tall; in dipterocarp forest, associated with Dryobalanops, Hopea, Lithocarpus, Shorea; in freshwater swamps; along logging roads and rivers; in open bamboo forest; in submontane mossy forest; in thickets and heath forest; often in dense, humid, shaded habitats; in primary or secondary vegetation. On sand, clay, loam, lateritic or volcanic soil, over sandstone, limestone, shales, basalt or granite. Altitude: sea level up to 1800 m.

    Use — The hard wood is used in Java to make walking sticks (Heyne, Nutt. Pl. Ned.-Ind. 3, 1917: 77).

    Vernacular names — Sumatra: Boriengen riembo, Ingara lelen, Kayu keliengoh, Kayu si basa, Kayu saber bubu, Kayu selipei, Useu-useu lutung (Indonesian), Sale sale balah. Borneo: Sabah: Kandatan (Dusun), Kemuning-kemuning (Kedayan), Kilas, Lagalagas (Dusun), Legas legas, Muntinagas (Dusun), Prumpung imbaan (Tengara), Purak (Dusun), Rambai rambai (Dusun), Susup (Sungei), Tangkukau (Dusun), Tutuh (Dusun); Sarawak: Bernai betjuping or Bertjuping, Buah puteh hitam, Buti (Iban), Mutek (Iban), Tulang-patala (Murut), Tumas; Kalimantan: Beleti limbo, Kayu tahum, Keteleng (Bassap-Mapulu, teleng = ear, stipule), Mayan rimbo, Menyalin, Patah jarum, Pondok, Uhai arong.

 

36b. var. hosei (Pax & K.Hoffm.) Petra Hoffm.

 

    Antidesma neurocarpum Miq. var. hosei (Pax & K.Hoffm.) Petra Hoffm., Kew Bull. 54 (1999) 360; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 179, Map 28. — Antidesma hosei Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 138; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 211. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 1999): Hose 549 (K, holo; iso: BM, E, L), Sarawak, Baram district, Miri River.

    Antidesma plumbeum Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 133. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 1999): Beccari PB 154 (K, holo; iso: P), Borneo, Sarawak, Kuching.

    Antidesma hosei Pax & K.Hoffm. var. microcarpum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 28 (1973) 271; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 212. — Type: S (Anderson) 20204 (K , holo; iso: L, SAR), Sarawak.

    Antidesma hosei Pax & K.Hoffm. var. angustatum (Airy Shaw) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 212. — Antidesma neurocarpum Miq. var. angustatum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 28 (1973) 270. — Type: S (Suib) 22269 (K, holo; iso: A, L, SAR), Sarawak, 3rd Division, Bukit Raya, Kapit.

 

Stipules not foliaceous, elliptic, linear or subulate, often falcate, 4–7 by 0.5–1 mm. Leaves: petioles (0–)2–6(–10) mm long; blades elliptic, oblong or obovate, (3–)6–10(–13) by (0.7–)2–3(–5) cm, length/width ratio (2–)3.5(–5.8), without conspicuous stomata abaxially, drying dark reddish brown to grey. Pedicels 0–4 mm long. Infructescences 6–9 cm long; fruiting pedicels 1–9 mm long. Fruits dorsiventrally compressed, terete, or laterally compressed, 8–13 by 6–9 mm, glabrous, not white-pustulate.

    Distribution — Peninsular Malaysia (Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang), Sumatra (Aceh, one specimen only), Borneo.

    Habitat & Ecology — In lowland to hill (mixed) dipterocarp forest, dipterocarpnothofagus forest, mixed lowland forest and lower montane forest dominated by Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Myristicaceae; in mossy forest; in heath forest (“kerangas”); in seasonal swamps and peat swamp forest; in riverine forest; in old secondary vegetation around human habitation (Malay: “belukar”); in primary or secondary vegetation; often in shade. On white sand, clay, sandy loam or shallow peat, often alluvial soil, over sandstone, limestone or ultrabasic rock. Altitude: sea level up to 1900 m.

    Use — The wood is used as firewood. Reported to be used “as antidote for the species called “Itak”. When this is tied onto a string and put across a trail, the enemy named would suffer physical pain leading to paralysis. This plant is carried for protection. Used by Penan in blockade.” (S (Chai et al.) 68826 from Sarawak).

    Vernacular names — Sabah: Kukuleb (Dusun); Brunei: Tis (Dusun); Sarawak: Lapad litak (LB.); Ubar-budak (Kelabi).

    Note — Differs from the type variety in the narrower, thicker stipules, more coriaceous leaves, weaker rufous indumentum, often pedicellate staminate flowers and less hairy sepals. These differences are not always clear and intergradation occurs (cf. also Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 28, 1973: 272).

 

36c. var. linearifolium (Pax & K.Hoffm.) Petra Hoffm.

 

    Antidesma neurocarpum Miq. var. linearifolium (Pax & K.Hoffm.) Petra Hoffm., Kew Bull. 54 (1999) 360; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 181, Map 28. — Antidesma linearifolium Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 130; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 28 (1973) 275; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 213. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 1999): Beccari PB 3831 (K), Sarawak.

 

Stipules often foliaceous, elliptic, 4–12 by 1.5–4 mm, basally symmetrical, apically acute-mucronate, venation reticulate, chartaceous. Leaves: petioles 2–4 mm long; blades elliptic to linear, sometimes falcate, (5–)6–12(–13) by  (0.7–)1–1.5(–1.8) cm, length/width ratio (5.5–)8(–11), with conspicuous stomata abaxially (dissecting microscope!), drying dark reddish brown; pedicels 0.5–1 mm long. Infructescences 3–5 cm long; fruiting pedicels 1–3 mm long. Fruits laterally compressed, 5–9 by 3–5 mm, glabrous, sometimes white-pustulate.

    Distribution — Borneo, including Brunei, Sabah and Sarawak. 

    Habitat & Ecology — In riverine forest, seasonally flooded areas, usually bordering primary lowland or hill dipterocarp forest. On sandy clay and shales. Altitude: 20–700 m.

    Vernacular name — Sarawak: Owa.

 

37. Antidesma orthogyne (Hook.f.) Airy Shaw

 

    Antidesma orthogyne (Hook.f.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1971) 359, 459; Petra Hoffm. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 74; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 182, Fig. 15a-e, Map 26. — Antidesma velutinosum Blume var. orthogyne Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 357. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Griffith KD 4928 (K, holo; iso: GH?, K), Malacca.

 

Shrub or tree, up to 6 m, diameter up to 5 cm (fide Alvins s.n.: large tree 27 m); young twigs terete to obtuse-angled, densely spreading-hirsute, brown. Bark grey. Stipules usually persistent, linear to narrowly deltoid, (3–)5–7(–10) by 0.5–1.5 mm, apically acute, hirsute. Leaves: petioles terete or narrowly channelled adaxially, 3–10 by 1–2 mm, densely spreading-hirsute; blades elliptic to oblong, (6–)15–20(–27) by (3–)5–7(–10) cm, length/width ratio (2–)2.8(–5), eglandular, chartaceous, basally acute to obtuse, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous except along the midvein adaxially, spreading-hirsute all over abaxially, especially along the veins, intercostal areas rarely glabrous, dull to moderately shiny on both surfaces, major veins impressed adaxially, tertiary veins weakly percurrent, widely spaced, drying olive-green, lighter abaxially. Staminate inflorescences 3–6 cm long, axillary, simple or consisting of up to 7 branches, densely set with flowers, axes spreading-hirsute; bracts linear to elliptic, 0.5–0.7 by 0.2–0.5 mm, apically acute to rounded, pilose to pubescent, margin fimbriate to glandular-fimbriate. Staminate flowers 1.5–2 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicels 0.2–0.5 mm long, not articulated, glabrous to pilose; calyx c. 0.5 mm long, sepals 4, free or nearly so, nearly orbicular, apically rounded to acuminate, pilose outside, glabrous inside, margin erose, sometimes glandular; disc cushion-shaped, enclosing the bases of the filaments and pistillode, hirsute; stamens 4, c. 1.5 mm long, exserted c. 1 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.3–0.4 by 0.3–0.4 mm; pistillode subulate, c. 0.5 by 0.1–0.2 mm, extending to the same length as, to slightly exserted from the sepals, glabrous to hirsute. Pistillate inflorescences 4–10 cm long, axillary, simple or once-branched at the base, axes densely hirsute; bracts deltoid to linear, 0.5–1 by 0.2–0.3 mm, hirsute. Pistillate flowers 1.5–2 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicels 0.5–0.8 mm long, glabrous; calyx 0.7–1 mm long, sepals 4, free or nearly so, c. 0.5 mm wide, narrowly deltoid to orbicular, apically acute to rounded, hirsute outside, glabrous inside but with long hairs at the base, margin sometimes glandular; disc much shorter than the sepals, hirsute; ovary ellipsoid to globose, spreading-hirsute, style terminal to subterminal, stigmas 3–6. Infructescences 5–12 cm long; fruiting pedicels 1–2 mm long, spreading-hirsute. Fruits ovoid, apiculate, dorsiventrally compressed, basally symmetrical to slightly asymmetrical, with a subterminal to terminal style, 7–8 by 4–5 mm, pilose, white-pustulate, areolate when dry.

    Distribution — Peninsular Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia.

    Habitat & Ecology — In primary, sometimes disturbed, dipterocarp forest. Altitude: 10–700 m.

    Uses — The wood is used for planks. The juice from the fruits is used as an antiseptic (KEP FRI (Cockburn) 7467).

    Vernacular names — Malaysia: Beras beras pachat, Muranti tukukor.

    Note — This species has been confused with Antidesma velutinosum in the past. Hooker (in the protologue) and Airy Shaw (1972: 460) recognised it as a separate taxon because of the different fruits but considered staminate specimens indistinguishable from Antidesma velutinosum. Airy Shaw even suggested fruit dimorphism in Antidesma velutinosum. In fact, the type of Antidesma orthogyne is a mixed gathering, consisting of twigs of Antidesma orthogyne with very young fruits and one staminate flowering twig of Antidesma velutinosum. No staminate specimen had hitherto been recognised and described as Antidesma orthogyne, even though there are staminate collections in many herbaria (usually filed under Antidesma velutinosum).

    Another duplicate of the mixed gathering containing the type of Antidesma orthogyne is Herb. Griffith KD 4928 in P which represents a third species, the similar Antidesma roxburghii Tul. from India.

 

38. Antidesma pachystachys Hook.f.

 

    Antidesma pachystachys Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 355; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 185, Map 29. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): King’s collector 1934 (K, holo; iso: P), Malaysia, Perak, at Larut.

    Antidesma pachystachys Hook.f. var. palustre Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 28 (1973) 269. — Type: SF (Corner) 29232 (K), Malaya, Johore, mile 13.5 Mawai-Jemulang Road.

 

Shrub or tree, up to 7 m; young twigs terete to obtuse-angled, ferrugineous-pubescent but soon becoming glabrous, brown. Stipules usually persistent, foliaceous, ovate to elliptic, rarely linear, (8–)15–40 by (2–)5–12 mm, chartaceous, basally asymmetrical, apically acuminate, reticulately veined, pilose to glabrous. Leaves: petioles slightly channelled adaxially, becoming rugose when old, 3–12(–22) by 2–5 mm, ferrugineous-pubescent, glabrescent; blades elliptic-oblong, (15–)30–40(–45) by (5–)10–12(–18) cm, length/width ratio (2–)3.2(–4.8), eglandular, coriaceous to chartaceous, basally acute to rounded, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous, sometimes pilose only along the midvein adaxially, glabrous to stellate-pilose or with 2-armed hairs all over or only along the major veins abaxially, shiny adaxially, shiny or dull abaxially, major veins sharply raised adaxially, especially in the apical part of the leaf blades, tertiary veins mainly percurrent, close together, drying olive-green to brownish. Staminate inflorescences 10–27 cm long, axillary, simple, axes glabrous to pubescent; bracts elliptic, 1–1.5 by 0.5–1 mm, apically acute, pilose to pubescent. Staminate flowers 1.5–2 by 1.5–2 mm; pedicels absent; calyx 0.8–1 by 1–1.5 mm, cupular, sepals 4 or 5, fused for 1/2–2/3 of their length, nearly orbicular, apically rounded, glabrous to pubescent outside, glabrous inside, margin fimbriate; disc extrastaminal-annular, pilose; stamens 4 or 5, c. 1.5 mm long, exserted 0.5–1 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm; pistillode clavate, c. 0.7 by 0.3–0.4 mm, extending to the same length as the sepals, pubescent. Pistillate inflorescences 15–20 cm long, axillary, simple, axes glabrous to ferrugineous-pubescent; bracts linear to elliptic, 1–2 by 0.3–0.5 mm, pubescent. Pistillate flowers 2–2.5 by c. 2 mm; calyx c. 1 by 2 mm, obconical, sepals 5, fused for c. 1/2 of their length, deltoid, apically acute, sinuses acute, glabrous to pilose outside, glabrous inside, margin fimbriate; disc shorter than the sepals but usually visible between them, glabrous or pilose only at the margin; ovary globose, laterally compressed, densely pubescent, style lateral, stigmas 4–7, rather long. Infructescences 25–50 cm long. Fruiting pedicels 3–6 mm long, glabrous to ferrugineous-pubescent, indumentum sometimes stellate. Fruits obliquely ovoid (mango-shaped), laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a subterminal style, 12–16 by 8–9 mm, glabrous to stellate-pilose or with 2-armed hairs, sometimes slightly white-pustulate, reticulate when dry.

    Distribution — Peninsular Malaysia: Johore, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Penang, Perak.

    Habitat & Ecology — In dense, shady forest; sometimes in swamp forest. Altitude: 120–500 m.

    Note — The stellate indumentum on the fruits and abaxial leaf surfaces may be 2- to many-armed, sessile or stalked.

 

39. Antidesma pahangense Airy Shaw

 

    Antidesma pahangense Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 277; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 187, Map 30. — Type: Dolman 27623 (K, holo; iso: SING), Malaysia, Pahang, Ulu Telom.

 

Tree, up to 13 m, diameter up to 6 cm; young twigs terete to obtuse-angled, ferrugineous-pubescent, brown. Bark grey, brown or fawn, smooth; inner bark whitish; wood hard, whitish, reddish or brown. Stipules often caducous, linear to elliptic, 5–17 by 0.5–2(–4) mm, pubescent. Leaves: petioles flat to slightly channelled adaxially, 3–9(–13) by 1–3(–5) mm, pubescent, becoming glabrous when old; blades elliptic, more rarely oblong (10–)20–25(–33) by (3.5–)7–10(–17) cm, length/width ratio (2.1–)2.7(–3.3), eglandular, chartaceous to coriaceous, basally acute, more rarely obtuse or rounded,, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous, or slightly pilose only at the base and along the midvein adaxially, slightly pilose abaxially, more so along the veins, dull on both surfaces, major veins flat or shallowly impressed, tertiary veins reticulate to weakly percurrent, rather widely spaced, drying reddish brown. Staminate inflorescences 11–25 cm long, axillary, simple, axes ferrugineous-pubescent; bracts linear, 2–2.5 by 0.2–0.4 mm, pubescent. Staminate flowers c. 2 by 2 mm; pedicels 0.5–1.5 mm long, not articulated, pilose; calyx c. 1 by 1.5–2 mm, bowl-shaped, sepals 5 or 6, fused for 1/2 of their length, deltoid, apically acute, pilose to pubescent outside, glabrous inside but sometimes with long hairs at the base, margin entire, sometimes fimbriate; disc cushion-shaped, enclosing the bases of the filaments and pistillode, sparsely pilose to densely pubescent; stamens 5 or 6, 1.5–2 mm long, exserted 1–1.5 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.4–0.5 by 0.5–0.7 mm; pistillode obconical, sometimes completely sunk into the disc, sometimes crateriform, 0.2–0.5 by 0.3–0.7 mm, shorter than to exserted from the sepals, pilose to densely pubescent. Pistillate inflorescences 10–25 cm long, axillary (also cauline?), simple, axes ferrugineous-pubescent; bracts linear, 2–2.5 by 0.2–0.3 mm, pubescent. Pistillate flowers 2–3 by 1.5–2 mm; pedicels 0.3–1 mm long, pubescent; calyx 1–1.5 by 1–1.5 mm, sepals 5 or 6, fused only at the base, narrowly deltoid, apically acute, pubescent outside, glabrous inside, margin entire; disc shorter than the sepals but usually visible between the sepals, pilose at the margin, otherwise glabrous; ovary ellipsoid, densely ochraceous-pubescent, style subterminal, stigmas 4 or 5. Infructescences 20–60 cm long; fruiting pedicels 1–5 mm long, pubescent. Fruits ellipsoid, terete or slightly laterally, or dorsiventrally compressed, basally symmetrical or asymmetrical, with a terminal to distinctly lateral style, 9–10 by 7–9 mm, pilose, sometimes with stellate hairs, sometimes slightly white-pustulate, reticulate to areolate when dry.

    Distribution — Peninsular Malaysia: Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor, Terengganu.

    Habitat & Ecology — In mossy forest; in forest with bamboo; often on steep rocky hillsides or streamsides. Alitutde: (70–)900–1400 m.

    Vernacular names — Kerdap.

 

40. Antidesma pendulum Hook.f.

 

    Antidesma pendulum Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 356; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 215; Petra Hoffm. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 75; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 189, Fig. 16, Map 31. — Type: Scortechini 818 (K, holo; iso: L), Malaysia, Perak.

    Antidesma batuense J.J.Sm., Icon. Bogor 4 (1914) 251, t. 380. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Raap 680 (BO, holo; iso: L), Batoe-Inseln (westlich von Sumatra).

    Antidesma stenophyllum Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 11 (1916) 62 (non Gage 1922); Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 28 (1973) 275; Kew Bull., Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 216. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): BS (Native collector) 2081 (US, holo; iso: A, [photo of destroyed holotype ex PNH], K), Sarawak, Mt Sudan.

    Antidesma sumatranum Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 120. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Forbes 1550 (BM), Sumatra.

 

Shrub or tree, up to 6 m, diameter up to 5 cm; young twigs terete, glabrous or nearly so, brown. Bark very light brown to silvery grey. Stipules usually persistent, linear to subulate, 6–25 by 0.5–3 mm, glabrous. Leaves: petioles channelled to almost flat adaxially, (3–)5–15(–30) by 1.5–4(–6) mm, glabrous; blades narrowly obovate, more rarely elliptic, (13–)25–30(–50) by (4–)7–9(–14) cm, length/width ratio (2.5–)3.5(–5), eglandular, chartaceous to coriaceous, basally acute, apically acuminate-mucronate, sometimes caudate, glabrous on both surfaces, shiny or dull on both surfaces, major veins flat to slightly raised, rarely shallowly impressed adaxially, tertiary veins mainly percurrent, widely spaced, drying yellowish brown, usually lighter abaxially. Staminate inflorescences c. 15 cm long, axillary, simple, solitary or 2 per fascicle, axes glabrous; bracts deltoid, 0.5–0.7 by 0.3–0.4 mm, apically acute, slightly pilose to glabrous. Staminate flowers 1–1.5 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicel absent; calyx c. 0.7 by 1–1.5 mm, cupular, sepals 4 or 5, fused for 1/2–3/4 of their length, apically rounded, sinuses rounded, glabrous to pilose outside, glabrous inside, margin erose; disc consisting of 4 or 5 short, free alternistaminal lobes which may appear to be fused extrastaminally, glabrous to pilose; stamens 4– or 5, 1–1.5 mm long, exserted c. 0.7 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.3 by 0.4 mm; pistillode cylindrical or nearly so, sometimes 2-fid for c. 2/3 of its length, each part 2-fid again apically, 0.5–0.7 by 0.2–0.5 mm, extending to the same length as or slightly exserted from the sepals, glabrous. Pistillate inflorescences 8–35 cm long, axillary, simple, axes glabrous to shortly appressed-pilose; bracts deltoid, 0.3–0.8 by 0.2–0.3 mm, apically acute, glabrous to pilose. Pistillate flowers 1–1.5 by 1 mm; calyx 0.6–0.7 by c. 1 mm, sepals 4 or 5, fused for 1/4–1/2 of their length, deltoid, apically obtuse to rounded, sinuses rounded, glabrous to pilose outside, glabrous inside, margin erose, sometimes ciliate; disc shorter than the sepals, glabrous, or pilose only at the margin; ovary ellipsoid, appressed-pilose to appressed-pubescent, style subterminal, stigmas 4 or 5. Infructescences 25–75 cm long; fruiting pedicels 0–1(–3) mm long, glabrous. Fruits ovoid to ellipsoid or lenticular, often apiculate, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, rarely asymmetrical, with a terminal to subterminal style, 10–13 by 7–9 mm, glabrous to sparsely pilose (indumentum never stellate), sometimes white-pustulate, reticulate when dry.

    Distribution — Peninsular Thailand (Narathiwat), Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo (Kalimantan and Sarawak).

    Habitat & Ecology — In primary or secondary forest; in mixed dipterocarp forest; in swamp and riverine forest; by waterfalls. On clay-loam soil over limestone, sandstone or granite. Altitude: 15–600(–1300) m.

    Vernacular name — Sumatra: Kayu mangnae.

    Notes — Antidesma stenophyllum was described by Merrill based on a single collection in staminate bud, distinguished from typical Antidesma pendulum by the smaller and narrower leaves (15–17.5 by 2.2–2.7 cm, 6–6.6 times as long as wide). This could be a slightly rheophytic ecotype or a poorly developed plant growing under unfavourable conditions.

 

41. Antidesma petiolatum Airy Shaw

 

    Antidesma petiolatum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 33 (1978) 16, nom. nov.; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 217; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 192, Fig. 17, Map 32. — Antidesma petiolare Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 466; Kew Bull. 28 (1973) 276, nom. illeg. (non Tul. 1851). — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Darbyshire & Hoogland 8339 (K, holo; iso: A, CANB, L), Territory of New Guinea, Sepik Distr., Aitape subdistr., near Wantipi village (on Bliri R.).

    Antidesma riparium Kaneh. & Hatus. ( “riparia”), nom. nud. in sched. — Representative specimens: Kanehira & Hatusima 12637 (A, BO), Dutch New Guinea, Ayerjat, 40 km inward of Nabire; Kanehira & Hatusima 12836 (BO), Nabire, Bivak Prao, 20 km inward from the mouth of Boemi R.

 

Tree, up to 10 m, diameter up to 15 cm; twigs grey; young twigs terete to striate, shortly ferrugineous-pubescent to glabrous, brown, sometimes light brown with a reddish tinge. Bark brown, grey or green, smooth or rough, shallowly longitudinally fissured, inner bark salmon, reddish brown, brown cream; wood white, cream or pink. Stipules early-caducous, ovate, 3.5–6 by 2–2.5 mm, apically acuminate, shortly pubescent. Leaves: petioles narrowly channelled adaxially to nearly terete, 15–45 by 1.5–2 mm, basally and distally sometimes pulvinate up to 10 mm, shortly pubescent to glabrous; blades elliptic to ovate, rarely slightly obovate, (10–)15–20(–29) by (5–)7.5–10(–13.5) cm, length/width ratio (1.5–)1.9–2.1(–2.4), eglandular, chartaceous, basally truncate to rounded, more rarely obtuse, sometimes shortly decurrent, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous, or shortly puberulous only along the midvein adaxially and the major veins abaxially, moderately shiny on both surfaces, major veins impressed to flat adaxially, tertiary veins percurrent to weakly percurrent, widely spaced or close together, drying olive-green, lighter abaxially, domatia absent. Staminate inflorescences 4–7(–10) cm long, axillary, simple or consisting of up to 10 branches, axes ferrugineous- or ochraceous-pilose to -pubescent; bracts linear, elliptic or obelliptic to spathulate, 0.5–1.2 by 0.3–1 mm, apically acute to rounded, pilose, margin fimbriate. Staminate flowers 1–2 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicels 0.3–0.5 mm long, not articulated, glabrous to sparsely pilose; calyx 0.5–1 by c. 1 mm, cupular to nearly globose, sepals 3–5, fused for 1/2–3/4 of their length, deltoid, often unequal, apically acute, sinuses rounded, glabrous outside and inside, margin fimbriate; disc consisting of (2)3(4) free alternistaminal lobes, lobes ± obconical, c. 0.5 by 0.2–0.5 mm, exserted from the sepals, sometimes extrastaminally fused, glabrous at the sides, ferrugineous- to whitish-pubescent apically; stamens 2–4, 1–1.5 mm long, exserted 0.5–1 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.4 by 0.5 mm; pistillode subulate, rarely clavate, 0.5(–1) by 0.1–0.3 mm, extending to the same length as or, more rarely, exserted from the disc, ferrugineous- to whitish-pubescent. Pistillate inflorescences 2.5–6 cm long, axillary to cauline, branched regularly, consisting of 3–10 branches, rarely simple, axes pilose to pubescent; bracts linear to elliptic, 0.5–0.7 by 0.3–0.4 mm, apically acute, pilose, margin fimbriate. Pistillate flowers c. 1 by 0.5 mm; pedicels 0.3– 0.5 mm long, glabrous to sparsely pilose; calyx 0.4–0.5 by 0.4–0.8 mm, cupular to nearly globose, sepals 5, fused for 2/3 of their length, deltoid, often unequal, apically acute to obtuse, sinuses narrow, rounded to obtuse, glabrous on both sides, margin fimbriate; disc shorter than the sepals, but indumentum usually exserted from the sepals, ochraceous- to ferrugineous-tomentose at the margin, hairs about as long as the disc; ovary ellipsoid to ovoid, terete, glabrous, style terminal to subterminal, stigmas 3–6. Infructescences 5–7 cm long; fruiting pedicels 0.5–1 mm long, glabrous to sparsely pilose. Fruits globose to ellipsoid or obovoid, slightly laterally compressed to terete, basally symmetrical, with a subterminal to terminal style, 2–3 by 1.5–2 mm including the calyx, glabrous, not white-pustulate, wrinkled (neither areolate nor reticulate) when dry.

    Distribution — New Guinea.

    Habitat & Ecology — In or at the edges of primary (occasionally disturbed) rainforest; in primary riverine forest; in villages, gardens and regrowth. On old well-drained volcanic soil. Altitude: 50–850 m.

    Uses — The wood is preferred as taro planting and digging stick; it is also used in bush house construction and as firewood.

    Vernacular names —Imendal or Iimendral (Miyanmin), Awilo (Orne), Samuli.

    Notes — 1. The staminate flowering specimen Brass 32293 (K, L, NY, US) from Eastern Highlands Province was collected at an unusually high altitude and has consistently extrastaminally fused disc lobes, but shows the characteristic wide stipules, long Leaves: petioles and large leaves of Antidesma petiolatum.

    2. In M.S.Clemens 869 (A) from Sattelberg, Morobe province, the staminate inflorescences are like Antidesma petiolatum but the petioles are only 6–10 mm long and the leaves are only 10–15 by 4–6 cm and have domatia. This might be a mixed collection as none of the leaves are attached to the flowering twigs; it is provisionally placed here.

 

42. Antidesma pleuricum Tul.

 

    Antidesma pleuricum Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 213; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 196, Map 33. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Callery 38 (P  (“38bis”)), Phillipines, Calawanio. 

    Antidesma obliquicarpum Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 7 (1915) 2633. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Elmer 13277 (NY, holo; iso: A, E, G, GH, K, L, P, US), Philippines, Cabadbaran (Mt Urdaneta), Prov. Agusan, Mindanao.

    ?Antidesma tenuifolium Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 137. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Curran 10736 (K, holo; iso: NY, US), Philippines, Luzon, Camarines.

 

Tree, up to 10 m, diameter up to 25 cm; young twigs terete, shortly spreading-pubescent, whitish grey. Bark yellowish brown, scaly; inner bark reddish; wood hard, rather brittle and heavy, sapwood whitish, odourless and tasteless. Stipules not seen. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, 7–15(–22) by 0.8–1.2(–2) mm, basally and distally sometimes pulvinate for 2–3 mm, pubescent to glabrous; blades ovate to elliptic, more rarely oblong or obovate, (5–)9–12(–22) by (2.5–)4–6(–9) cm, length/width ratio (1.7–)2.1(–2.5), eglandular, chartaceous to membranaceous, basally obtuse to truncate, rarely acute, often slightly folded when dry, apically acuminate, with an obtuse to shortly mucronate apiculum, glabrous except for the sparsely pilose major veins, moderately shiny on both surfaces, midvein impressed adaxially, tertiary veins weakly percurrent, drying olive-green. Staminate inflorescences 5–11 cm long, axillary but aggregated at the end of the branch, consisting of 5–50 branches, lax, axes pubescent; bracts elliptic, c. 0.7 by 0.5 mm, apically acute, pubescent. Staminate flowers 1–2 by 1–2 mm; pedicel absent; calyx 0.5–0.7 by c. 1 mm, bowl-shaped, sepals 4 or 5, fused for 1/2–2/3 of their length, apically rounded to acute, glabrous to slightly pilose on both sides, margin ciliate; disc extrastaminalannular (but appearing cushion-shaped), hemispherical, distinctly exserted from the sepals, constricted at the base, 3 or 4(–7) lobed, the inward pointing lobes filling the space between filaments and pistillode, densely ferrugineous-tomentose; stamens 3 or 4(–7), c. 1.5 mm long, c. 1 mm long exserted from the calyx, anthers c. 0.4 by 0.3 mm; pistillode globose to subulate, 0.3–0.4 by 0.1–0.4 mm, slightly exserted from the disc, white-pubescent. Pistillate inflorescences 5–6(–12) cm long, axillary but aggregated at the end of the branch, consisting of 3–8 branches, axes pubescent; bracts deltoid, 0.3–0.5 by 0.3–0.5 mm, apically acute, pubescent. Pistillate flowers c. 1 by 1 mm; pedicels 1(–2) mm long, glabrous to pubescent; calyx c. 0.5 by 0.7–1 mm, cupular, sepals 4 or 5, fused for 2/3–3/4 of their length, apically acute, glabrous to sparsely pilose on both sides, margin ciliate; disc exserted from or more rarely shorter than the sepals, densely ferrugineous-tomentose, especially at the margin; ovary lenticular, pubescent to pilose, style lateral, stigmas 3 or 4. Infructescences 3–12 cm long; fruiting pedicels 1.5–3 mm long, pubescent. Fruits lenticular to almost bean-shaped, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a lateral style, 3–4 by 3–4 mm, pilose, white-pustulate, areolate when dry.

    Distribution — Philippines: Alabat, Catanduanes, Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Samar, Sulu Archipelago, Ticao, Visayas.

    Habitat & Ecology — In forests; often in damp, dense habitats or near streams. On deep, fertile red soil, brown loam, limestone. Altitude: 10–600 m.

    Use — The fruits are eaten.

    Vernacular names — Bana (Bilaan); Dako-dako; Hotot (Manobo).

    Notes — Staminate collections of Antidesma pleuricum cannot be distinguished from those of Antidesma microcarpum. The only pistillate element of the protologue is therefore here selected as lectotype of Antidesma pleuricum. For the same reason Antidesma tenuifolium can also be a synonym of Antidesma microcarpum.

 

43. Antidesma polystylum Airy Shaw

 

    Antidesma polystylum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 460; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 215; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 198, Fig.18d-g, Map 33. — Type: SAN (Ahmad Talip) 55652 (K, holo; iso: L), Sabah, Beaufort Distr., Beaufort Hill.

 

Tree, up to 15 m, clear bole up to 5 m, diameter up to 13 cm; young twigs terete, densely ochraceous-tomentose, brown. Bark grey, brown or ochreous; inner bark white, pale yellow or brown; sapwood whitish, pink or green. Stipules caducous, linear to narrowly deltoid, sometimes falcate, 10–20 by 1–3 mm, densely pubescent. Leaves: petioles almost terete, narrowly channelled adaxially, 3–12 by 2–3 mm, densely ochraceoustomentose; blades oblong to narrowly elliptic, 18–38 by 5.5–13 cm, length/width ratio 2.9–3.6 eglandular, chartaceous, basally acute to obtuse, apically acuminate, glabrous, or pilose only along the midvein adaxially, pubescent all over abaxially or more rarely only along the major veins, dull on both surfaces, sometimes with minute, regularly spaced white pustules adaxially, midvein impressed adaxially, tertiary veins percurrent, close together (15–25 between every two secondary veins), drying olive-green. Staminate inflorescences 5–9 cm long, cauline, simple or branched once or twice, 5–10 per fascicle, axes densely pubescent; bracts elliptic, 0.5–1 by c. 0.5 mm, apically acute, densely pubescent. Staminate flowers 2.5–3 by 2–3 mm; pedicels 0–1 mm long, not articulated, glabrous to sparsely pilose; calyx 0.5–0.7 by 0.8–1.2 mm, sepals 3 or 4, free or nearly so, c. 0.7 mm wide, spreading, deltoid to semiorbicular, apically obtuse to rounded, densely velutinous to pilose on both sides; disc cushion-shaped, enclosing the bases of the filaments, densely ochraceous-tomentose; stamens 3 or 4, 2–3 mm long, exserted 1.5–2.5 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.3–0.4 by 0.4–0.6 mm; pistillode absent. Pistillate inflorescences 5–9 cm long, cauline, simple, 4–10 per fascicle, axes densely ochraceous-tomentose; bracts deltoid to narrowly elliptic, 1–1.5 by 0.3–0.5 mm, apically acute, densely tomentose. Pistillate flowers 2–3 by c. 1 mm; pedicels 0–0.5 mm long, densely tomentose; calyx 0.8–1.2 by 1–1.5 mm, sepals 4, free or nearly so, c. 0.5 mm wide, deltoid, apically acute, densely velutinous on both sides, individual hairs sometimes longer than the calyx itself; disc shorter than the sepals, densely and long velutinous, hairs sometimes longer than the disc; ovary elongate-ellipsoid, densely ochraceous-velutinous, style terminal, often as thick as the ovary itself, stigmas 6–16, sometimes irregularly fused. Infructescences 8–13 cm long; fruiting pedicels 0.5–1 mm long, densely ochraceous-tomentose. Fruits elongate-ellipsoid, not or hardly compressed, more or less tetragonal in cross section, basally symmetrical, with a terminal style, 10–14 by 3–5(–7) mm, appressed-velutinous, sometimes white-pustulate, reticulate when dry.

    Distribution — Borneo, mainly Sabah but also Brunei, Sarawak and Kalimantan.

    Habitat & Ecology — In primary, sometimes disturbed, dipterocarp forest. Altitude: 130–300 m.

    Vernacular name — Kalimantan: cingkolik.

 

44. Antidesma puncticulatum Miq.

 

    Antidesma puncticulatum Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 468; Petra Hoffm. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 76, plate III: 2; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 198, Fig. 9c-g, Map 34. — Type: Teijsmann HB 4467 (U, holo; iso: BO), Sumatra austr., in prov. Lampong, ad flumen Tarabangi.

    Antidesma thwaitesianum Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 263; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 217. — Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng. var. b Thwaites, Enum. Pl. Zeyl. (1861) 289, nom. inval. according to Art. 24.2. (Greuter et al. 2000: 45). — Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng. var. thwaitesianum (Mόll.Arg.) Trimen, Syst. Cat. Pl. Ceylon (1885) 81. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Thwaites 2922 (G-DC [microfiche] in staminate flower, holo; iso: BM, CGE, FR, G, G-DC [microfiche], K, MEL, TCD), Sri Lanka.

 

Tree, up to 25 m, clear bole up to 9 m, diameter up to 50 cm; young twigs terete, almost glabrous, more rarely whitish-pubescent, very light grey. Bark brown, grey, green or red, smooth, sometimes scaly or fissured; inner bark brown, red or yellowish; cambium brown, red or white; sapwood light grey, brown or yellowish. Stipules early-caducous, hardly ever present on mature leaves, linear to deltoid, c. 2 by 0.7 mm, brittle, very light grey, pubescent. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, (3–)10–15(–23) by 1–1.5 mm, striate to rugose when dry, basally and distally usually slightly pulvinate, glabrous, pilose only when young; blades oblong to elliptic or slightly ovate, (7–)10–16(–21) by (2.5–)4–6(–21) cm, length/width ratio (2.2–)2.6(–3.1), eglandular, coriaceous, basally acute to obtuse, more rarely rounded (but shortly decurrent at the very base), apically acuminate, more rarely acute-mucronate, glabrous, shiny on both surfaces, major veins flat to shallowly impressed adaxially, tertiary veins finely reticulate, quarternary veins distinctly prominent, finer venation finely tessellated, drying yellowish brown to yellowish green. Staminate inflorescences 3–5 cm long, cauline, rarely axillary, simple, up to 10 per fascicle, axes whitish-pubescent; bracts broadly elliptic, c. 0.7 by 0.5 mm, pubescent. Staminate flowers 1–2 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicel absent; calyx 0.5–0.8 by c. 1 mm, globose to cupular, sepals 3–5, fused for c. 1/2 of their length, deltoid, apically acute, glabrous to pilose outside, pilose inside, margin entire, fimbriate; disc consisting of 3 or 4 free alternistaminal lobes, lobes ± obconical, c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm, pilose to pubescent; stamens 3 or 4, 1–2 mm long, exserted 0.5–1.5 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.3 by 0.4 mm; pistillode cylindrical to clavate, c. 0.5 by 0.2 mm, extending to the same length or slightly exserted from the disc, ± hidden in the disc indumentum, pubescent. Pistillate inflorescences 1–4(–9) cm long, cauline, simple, up to 4 per fascicle, axes whitish-pubescent; bracts deltoid, c. 0.7 by 0.3–0.5 mm, apically acute, pubescent. Pistillate flowers c. 2 by 1 mm; pedicels 0–0.5 mm long, glabrous to slightly pilose; calyx c. 0.5 by 1 mm, shallowly cupular, sepals 4 or 5, fused for c. 1/2 of their length, spreading, deltoid, apically apiculate to acute, glabrous to sparsely pilose outside, glabrous to pilose inside, margin entire, fimbriate; disc shorter than (but visible between) the sepals, shortly pubescent, especially at the margin, in fruit sometimes almost glabrous; ovary ellipsoid, glabrous, style terminal, stigmas 4–6. Infructescences 4–9 cm long; fruiting pedicels 0.5–3 mm long, glabrous to sparsely pilose. Fruits ellipsoid to slightly oblique or lenticular, distinctly laterally compressed, basally symmetrical to asymmetrical, with a slightly subterminal to lateral style, 6–8 by 4–6 mm, glabrous, sometimes slightly white-pustulate and often covered with minute white crystals, areolate or fleshy when dry.

    Distribution — Nicobar and Andaman Islands, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, north-eastern Borneo (East Kalimantan, Sabah), south-western Philippines (Balabac, Bancalan, Palawan).

    Habitat & Ecology — In evergreen primary, sometimes disturbed forest; in swamp forest; along river banks; at the inner edge of the mangrove; in secondary vegetation with Dillenia and Melastoma. On brown to black soil, sandy loam or peat, over sandstone. Altitude: sea level up to 500 m.

    Vernacular names — Sumatra: Djohan (Malay), Kayu uni rawang, Lapis putih, Niam. Borneo: Sabah: Indorapis; Kalimantan: Kayu bei peram puan, Maragelang.

 

45. Antidesma rhynchophyllum K.Schum.

 

    Antidesma rhynchophyllum K.Schum. in K.Schum. & Lauterb., Nachtr. Fl. Schutzgeb. Sόdsee (1905) 294; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 218; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 203, Fig. 19, Map 35. — Epitype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Docters van Leeuwen 9757 (K, holo; iso: L, US), Dutch New Guinea, Rouffaer River; Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Rodatz & Klink 12 (WRSL), New Guinea, Kaiser Wilhelmsland, am Ramuflusse (see note).

    Antidesma obovatum J.J.Sm. in Lorentz, Nova Guinea 8 (1) (1910) 230, t. LVII. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Versteeg 1789 (L, holo; iso: BO, K, P, U), Niederl. Neu-Guinea, bei Bivak-Insel.

    Antidesma cinnamomifolium Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 154; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 211. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Ledermann 10199 (B), Neu Guinea, Kaiser Wilhelmsland, Lordberg, lichter Bergwald.

    Antidesma densiflorum Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 121. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Schlechter 19198 (K, holo; iso: P), Neu Guinea, Kaiser Wilhelmsland, Kaiserin Augustafluί-Expedition, Alexishafen.

 

Tree, up to 12 m, clear bole up to 5 m, diameter up to 25 cm (fide Aet 506: liana); young twigs terete, pilose to ochraceous-pubescent, brown. Bark brown or grey-brown, finely vertically cracked; inner bark reddish brown, brown or pinkish red, 6 mm thick; wood hard, reddish brown, pink-cream, straw or brownish grey. Stipules usually caducous, narrowly deltoid to subulate, 1–3 by 0.2–0.7(–1) mm, apically acute, pilose to ochraceous-pubescent. Petioles channelled adaxially, 2–7 by 0.5–1.2 mm, appressed-pilose to ochraceous-pubescent; blades obovate to oblong or elliptic, (3–)4.5–8.5(–12) by 2–3.5(–5) cm, length/width ratio (1.5–)2–2.6(–3.9), eglandular, membranceous, basally acute-cuneate, apically shortly and rather abruptly acuminate, with a retuse to rounded apiculum, more rarely chartaceous, glabrous, or pilose only along the midvein, usually white-pustulate, dull to moderately shiny on both surfaces, midvein impressed adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, widely spaced, drying olive-green, sometimes lighter abaxially, hairtuft domatia always present, usually conspicuous, almost tubular. Staminate inflorescences 1.5–5 cm long, axillary, simple, more rarely consisting of up to 4 branches, weak, axes c. 0.2 mm wide, pilose; bracts ovate to elliptic, 0.3–0.5 by 0.2–0.3 mm, pilose, margin fimbriate. Staminate flowers 1.5–2.5 mm by 1–1.5 mm; pedicels 0.3–1 mm long, not articulated, glabrous; calyx 0.5–1 mm by 1–1.2 mm, cupular, sepals 3 or 4, fused for 1/4–1/3 of their length, apically rounded to acuminate, sinuses rounded, glabrous outside and inside, margin erose, slightly fimbriate; disc cushion-shaped, enclosing the bases of the filaments, glabrous at the sides, ferrugineous- to ochraceous-pubescent apically; stamens 2 or 3, 1.5–2.5 mm long, exserted 1–1.5 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.3–0.5 by 0.4–0.6 mm; pistillode apparently absent, merged with the disc, sometimes visible as swelling between the stamens. Pistillate inflorescences 1.5–3 cm long, axillary, simple or consisting of up to 4 branches, sometimes in fascicles of 2 inflorescences, very slender, axes pilose to ochraceous-pubescent; bracts ovate to obovate, 0.4–0.7 by 0.2–0.5 mm, glabrous to pilose, margin fimbriate. Pistillate flowers 1–2 by 0.5–1.2 mm; pedicels 0.3–1 mm long, glabrous to sparsely pilose; calyx 0.5–1 by 1–1.2 mm, cupular to urceolate, sepals 3–5, fused for 1/2–2/3 of their length, deltoid to semiorbicular, apically acute to rounded, sinuses rounded, glabrous outside and inside, margin fimbriate; disc shorter than the sepals, ferrugineous-tomentose at the margin, hairs about as long as the disc; ovary ovoid, terete, sparsely tomentose to glabrous, style terminal, more rarely subterminal or lateral, stigmas 3–6, rather long and thick or irregularly fused. Infructescences 2–4(–5) cm long, axes 0.5–1 mm wide; fruiting pedicels 0.5–1(–2.5) mm long, glabrous to sparsely pilose. Fruits obovoid, ellipsoid or globose, terete, basally asymmetrical or symmetrical, with a terminal to subterminal style, 2.5–4(–6) by 2.5–3 mm, sparsely pilose to glabrous, mostly white-pustulate, areolate or reticulate when dry.

    Distribution — Moluccas (Aru Islands), New Guinea.

    Habitat & Ecology — In primary and secondary rainforest; in swamp forest and riverine

forest; usually in shady understorey; also in scrubby edges and roadside border of

forest. On (coral) limestone. Altitude: 2–440 m.

    Vernacular names — Moluccas: Bima; Indonesia: Papua: Tefan kek.

    Note — The only extant original material of Antidesma rhynchophyllum from WRSL consists of two detached fruits without calyx, and two detached leaves, one of which lacks the lower part. As the distinctive characters of Antidesma rhynchophyllum are mainly found in the staminate flower, the name is here epitypified with a staminate specimen.

 

46. Antidesma riparium Airy Shaw

 

    Antidesma riparium Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 282; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 215; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 206, Fig. 20, Map 36. — Type: S (Ashton) 17802 (K, holo; iso: A, KEP, L, MEL, SAR, SING), Sarawak, 3rd Division, Ulu Bena, Sut, Balleh.

 

Tree, up to 15 m, clear bole up to 9 m, diameter up to 20 cm; young twigs terete, obtuse-angled or flattened, ferrugineous- to ochraceous-pilose, more rarely pubescent or glabrous, first dark brown, light to whitish grey when older, more rarely whitish grey from the beginning. Bark grey, white or brown, thin, smooth, scaly, papery, not detaching; inner bark yellow or brownish grey, 2 mm thick; sapwood white, yellow or pale brown. Stipules usually persistent, sometimes foliaceous, narrowly deltoid to linear, sometimes falcate or ovate, 6–14(–18) by 1–3(–5) mm, glabrous to sparsely pilose, more rarely ferrugineous-pubescent. Leaves: petioles channelled or flat adaxially, becoming rugose when old, 2–10 by (1–)1.5–3 mm, pilose, more rarely ferrugineous-pubescent, often becoming glabrous when old; blades oblong, more rarely elliptic or slightly obovate, (8–)14–20(–26) by (2–)4–6(–9) cm, length/width ratio (2–)4(–6.4), eglandular, subcoriaceous, more rarely chartaceous, basally acute, more rarely obtuse to rounded, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous except for some hairs along the major veins on both surfaces, rarely ferrugineous-pubescent along the major veins adaxially and all over abaxially, shiny or dull on both surfaces, often with conspicuous stomata adaxially (dissecting microscope!), major veins impressed, flat or slightly raised adaxially, tertiary veins percurrent or reticulate, often perpendicular (at right angle to the midvein), but usually parallel to each other, drying reddish brown, slightly lighter to olive-green abaxially, domatia absent. Staminate inflorescences 15–20 cm long, axillary, simple, more rarely once-branched at the base, rarely consisting of up to 4 branches, lax, axes sparsely pilose; bracts linear, elliptic or spathulate, 0.7–1 by c. 0.5 mm, apically acute to rounded, pilose. Staminate flowers 2–3 by 2–3 mm; pedicels 0–1 mm long, not articulated, glabrous; calyx c. 0.5 by 1–1.5 mm, bowl-shaped, sepals 5 (or 6), fused for 2/3–3/4 of their length, apically rounded, glabrous to sparsely pilose outside, glabrous inside, margin erose; disc cushion-shaped, hemispherical, enclosing the bases of the filaments and pistillode, pubescent; stamens 3–5, 1.5–3 mm long, exserted 1–2.5 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.4 by 0.4–0.6 mm; pistillode clavate, its base buried in the pubescent disc, 0.1–0.2 by 0.1–0.2 mm, extending to the same length and hardly distinct from the disc, pubescent. Pistillate inflorescences 5–22 cm long, axillary, simple, solitary or sometimes 2 per fascicle, axes pilose to nearly glabrous, rarely ferrugineous-pubescent; bracts narrowly deltoid to linear, 0.5–1.2 by 0.2–0.7 mm, apically acute, pilose. Pistillate flowers 1.5–2.5 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicels 0.5–2 mm long, glabrous to pilose; calyx 0.7–1 by 1.2–1.5 mm, shallowly cupular, sepals (4)5(6), fused for 2/3–3/4 of their length, apically acute, sinuses rounded, glabrous or pilose outside, glabrous inside, margin entire; disc shorter than the sepals, but indumentum usually exserted from the sepals, pubescent, especially at the margin; ovary ellipsoid, pilose to almost glabrous, style lateral to subterminal, stigmas 3–5. Infructescences 18–45 cm long; fruiting pedicels 1–5 mm long, sparsely puberulous, rarely pubescent. Fruits ellipsoid, globose or ovoid, not or hardly compressed (but with ± distinct dorsal and ventral ridges), basally symmetrical, rarely asymmetrical, with a lateral to subterminal, rarely terminal style, 5–8 by 4–7 mm, pilose to glabrous, sometimes white-pustulate, areolate to reticulate when dry.

 

46a. subsp. riparium

 

    Antidesma riparium Airy Shaw subsp. riparium: Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 207, Map 36.

    Antidesma globuligerum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 635. — Type: Musser 474 (Ke), Sulawesi (Celebes).

 

Pistillate inflorescences simple.

    Distribution — Sumatra (one doubtful specimen from Padang province), Borneo, Philippines (Palawan), Sulawesi.

    Habitat & Ecology — In primary or secondary vegetation; in riverine and swamp forest; in mixed (dipterocarp) forest. On sandy or clay soil, over shales. Altitude: 60–1000 m.

    Vernacular names — Borneo: Brunei: Enkunie ai. Sulawesi: Lera (Uma).

    Note — Beaman 9473 from Sabah has atypically large ovate stipules (8–20 by 3–10 mm), but the young infructescences (46 cm long) exclude Antidesma neurocarpum.

  

46b. subsp. ramosum Petra Hoffm.

 

   Antidesma riparium Airy Shaw subsp. ramosum Petra Hoffm., Kew Bull. 54 (1999) 355, Fig. 5; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 210, Fig. 20, Map 36. — Type: P. van Royen & Sleumer 7056 (K, holo; iso: L), Indonesia: Papua, Vogelkop Peninsula, Aifat R. valley, Soererem camp above river.

 

Pistillate inflorescences consisting of up to 4 branches.

    Distribution — Indonesia: Papua.

    Habitat & Ecology — In forest, on bank of river. Altitude: c. 530 m.

 

47. Antidesma spatulifolium Airy Shaw

 

    Antidesma spatulifolium Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 283; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 216; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 212, Fig. 21, Map 38. — Type: Brass 6512 (K, holo; iso: A, L), Papua New Guinea, Western Division, Mabaduan.

 

Tree or shrub, up to 7 m; young twigs terete, slightly striate, shortly pilose to glabrous, brown. Stipules caducous, narrowly deltoid to linear, 1–3 by c. 0.5 mm, pilose. Leaves: petioles terete to channelled adaxially, 1.5–4 by 0.5–0.7 mm, pilose; blades spathulate, (1.5–)2–5(–7) by (0.7–)1–2.5(–3.5) cm, length/width ratio (1.3–)1.8–2.4(–2.8), eglandular, chartaceous, basally acute-cuneate, apically retuse, rounded or obtuse, glabrous, or slightly pilose only along the major veins abaxially or on both surfaces, shiny adaxially, moderately shiny abaxially, midvein flat adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, drying olive-green, hairtuft domatia present. Staminate inflorescences c. 3 cm long, axillary, simple, axes pubescent; bracts elliptic, c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm, pilose. Staminate flowers 2–2.5 by 1.5–2 mm; pedicel absent; calyx 0.6–0.8 by 1–1.2 mm, sepals 4, free or nearly so, deltoid to oblong, apically acute, glabrous to pilose outside, glabrous inside but with long hairs at the base, margin erose, fimbriate; disc consisting of 2–4 free alternistaminal lobes, lobes ± obconical, well-separated from each other, c. 0.5 by 0.2–0.5 mm, pilose; stamens 2–4, 2–2.5 mm long, exserted 1.5–2 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.3–0.4 by 0.5–0.6 mm; pistillode clavate to obconical, 0.3–0.5 by 0.2–0.3 mm, extending to the same length as the disc, pubescent. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, simple, axes sparsely and shortly pilose; bracts deltoid, 0.5–0.8 by 0.3–0.5 mm, apically acute, sparsely pilose, margin sometimes glandular-fimbriate. Pistillate flowers not known; calyx in fruit 0.8–1 by c. 2 mm, sepals 4–6, free or nearly so, deltoid, apically acute, glabrous outside, glabrous inside but with long hairs at the base, margin erose, fimbriate; disc shorter than the sepals, pilose, especially at the margin; stigmas 4–6. Infructescences 1.5–3 cm long; fruiting pedicels 0.2–1 mm long, shortly pilose to glabrous. Fruits ellipsoid or lenticular, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a terminal style, 4–6 by 3–5 mm, glabrous, not white-pustulate, fleshy or areolate when dry.

    Distribution — Moluccas (Tanimbar Island), New Guinea (Southern West Papua; Papua New Guinea: Western province).

    Habitat & Ecology — In edges of rain forest; in remnant monsoon forest patches; in Melaleuca forest; in savannah. Altitude: 5–100 m.

 

48. Antidesma stipulare Blume

 

    Antidesma stipulare Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826–27) 1125; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 216; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 215, Map 37. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann., 2006): Blume [1657] (L, herb. no. 903154342,  holo; iso: L, P), Java, locis umbrosis insulae Nusae Kambangae.

    Antidesma diepenhorstii Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 466. — Type: Diepenhorst [HB 1364] (U, holo; iso: BO), Sumatra occ., prov. Priaman.

    Antidesma amboinense Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 1 (1864) 218. — Antidesma stipulare Blume f. amboinense (Miq.) J.J.Sm. in Koord. & Valeton, Meded. Dept. Landb. Ned.-Indiλ 10 (1910) 262; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 217. — Type: De Fretes [5566] (U, holo; iso: GDC [microfiche], K), Amboina (see note 1).

    Antidesma cordatostipulaceum Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 4 (1909) 275 (“cordato-stipulaceum”).— Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): McGregor 311 (K), Philippines, Mindoro, Baco R.

    Antidesma grandistipulum Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 11 (1916) 56. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): BS (Native collector) 1148 (K, holo; iso: A and photo ex PNH), Sarawak.

    Antidesma sarawakense Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 11 (1916) 57. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): BS (Native collector) 503 (US, holo; iso: A! [photo ex PNH only]), Sarawak, Rock Road.

    Antidesma stenophyllum Gage, Rec. Bot. Surv. India 9 (1922) 225 (“tsenophyllum”), nom. illeg. (non Merr. 1916). — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Ridley s.n. (SING), Malaysia, Johore, Gunong Pulai.

    Antidesma cordatostipulaceum Merr. var. lancifolium Merr., Enum. Philipp. Fl. Pl. 2 (1923) 413 (“cordato-stipulaceum”). — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): BS (Ramos & Edaρo) 40732 (A, holo; iso: K, P, US), Philippines, Mindoro.

 

Antistip-habit-Photo1.jpg (68649 bytes)    Antistip-habit-Photo.jpg (66008 bytes)

 

Tree or shrub, up to 10 m, diameter up to 15 cm; twigs white to grey; young twigs terete, slightly pilose, becoming glabrous, brown. Bark brown, grey, white or green, smooth, soft; inner bark green, grey or yellowish; sapwood white or yellowish. Stipules persistent, usually foliaceous, ovate to cordate, sometimes elliptic to subulate, 5–60 by 1–30 mm, chartaceous, apically acuminate-mucronate, rarely obtuse to rounded, basally asymmetrical, parallel-veined, glabrous to very slightly pilose. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, 3–12(–20) by 1–3 mm, glabrous to pilose; blades oblong, rarely slightly ovate or obovate, (9–)20–30(–40) by (1.5–)5–7(–10) cm, length/width ratio (3.2–)4–5(–9.2), eglandular, coriaceous to chartaceous, basally acute, more rarely obtuse to truncate, often shortly decurrent, apically long acuminate-mucronate, rarely acute, glabrous, or slightly pilose along the major veins abaxially, shiny on both surfaces, major veins slightly raised adaxially, secondary veins widely spaced, up to 16 per leaf half, tertiary veins reticulate to percurrent, drying olive-green, lighter abaxially. Staminate inflorescences 3–13 cm long, axillary, simple, very slender, axes glabrous; bracts ovate, c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm, apically acute, glabrous to pilose, margin sometimes fimbriate. Staminate flowers c. 1 by 1.5 mm; pedicel absent; calyx c. 0.7 by 1.5 mm, cupular to bowl-shaped, sepals 5, fused for 1/2 of their length, apically obtuse to rounded, glabrous on both sides, margin entire to slightly erose; disc cushion-shaped, enclosing the bases of the filaments and pistillode, glabrous, rarely pilose; stamens (4)5, c. 1 mm long, exserted c. 0.5 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.3 by 0.5 mm; pistillode flat to cylindrical, 0.1–0.2 by 0.3–0.4 mm, extending to the same length as the sepals, glabrous, very rarely pilose. Pistillate inflorescences 10–35 cm long, axillary, simple, slender, axes glabrous; bracts deltoid, c. 0.5 by 0.3 mm, glabrous. Pistillate flowers 2–2.5 by c. 1.5 mm; pedicels 0.5–2 mm long, glabrous; calyx c. 1 by 1.5 mm, shallowly cupular, sepals 5, fused for c. 2/3 of their length, broadly deltoid, apically obtuse, glabrous on both sides; disc shorter than the sepals, glabrous to pilose; ovary ovoid, glabrous, very rarely pilose, style subterminal, stigmas 3 or 4. Infructescences 10–50 cm long; fruiting pedicels 1–14 mm long, glabrous. Fruits obliquely ovoid (mango-shaped), laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a lateral to subterminal style, 8–15(–18) by 6–11 mm, 1.3–1.7 times as long as wide, glabrous, sometimes white-pustulate, reticulate when dry.

    Distribution — Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Philippines (Mindanao, Mindoro, Palawan, Sibuyan?, Sulu Archipelago), Sulawesi, Moluccas (Ambon, Buru, Seram, Sula Islands). The two specimens from Burma (Russell 2036 and 2224 [CAL]) attributed to this species by Chakrabarty & Gangopadhyay (J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 24, 2000) could not be examined for this study.

    Habitat & Ecology — In primary and secondary vegetation; in lowland to hill dipterocarp forest up to 40 m tall; in mossy upper montane forest; in riverine and swamp forest; in Agathis forest; usually in shady understorey. On clay, loam, peat and sandy soil, often acidic, sometimes on ultrabasic soil, over limestone, basalt, sandstone and shale. Altitude: sea level up to 1800 m.

    Uses — The wood is strong and resistant to termites. It is used for household and construction purposes (Hasskarl1845: 71).

    Vernacular names — Malay Peninsula: Setundot. Java (Hasskarl, Aantek. nut Java, 1845: 80): Kisapie, Kieueur badak. Borneo: Kalimantan: Boliti hara, Maning. Sulawesi: Kau jole (Kulawi). Moluccas: Bua taai - Kambing utan (fruits resemble droppings of wild goats), Sulamin.

    Notes — 1. Airy Shaw (Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4, 1975: 217) maintained Antidesma amboinense on account of the

small stipules. The stipules of the type of Antidesma amboinense (5–10 by 15–25 mm) are, however, not unusually small.

    2. A variable species. The foliaceous stipules are a good diagnostic character if present, but a number of collections throughout the distribution area have small, linear stipules. In SAN 25010 (K), for example, the stipules range from 5 by 1 to 17 by 5 mm. There are some collections, mainly from Kalimantan (Nooteboom 4485 (K, L), Veldkamp 8041 (BO, L)) but also the original syntype of Antidesma cordatostipulaceum var. lancifolium (BS 40733), with pilose flowers, but in the vast majority of collections the flowers are completely glabrous.

 

49. Antidesma subcordatum Merr.

 

    Antidesma subcordatum Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 4 (1909) 275; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 218, Fig. 13a-d, Map 39. — Antidesma subcordatum Merr. var. genuinum Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 156, nom. inval. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): BS (Ramos) 1114 (NY, holo; iso: BO, GH, K, P, US), Philippines, Luzon, Prov. Rizal, Bosoboso.

    Antidesma fusicarpum Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 8 (1919) 3081. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Elmer 18083 (GH, holo; iso: BM, BO, G, K, L, NY, US), Philippines, Luzon, Prov. Laguna, Los Baρos (Mt Maquiling).

    Antidesma subcordatum Merr. var. glabrescens Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 157. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Merrill 2860 (NY, holo; iso: K, US), Philippines, Luzon, Pangasinan.

 

Tree, up to 8 m, diameter up to 20 cm; young twigs terete, pubescent, brown. Stipules early-caducous, subulate, 3–6 by 0.5–0.8 mm, pubescent. Leaves: petioles narrowly channelled adaxially, 4–10(–17) by 0.5–1(–1.5) mm, pubescent, glabrescent; blades oblong to ovate, rarely slightly obovate, (3.5–)5–11(–18) by (2–)3–5(–7.5) cm, length/width ratio (1.3–)1.8–2.4(–4), eglandular, chartaceous, basally cordate to rounded, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous with pubescent major veins to pubescent adaxially, pubescent to sparsely pilose all over abaxially, especially along the veins, dull or shiny adaxially, dull abaxially, midvein shallowly impressed adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate to percurrent, drying olive-green, lighter abaxially, domatia absent. Staminate inflorescences 2.5–9 cm long, axillary, simple or branched at the base, consisting of up to 9 branches, axes densely ferrugineous-pubescent; bracts elliptic, c. 0.5 by 0.2–0.3 mm, densely pubescent. Staminate flowers 2–3 by 2 –3 mm; pedicel absent; calyx 0.5–1 by c. 1.5 mm, sepals 4 or 5, free, deltoid to oblong, very thin, apically acute to obtuse, pubescent outside, with long hairs inside, especially at the base, margin entire; disc consisting of 4 or 5 free alternistaminal lobes, lobes ± obconical, well-separated from each other, c. 0.5 by up to 0.5 mm, pubescent; stamens 4 or –5, 1.5–2.5 mm long, exserted 1–1.5 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm; pistillode cylindrical, 0.7–1 by 0.2–0.4 mm, extending to the same length or exserted from the sepals, pubescent. Pistillate inflorescences 4–9 cm long, axillary, simple, axes ferrugineous-pubescent; bracts elliptic, c. 0.7 by 0.3 mm, pubescent. Pistillate flowers c. 2 by 0.7 –1 mm; pedicels 0.5–1 mm long, pilose; calyx 0.5–1 by c. 1 mm, sepals 5–6, fused for 1/2–3/4 of their length, deltoid, apically acute, pubescent outside, with long hairs inside, especially at the base, margin entire; disc shorter than the sepals, pubescent, especially at the margin; ovary elongate-ellipsoid, pilose, style terminal, not distinct, pilose, stigmas 4–8. Infructescences 4–9 cm long, axes 0.7–1.2 mm wide; fruiting pedicels 0–3 mm long, pubescent to glabrous. Fruits ellipsoid, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a terminal, more rarely subterminal style, 3–6 by 2–3.5 mm, pilose, sometimes white-pustulate, areolate when dry.

    Distribution — Philippines (Coron, Corregidor, Luzon, Masbate, Palawan) and Lesser Sunda Islands (Flores, Timor). The disjunction might indicate an adaptation to drier habitats than its presumed sister taxon Antidesma ghaesembilla, or it might simply be a collecting artefact.

    Habitat & Ecology — No data. Altitude: 20–200 m.

    Vernacular names — Philippines: Bignay-kalabau (Tagbanua). Lesser Sunda Islands: Hau nuif, Nuna (Dawan).

 

50. Antidesma tetrandrum Blume

 

    Antidesma tetrandrum Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826–27) 1124; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 219, fig. 12 A, D; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 218, Map 40. — Antidesma blumei Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 211, nom. nov. illeg. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Blume [555] (L,! herb. no. 910222-1038, holo; iso: BO, L), Java.

    Antidesma salaccense Zoll. & Moritzi, Syst. Verz. (1846) 74. — Type: Zollinger 1784 (P (fruits & staminate flowers), holo; iso: G, G-DC [microfiche], MEL, P), Java, in monte Salak juxta flum. Tjapus.

    Antidesma auritum Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 203. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Zollinger 2529 (P, holo; iso: BM, G, G-DC [microfiche], MEL, P, U), Java.

 

Shrub or tree, up to 15 m, diameter up to 25 cm, often bent, often branching from the base; yYoung twigs terete, shortly spreading-pubescent to glabrous, brown. Bark grey, brown or tan; watery sap reported in Hassan 80 and 96. Stipules usually persistent (sometimes breaking off early), usually foliaceous, spathulate, cordate or kidney-shaped, sometimes elliptic, 8–15(–25) by (2–)5–20 mm, thin, basally symmetrical, apically rounded to acute, glabrous to sparsely pilose, reticulately veined. Leaves: petioles narrowly channelled adaxially, (7–)10–15(–35) by 0.7–1(–2) mm, basally and distally ± pulvinate for 2–3 mm, spreading pubescent to glabrous; blades oblong, slightly ovate or obovate, (6–)10–14(–22) by (2.5–)4–6(–9) cm, length/width ratio (2–)2.5(–3), eglandular, chartaceous to membranaceous, basally rounded, more rarely obtuse or truncate, apically long to shortly acuminate-mucronate, glabrous, or slightly pilose only along the major veins, dull on both surfaces, major veins impressed adaxially, tertiary veins weakly percurrent, mostly widely spaced, drying olive-green, slightly lighter abaxially. Staminate inflorescences 4–11 cm long, axillary, branched regularly, consisting of up to 6 branches, rarely simple, axes pilose to pubescent; bracts orbicular to spathulate, 0.3–0.5 by c. 0.3 mm, pubescent, margin entire, sometimes fimbriate. Staminate flowers c. 1.5 by 1.5 mm; pedicel absent; calyx 0.3–0.5 by 0.6–0.8 mm, globose to cupular, sepals 4(–6), fused for c. 2/3 of their length, apically acute to obtuse, pubescent to pilose outside, glabrous inside but with long hairs at the base; disc consisting of 4(5) free alternistaminal lobes, lobes ± obconical, with two shallow imprints apically, 0.2–0.3 by 0.2–0.3 mm, usually exserted from the sepals, glabrous; stamens 4(5), 1–1.2 mm long, exserted 0.5–0.7 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.3 by 0.3 mm; pistillode clavate, often crateriform apically, 0.5–0.7 by 0.2–0.3 mm, extending to the same length or exserted from the sepals, pubescent. Pistillate inflorescences 5–6 cm long, axillary or terminal, branched regularly, usually consisting of 5–8 branches, rarely simple, axes pilose to pubescent; bracts deltoid to elliptic, c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm, apically acute, pilose, margin fimbriate. Pistillate flowers 1–1.5 by c. 0.7 mm; pedicels 0.5–1 mm long, glabrous to pubescent; calyx c. 0.7 by 0.7 mm, urceolate to cupular, sepals 4 or 5(6), fused for c. 2/3 of their length, apically acute, pilose outside, glabrous inside except for some long hairs at the base; disc shorter than the sepals, glabrous; ovary ellipsoid to globose, glabrous, style subterminal, stigmas 4–8. Infructescences 6–13 cm long; fruiting pedicels (1–)2–4 mm long, pilose to pubescent. Fruits obliquely ellipsoid, laterally compressed, basally asymmetrical, with a lateral style, 3–5 by 2–3 mm, glabrous, rarely white-pustulate, areolate when dry.

    Distribution — Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands (Bali). Chakrabarty & Roy (J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 5, 1984: 168) as well as Chakrabarty & Balakrishnan (J. Econ. Taxon. Bot., Addit. Ser. 9, 1992: 19) report Antidesma tetrandrum from Great Nicobar Island (Ahamed Ali 20 (CAL), Balakrishnan 5754 (PBL), 5756 (PBL), Nair 7199 (PBL), Hore 7774 (PBL)), none of which have been examined for this study.

    Habitat & Ecology — In primary or secondary rainforest up to 40 m tall associated with Altingia, Castanopsis, Eugenia, Oleandra, Quercus, Schima; in cloud forest 15–25 m tall associated with Engelhardia, Nauclea, Schima, Wendlandia; on river banks and marshy ground; at forest edges, in forest remnants, and in secondary vegetation around human habitation (Malay: “belukar”), perhaps planted. On clay soil. Altitude: 25–1800(–2300) m.

   Uses — The fruits are sometimes eaten. The hard wood is used to make axe handles in Java (Smith, Meded. Dept. Landb. Ned.-Indiλ 12, 1910: 282).

    Vernacular names — Sumatra: Awa burunai, Burunai alafai, Burunai fateoh, Bolinai, Etna/Etwa/Awa paudakan/pandakan, Kayu si bait ari, Kayu simo-simo, Selang datan. Java: Ande-ande, Ande-andejan, Andi-andi, Anggi-anggi (Javanese), Huni potjang or Wuni peutjang (Sundanese), Ki seueur or Ki seueur beureum (Sundanese, seueur = many, refers to the many small edible fruits), Kuru mera or Huru mera, Punai punai, Tjungul. Bali: Boni-sigium.

 

51. Antidesma tomentosum Blume

 

    Antidesma tomentosum Blume, Catalogus (1823) 109 (“tomentosa”); Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826–27) 1126; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 218; Petra Hoffm. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 78; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 223, Map 41. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006):  Hb. Blume s.n. (L, herb. no. 903154-362), Java.

 

Shrub or tree (fide Lomudin Tadong 448: vine), 2–6(–17) m, clear bole up to 6(–10) m, diameter up to 15 cm, sometimes coppicing at base; twigs white, brown or greenish brown; young twigs terete, ferrugineous-pubescent, brown. Bark brown, grey, white or green, thin, smooth, sometimes flaky, soft; inner bark whitish, yellow, tan, green or red; cambium white; wood hard, heavy, odourless and tasteless, sapwood white, yellow, orange, pink or red-brown. Stipules persistent, sometimes foliaceous, subulate to falcate, rarely elliptic with an asymmetrical base, (3–)6–25(–35) by 1–4(–10) mm, coriaceous, pubescent to pilose, rarely glabrous, strongly parallel-veined. Leaves: petioles terete to 4-angular, channelled adaxially, 1.5–15(–20) by 1–5 mm, pubescent to pilose, sometimes becoming glabrous when old; blades elliptic to slightly obovate, ovate, oblong or elliptic, (8–)15–30(–60) by (1.2–)5–12(–30) cm, length/width ratio (2–)2.5–3.5(–13.6), eglandular, chartaceous, basally acute to cordate, apically long acuminate-mucronate to caudate, ferrugineous-pubescent along the major veins or all over on both surfaces, adaxially sometimes and abaxially very rarely glabrous, dull to shiny on both surfaces, major veins shallowly impressed to flat adaxially, rarely slightly raised, secondary veins close together, up to 22 per leaf half, tertiary veins mostly percurrent and close together, drying reddish brown to brownish olive-green. Staminate inflorescences 4–14 cm long, axillary, simple or very rarely once-branched, very rarely 2 or 3 per fascicle, usually densely set with flowers (individual flowers touching each other), axes ferrugineous-pubescent; bracts deltoid to orbicular, 0.7–1.2(–1.5) by 0.5–1 mm, apically acuminate to rounded, pubescent. Staminate flowers c. 1.5 by 1.5 mm; pedicel absent; calyx 0.5–0.7 mm long, sepals 4–6, free or nearly so, 0.5–1 mm wide, deltoid to oblong, apically acute to obtuse, pubescent to pilose outside, glabrous inside; disc cushion-shaped, enclosing the bases of the filaments and pistillode, rarely only partly (around a few stamens per flower) closed, glabrous to pubescent; stamens (3)4–6, c. 1 mm long, exserted c. 0.5 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.3 by 0.4 mm; pistillode clavate to cylindrical, 0.2–0.4 by 0.2–0.3 mm, shorter than the sepals, pubescent. Pistillate inflorescences (3–)10–30 cm long, axillary, simple, rarely branched once or twice, densely set with flowers (individual flowers touching each other), axes ferrugineous-pubescent; bracts deltoid to linear, 1(–2) by c. 0.5 mm, pubescent. Pistillate flowers 1.5–2 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicels 0–0.5(–3) mm long, pubescent; calyx 0.5–1.3 mm long, sepals (4–)5(–6), free or nearly so, c. 0.5 mm wide, narrowly deltoid, apically acute, pubescent outside, glabrous inside; disc shorter than but visible between the sepals, glabrous to pubescent; ovary ovoid, slightly falcate, densely appressed-pubescent, style subterminal, not very distinct, stigmas 3–8. Infructescences (7–)10–30(–65) cm long; fruiting pedicels (0.5–)1–7(–23) mm long, pubescent. Fruits obliquely ovoid (mango-shaped) to falcate or elongate-ellipsoid, often slightly beaked, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical to distinctly asymmetrical, with a lateral to subterminal style, (7–)9–15(–20) by (3–)5–8(–9) mm, (1.1–)1.3–2(–3) times as long as wide, thinly puberulous to densely pilose (old fruits sometimes almost glabrous), sometimes white-pustulate, reticulate when dry.

    Note — Antidesma tomentosum is a very variable species. It is here understood in a wide sense, with the single, rheophytic variety, var. stenocarpum (Airy Shaw) Petra Hoffm.

 

51a. var. tomentosum

 

    Antidesma tomentosum Blume var. tomentosum: Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 218; Petra Hoffm. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 78; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 224, Map 41.

    Antidesma cumingii Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 249. — Type: Cuming 1300 (G-BOISS, holo; iso: BM, G, G-DC [microfiche], CGE, FHO, K), Philippines, Luzon, Prov. Albay.

    Antidesma persimile Kurz, J. Bot. 13 (1875) 330; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 365 (“perserrula”); Mandal & Panigrahi, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 4 (1983) 256. — Type: Kurz s.n. (CAL), Nicobar Islands, Camorta.

    Antidesma kingii Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 356. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): King’s collector 3928 (K, holo; iso: G, SING), Malaysia, Perak, Larut.

    Antidesma longipes Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 355, non Pax 1893; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 4 (1975) 218, as synon. nov. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): King’s collector 4761 (K, holo; iso: BM, G, L, SING), Malaysia, Perak, Larut, Goping.

    Antidesma membranifolium Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 1 (1908) 313 (“membranaefolium”). — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Elmer 9088 (L,  holo; iso: A, E, G, K), Philippines, Luzon, Prov. Tayabas, Lucban.

    Antidesma subolivaceum Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 4 (1911) 1272. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Elmer 12883 (NY, holo; iso: A, BM, BO, E, G, K, L, P, US), Philippines, Palawan, Puerto Princesa (Mt Pulgar).

    Antidesma gibbsiae Hutch. in Gibbs, J. Linn. Soc., Bot., 42 (1914) 134. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Gibbs 2809 (K, holo; iso: BM), Sabah, Tenom.

    Antidesma samarense Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 9 (1914) 469. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Ramos (Phil. Pl.) 1665 (US, holo; iso: BM, BO, G, GH, L, NY, P, SING), Philippines, Samar.

    Antidesma urdanetense Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 7 (1915) 2635. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Elmer 13971 (A, holo; iso: BM, BO, E, G, K, L, NY, P, U, US), Philippines, Mindanao, Prov. Agusan, Cabadbaran (Mt Urdaneta).

    ?Antidesma foxworthyi Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 11 (1916) 55 (“foxworthyii”). — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Foxworthy 268 (A [photo of destroyed holotype ex PNH]), Sarawak, Mt. Poe.

    Antidesma rivulare Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 11 (1916) 60. — Antidesma tomentosum Blume var. rivulare (Merr.) Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 117. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Foxworthy 471 (US, holo; iso: A [photo ex PNH]), Sarawak, Sungei Tingei.

    Antidesma clementis Merr., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 76 (1917) 90, nom. illeg. (non Merr., 1914). — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Clemens 10374 (A, holo; iso: A [photo of destroyed holotype ex PNH]), Sabah, Mt Kinabalu, Lobang.

    Antidesma ilocanum Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 16 (1920) 549. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): BS (Ramos) 32998 (A, holo; iso: BM, K, US), Phillipines, Luzon, Ilocos Norte Prov., between Bangui and Claveria.

    Antidesma impressinerve Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 16 (1920) 548. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): BS (Ramos & Edaρo) 31409 (A, holo; iso: K, US), Philippines, Panay, Capiz Prov., Jamindan (see note).

    ?Antidesma megalophyllum Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 16 (1920) 551. — Type: FB (Velasco) 26642 (not located), Philippines, Babuyan Islands, Calayan.

    Antidesma bangueyense Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 24 (1924) 114. — Antidesma tomentosum Blume var. bangueyense (Merr.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 218. — Type: Castro & Melegrito 1121 (not located), Sabah, Banguey Island, Limbuak Valley.

    Antidesma tomentosum Blume var. giganteum Pax & K.Hoffm., Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 7 (1931) 224; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 4 (1975) 218, as synon. nov. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Winkler 632 (HBG, holo; iso: BO, E, HBG), West-Borneo, auf dem Bukit Mehipit.

 

Leaves: petioles 3–15(–20) by 2–5 mm; blades elliptic to slightly obovate, ovate or oblong, (3–)5–12(–30) cm wide, length/width ratio (2–)2.5–3.5(–5.5), apically long acuminate-mucronate. Staminate inflorescences 6–14 cm long, simple, very rarely 2–3 per fascicle. Pistillate inflorescences (5–)10–30 cm long. Infructescences 10–30 (–65) cm long; fruiting pedicels 1–7(–23) mm long. Fruits obliquely ovoid (mango-shaped) to falcate, often slightly beaked, 5–8(–9) mm wide.

    Distribution — Peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, western Java, Philippines, northern and central Sulawesi. Chakrabarty & Balakrishnan (J. Econ. Taxon. Bot., Addit. Ser. 9, 1992: 19–20) report Antidesma tomentosum from Great Nicobar Island (Hore 7594, 8224; Dwivedi 7275, 8070, 8072; all CAL & PBL, none of which were examined for this study).

    Habitat & Ecology — In primary and secondary evergreen vegetation; in mixed lowland to hill dipterocarp forest, associated with Alstonia, Artocarpus, Dipterocarpus, Shorea; in mossy, montane rainforest; in dry shrubby heath forest on poor sand (“kerangas”); in swamp and riverine forest, sometimes subject to flooding; in plantations; along road sides and forest edges; in thickets; in wet to dry habitats. On clay, sand and ultrabasic soil, over limestone, granite or sandstone. Altitude: sea level up to 800 m.

    Uses — The hard wood is used for making ploughs. The ripe fruits are eaten in Java (Smith, Meded. Deptg. Landb. Ned.-Indiλ 12, 1910: 265). The roots are chewed and applied for internal pain (Philippines, PNH 38075). The bark is burned and the ash is rubbed on the teeth to colour them (Philippines, PNH 13524).

    Vernacular names — Malay Peninsula: Kayu sireh (Temuan). Sumatra: Kayu djimang. Java: Ki seueur, Ki seueur lalaki [seueur = many, refers to the many edible fruits], Tampar kidang (all Sundanese). Borneo: Sabah: Adadsay (Dusun), Balinsaay (Dusun), Kansali, Kobar, Kobor or Kubor (Duson Banggi), Rayan (Kedayan), Siop nanah (Dusun); Sarawak: Sikandu (Land Dayak); Kalimantan: Kosa umpo, Kusiro rue, Passi haras, Sompa. Philippines: Ata tamsi, Balerahay, Bongay (Manobo), Bungoy, Gelebiray (Sub.), Malindang (Sub.), Padit (Palanan-Agta), Tiga (Bukidnon).

    Note — Former Antidesma impressinerve seems to represent an aberrant population of Antidesma tomentosum, distinguished only by the slightly bullate leaves.

 

51b. var. stenocarpum (Airy Shaw) Petra Hoffm.

 

    Antidesma tomentosum Blume var. stenocarpum (Airy Shaw) Petra Hoffm., Kew Bull. 54 (1999) 361; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 228, Map 41. — Antidesma stenocarpum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23 (1969) 281; Kew Bull. 28 (1973) 275; Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 216. — Type: Haviland 2186 (K), Sarawak, 3rd Division, Upper Rejang R., Belaga.

    Antidesma leptodictyum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull 36 (1981) 635. — Type: SAN (Leopold Madani & Saikeh Lantoh) 82444 (K, holo; iso: L), Sabah, Ranau Distr., ab. 13 km from Kampung Merungin.

 

Leaves: petioles 1.5–7 by 1–3 mm; blades elliptic to oblong, apically caudate, (1.2–)2–3(–4) cm wide, length/width ratio (6.5–)8(–13.6). Staminate inflorescences 4–6 cm long, simple or once-branched. Pistillate inflorescences 3–5(–20) cm long; ovary densely (usually appressed-) pubescent. Infructescences 7–20 cm long; fruiting pedicels 0.5–2 mm long. Fruits elongate-ellipsoid to mango-shaped, 3–6 mm wide.

    Distribution — Northern Borneo: south-eastern Sarawak (Kapit division), Sabah, East Kalimantan.

    Habitat & Ecology — Rheophyte. In forests along river banks. On sandy alluvial soil. Altitude: 4–120 m.

    Notes —  The type of former Antidesma leptodictyum and the only other collection of var. stenocarpum from Sabah, SAN (Meijer) 129649, differ from the specimens from Sarawak in their more reticulate, less percurrent tertiary venation and the basally convex leaf margins. The number of collections of this taxon is, however, too small to ascertain the significance of these characters, and the differences seem insufficient to recognise two distinct rheophytic varieties of Antidesma tomentosum.

 

52. Antidesma vaccinioides Airy Shaw

 

    Antidesma vaccinioides Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 28 (1973) 280; Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 8 (1980) 224, plate 2, fig. 4–4a; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 229, Fig. 22, Map 42. Type: Papua New Guinea, Morobe

distr., Angabena ridge, c. 4 miles E of Aseki, 4 April 1966, Schodde (& Craven) 4840

(L!, holotype; A!, K!, isotypes).

 

Tree, c. 5 m; young twigs terete, sparsely and very shortly spreading-pilose, brown. Stipules persistent, deltoid, 0.3–0.6 by 0.3–0.6 mm, apically acute-mucronate, glabrous. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, 3–6 by 0.7–1 mm, glabrous; blades ovate, 1.5–3.5 by 0.7–2.2 cm, length/width ratio1.5–2.25, coriaceous, basally acute to rounded, decurrent at the very base, apically acuminate or acuminate-mucronate, with a rounded apiculum, glabrous, shiny on both surfaces, with (0–)1–2 pairs of elliptic glands (0.6 by 0.3 mm) embedded in the basal third of the revolute leaf margins, midvein flat to slightly raised adaxially, 3–(5–)veined basally, tertiary veins weakly percurrent, more conspicuous adaxially than abaxially, drying olive-green, lighter abaxially. Staminate inflorescences 0.5–1 cm long, axillary, simple, sometimes in fascicles of 2 inflorescences, axes c. 0.5 mm wide, minutely and spreading-pilose; bracts deltoid to ovate, 0.5–1 by 0.5–0.8 mm, apically acute, glabrous. Staminate flowers c. 3 by 3–4 mm; pedicels 1.5–2.5 mm long, articulate at 1–1.5 mm from the base, minutely and spreading-pilose; calyx  c. 1.5 by 1.5 mm, cupular to nearly globose, sepals 3, fused for 2/3–4/5 of their length, apically rounded, sparsely and minutely pilose outside, glabrous inside, margin ciliate; disc extrastaminal-annular, strongly erose, thick, glabrous; stamens 7–13, 2–3 mm long, exserted 1.5–2.5 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.3–0.4 by 0.4–0.5 mm; pistillode absent. Pistillate plants unknown.

    Distribution — Papua New Guinea.

    Habitat & Ecology — In low ridge mossy forest. Altitude: c. 2000 m.

 

53. Antidesma velutinosum Blume

 

    Antidesma velutinosum Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826–27) 1125; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 356, fig. D1–7, 365; Petra Hoffm. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 79, plate III: 3; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 230, Fig. 15f-j, Map 43. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Hb. Blume [1323] (L, herb. no. 903154-370, holo; iso: BO, L), Java.

    Antidesma attenuatum Wall. ex Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 235. — Antidesma attenuatum Wall., Num. List: no. 7286 (1832), nom. nud. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Wallich 7286 (K), Malaysia, Penang.

    Antidesma molle Wall. ex Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865–66) 67. — Antidesma molle Wall., Num. List: no. 7287 (1832), nom. nud. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Hb. Wallich (G Porter coll.) 7287 (K), Malaysia, in Pulo-Penang.

    Antidesma velutinosum Blume var. lancifolium Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 357 (“lancifolia”). — Type: Curtis 863 (K?), Malaysia, Penang.

 

Shrub or tree, up to 15 m, diameter up to 35 cm; young twigs terete, densely spreading-yellowish to ochraceoushirsute, brown. Bark grey, brown or reddish, thin, smooth to slightly cracked; inner bark pink, red or reddish brown; sapwood white or pink. Stipules usually persistent, elliptic to linear, (3–)6–10(–15) by (0.5–)1–3(–4) mm, densely appressed-hirsute. Leaves: petioles flat to slightly channelled adaxially, 2–6(–10) by (1–)2 mm, densely spreading-hirsute; blades oblong to narrowly elliptic (8–)12–18(–27) by (2.5–)4–6(–10) cm, length/width ratio (2–)2.6–3(–5), eglandular, chartaceous, basally acute to rounded, rarely slightly cordate, apically acuminate-mucronate,, glabrous except along the major veins adaxially, spreading-hirsute all over abaxially, especially along the veins, intercostal areas rarely glabrous, dull to moderately shiny on both surfaces, major veins impressed adaxially, tertiary veins percurrent, close together, drying olive-green, lighter abaxially. Staminate inflorescences 5–10 (–15) cm long, axillary, simple or consisting of up to 5 branches, densely set with flowers, axes spreading-hirsute; bracts linear, rarely elliptic, 1.5–3 by 0.2–0.5(–1) mm, apically acute, densely appressed-hirsute. Staminate flowers c. 2.5 by 2–3 mm; pedicels 0–1 mm long, not articulated, spreading-hirsute; calyx 0.5–1 mm long, sepals 5–7, free or nearly so, sometimes partially fused, narrowly deltoid, sometimes unequal, apically acute, hirsute on both sides; disc cushion-shaped, enclosing the bases of the filaments and pistillode, glabrous; stamens 4–8, 1.5–2(–3) mm long, exserted c. 1 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.3–0.5 by 0.3–0.5 mm; pistillode variable, clavate to globose, sometimes 3-lobed, 0.2–0.5 by 0.1–0.3 mm, exserted from the disc, hirsute to almost glabrous. Pistillate inflorescences 3–13 cm long, axillary, simple, rarely branched once or twice at the base, densely set with flowers, axes spreading-hirsute; bracts linear, (1.5–)2–3(–3.5) by 0.3–0.5(–1) mm, densely appressed-hirsute. Pistillate flowers 1.5–2.5 by 1–2 mm; pedicels 0.2–1.5 mm long, spreading-hirsute; calyx (0.8–)1–1.5 mm long, sepals 5–8, free, 0.2–0.4 mm wide, narrowly deltoid to linear, apically acute, hirsute on both sides; disc much shorter than the sepals, glabrous, very rarely some hairs at the margin; ovary globose, densely to sparsely spreading-hirsute, style subterminal, thick, distinct, stigmas 3–5, c. 1 mm long, thin. Infructescences 6–15 cm long; fruiting pedicels 2–5(–6) mm long, spreading-hirsute. Fruits lenticular to obliquely ellipsoid or slightly bean-shaped, laterally compressed, basally distinctly asymmetrical, with a distinctly lateral style, 4–7 by 4–6 mm, hirsute to glabrous, often white-pustulate, reticulate to areolate when dry.

    Distribution — Burma, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Anambas & Natuna Islands, Sumatra, Java.

    Habitat & Ecology — In primary and secondary evergreen (more rarely semi-evergreen) vegetation; in wet mixed and dipterocarp forest, associated with Arenga obtusifolia and other palms, bamboo, dipterocarps; in gallery forest; usually in humid, shady habitats, often close to streams or waterfalls. On volcanic loam, limestone, granitic sand and shale. Altitude: 20–1200 m.

    Uses — The fruits are eaten locally. The bark is “sold to the Chinese” (fide Winckel 311 from Java), probably for medicinal purposes.

    Vernacular names — Malay Peninsula: Ming-baloi = porcupine-cheek (Batek). Sumatra: Bernai gadja, Kayu branei kesuping. Java: Hentjiep or Huni serur (Sundanese), Ki bulu, Ki hilend or Ki huni (Sundanese), Ki seueur or Pohon ki seueur (seueur = many, refers to the many edible fruits, Sundanese), Seueur badak, Wuni kebo. Kalimantan: Kayu sepang.

    Notes — 1. Chakrabarty & Gangopadhyay (J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 21, 1997: 481) reported Antidesma velutinosum also from New Guinea, but the cited specimen Forbes 617 (CAL) represents Antidesma excavatum var. indutum in K and L.

    2. Galling of the same kind as in Antidesma tomentosum (very dense inflorescences with hundreds of very small, sterile bracts) can be observed in several collections (e.g., Helfer 4947 (K), from India).

 

54. Antidesma velutinum Tul.

 

    Antidesma velutinum Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 223; Petra Hoffm. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 80; Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 234, Map 39. — Type: Wallich s.n. (CGE), India or., in agro atranico [Lower Burma].

    Antidesma gymnogyne Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 135. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Helfer KD 4945 (K, holo; iso: G, P), Burma, Tenasserim.

    Antidesma spaniothrix Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 33 (1978) 15. — Type: Kerr 18852 (K, holo; iso: P), Thailand, Peninsular Region, Phuket Circle, Krabi.

 

Shrub or tree, up to 10(–20) m, diameter up to 8 cm; twigs mid-grey; young twigs terete, densely ferrugineous-tomentose, brown. Bark grey or brown, thin, more or less roughened or finely vertically cracked. Stipules caducous, linear, 3–7 by 0.5–1 mm, apically acute, pubescent. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, 2–6(–10) by 1.2–1.5 mm, densely pubescent; blades oblong, more rarely slightly obovate, (6–)8–13(–17.5) by (2.5–)3–5(–7) cm, length/width ratio (2–)3(–4.2), eglandular, chartaceous, basally acute to obtuse, more rarely rounded, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous except along the midvein adaxially, ferrugineous-pubescent all over abaxially, especially along the veins, intercostal areas rarely almost glabrous, rather dull on both surfaces, major veins impressed adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate to weakly percurrent, widely spaced (4–7 between every two secondary veins), with strong intersecondary veins, finer venation finely tessellated, drying reddish brown, domatia often present. Staminate inflorescences 4–7 cm long, axillary, more rarely cauline, consisting of 4–11 branches, axes ferrugineous-pubescent; bracts elliptic, 0.3–0.8 by 0.3–0.5 mm, apically acute, pubescent. Staminate flowers 1–2 by 0.7–1.5 mm; pedicel absent; calyx c. 0.5 by 0.7–1 mm, cupular to bowl-shaped, sepals 3–5, almost free to fused for 1/2 of their length, irregularly shaped, pilose to pubescent outside, pilose to pubescent inside, margin erose, fimbriate; disc extrastaminal-annular, lobed, lobes often pointing inwards, filling the space between filaments and pistillode, sometimes appearing cushion-shaped, slightly constricted at the base, glabrous; stamens 3(4), 1–2 mm long, exserted 0.5–1.5 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.2–0.3 by 0.3–0.4 mm; pistillode clavate, c. 0.5 by 0.2–0.3 mm, exserted from the sepals, pubescent. Pistillate inflorescences 2–4 cm long, axillary, more rarely cauline, consisting of up to 7 branches, more rarely simple, dense (flowers usually touching each other), axes ferrugineous-pubescent to pilose; bracts elliptic, 0.5–1 by 0.3–0.5 mm, apically acute, pubescent. Pistillate flowers 1.5–2 by c. 1 mm; pedicels 0.3–0.5 mm long, spreading-pilose to almost glabrous; calyx 0.8–1 by 0.8–1 mm, urceolate, sepals 3–5, fused for 1/2 of their length, apically truncate to acute, sinuses usually rounded, pilose to pubescent, more rarely almost glabrous on both sides, margin fimbriate; disc much shorter than the sepals, glabrous; ovary almost cylindrical, pilose to glabrous, more rarely pubescent, style terminal, usually thick, stigmas 4–8, usually short and thin relative to the style. Infructescences 3–8 cm long, axes 0.7–0.8 mm wide; fruiting pedicels c. 1 mm long, spreading-pilose. Fruits ellipsoid, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a terminal to slightly subterminal style, 4–5 by c. 3 mm, pilose to almost glabrous, often white-pustulate, areolate when dry.

    Distribution — Burma, Cambodia, Thailand, northern Peninsular Malaysia (Perlis, Kedah).

    Habitat & Ecology — In primary and secondary vegetation; in dry, more rarely wet, evergreen, deciduous or mixed evergreen/deciduous forest; in bamboo forest; often in shady habitats near streams. On limestone, sandstone and granite. Altitude: sea level up to 600 m.

    Note — Pax & Hoffmann (1922: 136) observed some diandrous flowers among the predominantly triandrous flowers; this could not be confirmed in the present study.

 

55. Antidesma venenosum J.J.Sm.

 

    Antidesma venenosum J.J.Sm., Icon. Bogor 4 (1914) 41, t. 313; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 219; Petra Hoffm., Antidesma Malesia Thailand (2006) 236, Fig. 23, Map 40. — Lectotype (designated by Petra Hoffmann, 2006): Amdjah 85 (L), Borneo, Bukit Mili.

 

Tree, more rarely shrub, up to 18 m, clear bole up to 6 m, diameter up to 25 cm; twigs green; young twigs terete, pubescent, brown. Bark whitish, grey, greyish yellow, brown, reddish brown or greenish, thin, smooth; inner bark pink, yellow, pale brown, green or grey, 3 mm thick, fibrous; cambium white, yellow or brown; sapwood pink, red, brown, orange, yellow or white, heartwood pinkish brown, Church 599: wood with sweet scent. Stipules early-caducous, subulate, 5–10 by c. 0.5 mm, pubescent. Leaves: petioles narrowly channelled adaxially,, 5–10(–13) by 0.8–1 mm basally and distally usually ± pulvinate for 2–3 mm, pilose to pubescent; blades oblong, slightly ovate or obovate, (7–)10–13(–18) by (2.5–)3.5–5(–7) cm, length/width ratio (2.3–)2.8(–3.8), eglandular, chartaceous to membranaceous, basally rounded to truncate, more rarely obtuse, apically (usually long) acuminate-mucronate, glabrous, or pilose only along the midvein adaxially, glabrous to pilose (especially along the veins) abaxially, dull to moderately shiny on both surfaces, major veins impressed adaxially, tertiary veins percurrent to weakly percurrent, medium to widely spaced, drying olive-green adaxially, lighter with dark major veins abaxially. Staminate inflorescences 7– 10 cm long, axillary but aggregated at the end of the branch, consisting of up to 35 branches, axes pubescent; bracts deltoid,, 0.2–0.6 by 0.2–0.3 mm apically acute, pubescent. Staminate flowers 1–1.5 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicel absent; calyx 0.3–0.4 by c. 1 mm, depressed globose, sepals 4(5), fused for 1/2–2/3 of their length, pointing inwards, apically acute to rounded, pilose to pubescent outside, glabrous inside but with long hairs at the base; disc consisting of 4(5) free alternistaminal

lobes, lobes ± obconical, with two shallow imprints apically, 0.2–0.3 by 0.2–0.5 mm, longer than the sepals, glabrous; stamens 4(5), 0.8–1 mm long, exserted  0.6–0.8 mm from the calyx, anthers 0.2–0.3 by 0.3–0.5 mm; pistillode clavate, 0.4–0.5 by 0.2–0.3 mm, exserted from the sepals, pubescent. Pistillate inflorescences 3–5(–8) cm long, axillary but aggregated at the end of the branch, consisting of 4–12 branches, axes pubescent; bracts deltoid, 0.3–0.5 by 0.3–0.5 mm, apically acute, pubescent. Pistillate flowers c. 1 by 0.5–1 mm; pedicels 0.5–1 mm long, pilose; calyx c. 0.5 by 0.8 mm, urceolate to cupular, sepals 4, fused for c. 2/3 of their length, apically acute, pilose outside, glabrous inside except for long hairs at the base; disc extending to the same length as the sepals, glabrous; ovary ovoid, glabrous, style lateral, stigmas 4–6. Infructescences 6–8 cm long; fruiting pedicels 0.5–1(–1.5) mm long, pubescent to glabrous. Fruits bean-shaped to obliquely lenticular, laterally compressed, basally distinctly asymmetrical, with a distinctly lateral style, (1.5–)2–2.5 by 1.5–2 mm, glabrous, often white-pustulate, areolate when dry.

    Distribution — Borneo.

    Habitat & Ecology — In primary and secondary vegetation; mainly in lowland mixed dipterocarp forest; also in thickets and along roadsides. On sandy soil, clay and loam, over sandstone, shale and limestone. Altitude: sea level up to 1000 m.

    Uses — The wood is used for handicraft, to make knife handles, and as firewood. The species is also reported to be used as material for poisoned arrows.

    Vernacular names — Sabah: Geruseh puteh (Malay), Menggambir (Dusun), Tenduripis, Tandurupis puru, Tendurupis or Tondurupis (Dusun); Kalimantan: Behuna, Uhai.

 

Unmatched specimens

 

The collections listed below were not satisfactorily assigned to any existing taxon but do not show sufficient differential characters to be described as one. They might deserve taxonomic recognition if more material, especially of the opposite sex, is gathered in the future.

 

Brass 28450. Papua New Guinea, Louisiade Archipelago, Rossel Island, Mt Rossel (K, L, US).

 

Undergrowth tree, 3 m high; young twigs terete, densely ochraceouspubescent, brown. Stipules not seen. Leaves: petioles narrowly channelled adaxially, 20–25 by 1.5–2 mm, basally and, more so, distally pulvinate and geniculate for c. 5 mm, pubescent; blades elliptic to ovate, 17–18 by 8.5–10 cm, length/width ratio 1.7–2.1, eglandular, chartaceous, basally rounded to obtuse, shortly decurrent, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous except for the puberulous midvein adaxially, pilose all over abaxially, more densely so along the major veins, rather dull on both surfaces, midvein shallowly impressed adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate to weakly percurrent, drying olive-green, domatia present. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, simple, axes ochraceous-pubescent; bracts not seen. Pistillate flowers not known; calyx in fruit c. 1 by 1.5–2 mm, sepals 4 or 5, fused for 1/2 of their length, irregularly shaped, more or less deltoid, apically acute to obtuse, pilose outside, glabrous inside, margin entire to erose; disc shorter than the sepals, but indumentum nearly extending to the same length as the sepals, ochraceous-pubescent at the margin, indumentum longer than the disc, c. 0.5 mm long; stigmas 3–6. Infructescences c. 5 cm long, axes c. 1.2 mm wide; fruiting pedicels c. 1 mm long, pubescent. Fruits ellipsoid, laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a terminal style, c. 5 by 3–3.5 mm, sparsely tomentose, not white-pustulate, areolate when dry.

    Habitat & Ecology — In rainforest of a ravine. Altitude: 750 m.

    Note — This fruiting collection has large elliptic leaves on long, thick Leaves: petioles very similar to Antidesma petiolatum. Antidesma petiolatum, however, has more or less glabrous leaves and branched, slender infructescences with very small fruits. With regard to leaf indumentum and infructescences, this specimen resembles Antidesma subcordatum.

 

Coode 6138. South-eastern Sulawesi, Kolaka area, Gunung Watiwila foothills, above Sanggona, slopes of Gunung Sopura (AAU, E, K, L).

 

Straight small tree c. 6 m by 10 cm, with narrow crown; young twigs terete, shortly pubescent, brown, with swollen galls but not hollow. Bark brownish, somewhat flaky, not detaching, inner bark red, thin, hard; sapwood straw, heartwood deep red, hard and dense. Stipules early-caducous, linear, c. 2 by 0.3 mm, shortly appressed-pubescent. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, 3–5 by 0.8–1 mm, shortly appressed-pubescent; blades oblong to elliptic, 5–8 by 2.5–3.5 cm, length/width ratio 2.7–3.2, eglandular, chartaceous, basally acute to obtuse, apically acuminate- to acute-mucronate, glabrous except for the sparsely pilose midvein abaxially, dull on both surfaces, midvein impressed adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, widely spaced, hardly prominent, drying greyish green. Staminate inflorescences 3–4 cm long, axillary and aggregated at the end of the branch, consisting of 2–5 branches, axes 0.3–0.4 mm wide, shortly pubescent; bracts broadly ovate, 0.7–0.8 by 0.7–0.8 mm, appressed-pubescent. Staminate flowers c. 1.5 by 1.5 mm; pedicel absent; calyx 0.7– 0.8 by c. 1.5 mm, cupular, sepals 4 or 5, fused for c. 3/4 of their length, deltoid, thick, apically acute, appressed-pubescent outside, glabrous inside, margin entire; disc consisting of 4 or 5 free alternistaminal lobes, lobes ± obconical, c. 0.5 by 0.4–0.5 mm, slightly shorter than the sepals, glabrous at the sides, whitish-pubescent apically; stamens 4 or 5, c. 1.5 mm long, exserted 0.7–0.8 mm from the calyx, anthers c. 0.3 by 0.5–0.7 mm; pistillode obconical, c. 0.6 by 0.5–0.6 mm, hardly exserted from the sepals, densely and shortly pubescent.

    Habitat & Ecology — In forest with deep leaf litter, many slender smallish trees with scattered emergents, little vegetation on forest floor. Altitude: 1100 m.

    Note — This specimen most resembles Antidesma excavatum but differs in the short, thin petioles and the disc structure.

 

C. Hansen 1391. Central Kalimantan, Kuala Kuayan, camp at logging road c. 9 km W of Pematang logging camp, 2°00'S, 112°28'E (BO, L).

 

Tree, 13 m high, diameter 14 cm. Bark grey; young twigs terete, glabrous, light brown. Stipules not seen. Leaves: petioles widely and shallowly channelled adaxially, c. 2 by 1.5–2 mm, glabrous, rugose; blades elliptic-oblong, 7–11 by 3–4.5 cm, length/width ratio 2.2–2.7, eglandular, chartaceous, basally acute, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous, dull on both surfaces, midvein impressed adaxially, tertiary veins reticulate, widely spaced, hardly visible when dry, drying greyish brown, domatia absent. Staminate inflorescences 4–6 cm long, cauline, simple, solitary or sometimes 2 per fascicle, axes c. 1 mm wide, sparsely pilose; bracts ovate, c. 0.7 by 0.5–0.7 mm, apically acute, pilose. Staminate flowers 2.5–3 by 2 –4 mm; pedicels 0–0.2 mm long, not articulated, glabrous; calyx c. 0.5 by 1 mm, bowl-shaped, sepals 3, fused for c. 1/3 of their length, deltoid, apically acute, sinuses wide, shallow, pilose outside, glabrous inside, margin fimbriate; disc cushion-shaped, enclosing the bases of the filaments, exserted from the sepals, densely and long tomentose; stamens 3, 2–2.5 mm long, exserted 1.5–2 mm from the disc, anthers 0.4–0.6 by 0.3–0.4 mm; pistillode absent.

    Habitat & Ecology — In primary forest, open area by stream where trees had fallen. Altitude: 50 m.

    Note — This staminate flowering collection is most similar to Antidesma riparium but differs in persistence of its stipules, shape, shine and venation of its leaves, position and length of its inflorescences, number of sepals and in the absence of a pistillode.

 

Ridsdale 1377. Philippines, Luzon, Acoje Mine concession area, Santa Cruz, 15°46'N, 120°00'E (K, L).

 

Small tree, 6 m high; young twigs terete, very sparsely pilose, brown. Stipules early-caducous, linear, c. 2.5 by 0.5 mm, appressed-pubescent. Leaves: petioles channelled adaxially, 15–22 by 0.8–1.5 mm, basally and distally slightly pulvinate and geniculate for 2–5 mm, pilose; blades elliptic, 14–18 by 5.5–9.5 cm, length/width ratio 1.9–2.9, eglandular, chartaceous, basally obtuse to acute, apically acuminate-mucronate, glabrous adaxially, glabrous or sparsely pilose only along the major veins abaxially, shiny on both surfaces, midvein impressed adaxially, tertiary veins weakly percurrent to reticulate, widely spaced, drying olive-green, domatia absent. Pistillate inflorescences axillary, simple or consisting of up to 3 branches, sometimes in fascicles of 2 inflorescences, axes pilose; bracts deltoid, c. 0.7 by 0.5 mm, pilose. Pistillate flowers c. 2 by 1–1.5 mm; pedicels 0.5–1.5 mm long, pilose; calyx 1–1.2 by 1–1.5 mm, cupular to urceolate, sepals 4, fused for 1/2 of their length, deltoid, apically acute, pilose outside, glabrous inside but with hairs at the base extending to the length of the disc indumentum, margin fimbriate; disc shorter than the sepals, ferrugineous-pubescent at the margin, indumentum about as long as the disc; ovary ellipsoid, glabrous, style terminal, stigmas 6–8. Infructescences 4–8 cm long, axes slender, up to 1 mm wide; fruiting pedicels 1–1.5 mm long, pilose. Fruits ellipsoid, moderately laterally compressed, basally symmetrical, with a terminal style, 5–6 by 3–4 mm, glabrous, white-pustulate, areolate when dry.

    Habitat & Ecology — In streamside valley, lightly logged high Dipterocarpus/Shorea forest. On ultrabasic soil.

    Note — This fruiting specimen from Zambales province, Luzon, with long petioles, large, glabrous leaves, branched, slender inflorescences and a hairy disc, is probably closest to Antidesma catanduanense, Antidesma curranii and Antidesma microcarpum, but differs from these species in its larger fruits and more numerous stigmas. From Antidesma catanduanense it also differs in its less highly fused sepals and terminal styles, and from Antidesma curranii in its longer petioles and larger leaves. Antidesma nienkui Merr. & Chun from Hainan has abaxially pilose leaves, longer, simple, more robust inflorescences, a glabrous disc, a more deeply divided, larger calyx and larger fruits.

 

Dubious species

 

    Antidesma coriifolium Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 154; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 212. — Type: Ledermann 12950 (unknown), New Guinea, Kaiser Wilhelmsland, Felsspitze.

    Note — Type probably destroyed in Berlin, no isotypes located. The protologue does not contain enough information for neotypification.

 

    Antidesma frutescens Jack, Malayan Misc. 2(7) (1822) 91; Merr., J. Arnold Arbor. 33 (1952) 216. — Type: Jack s.n. (destroyed), Sumatra, Bencoolen.

Note — Jack’s description points very much to Antidesma ghaesembilla, especially the detailed description of the staminate disc. Merrill synonymised the two names on the basis of the vague protologue.

 

    Antidesma pedicellare Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 162; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8 (1980) 216. — Type: S.coll., s.n. (unknown), New Guinea, Kaiser Wilhelmsland, Sattelberg.

    Note — Type probably destroyed in Berlin, no isotypes located. The protologue compares the plant to Antidesma polyanthum (syn. Antidesma excavatum), differing in its smaller, pedicellate staminate flowers with free disc lobes.

 

    Antidesma perakense Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 117. — Type: S.coll., s.n. (unknown), Malaysia, Perak, s. loc., ex Herb. Mus. Perak.

    Note — Type probably destroyed in Berlin, no isotypes located. Compared to Antidesma tomentosum in the protologue.

 

    Antidesma rhamnoides Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 217. — Type: Brogniart, Msc. in Herb. Mus. par. (unknown), Stirpis hujus patria incerta est, colitur in caldariis Musei parisiensis, florebatque junio 1842.

     Note — No specimen annotated as Antidesma rhamnoides could be found in the Paris Herbarium. Pax & Hoffmann (in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv, 1922: 157) stated that the plant had been cultivated in the Paris Botanical Garden in the past, but could not be found again. The description points to Antidesma ghaesembilla, although Tulasne mentioned solitary spikes whereas Antidesma ghaesembilla has much-branched inflorescences. There is no description of the pistillate flower or fruit.

 

    Antidesma rumphii Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot., Sιr. 3 (1851) 238, as species non visa; Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 267, as species minus nota; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 166, as species minus nota; Merr., Interpr. Herb. Amboin. (1917) 316, pro syn. — Bunius agrestis Rumph., Herb. Amboin. 3 (1743) 205, prelinnean. — Type: Rumph., Herb. Amboin. 3 (1743) t. 131 A, Amboina.

     Note — This name is entirely based on Bunius agrestis of Rumphius, who described it as the wild species of Antidesma in Ambon. The name has very rarely been used after Rumphius. Merrill (1917: 316) reduced it to Antidesma bunius. From Rumphius’ description, however, this must be Antidesma ghaesembilla: growing in more open country, with rounded leaf-tips, smaller fruits and shorter, “many-headed” (many-branched?) infructescences. It is also described as fire-resistant (“arbor salamandra”). Antidesma ghaesembilla is frequently found in savannahs, and the only species in the genus for which fire-resistance has been recorded. The only other species recorded on Ambon are Antidesma heterophyllum and Antidesma stipulare, none of which fits the description given of Bunius agrestis. The drawing of an infructescence of Bunius agrestis (Rumphius, 1743: t. 131 A), however, bears no likeness to that of Antidesma ghaesembilla and does hardly differ from that of Bunius sativa (t. 131). It is possible that artist or editor made a mistake and included a drawing of the wrong plant.

 

    Antidesma spicatum Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 794 (“spicata”). — Type: Blanco?, Llanos? (not located), Philippines.

     Note — No original material located (incl. MA, fide M. Velayos, curator, in litt. 1995). See under Antidesma edule.

 

    Cansjera grossularioides Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 73 (“Cansiera”); Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 53; Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 9 (1914) 463; Sp. Blancoan. (1918) 218. — Type: Blanco? Llanos? (not located), Philippines.

     Note — No original material located (incl. MA, fide M. Velayos, curator, in litt.). Merrill (1918: 218) regarded this species as conspecific to Antidesma ghaesembilla, but did not cite any original material. He selected two “illustrative specimens” of Antidesma ghaesembilla for his Species Blancoanae (no. 375, Luzon, Laguna Prov., Los Baρos, June 1914, Quisumbing, K, and no. 488, Palawan, Taytay, May 1913, K) to represent C. grossularioides. As this term is not equivalent to “type” in the sense of Art. 7.11. (Greuter et al. 2000: 9), this did not effect neotypification. Blanco’s species maybe identical with Antidesma ghaesembilla, but as long as there is no original material, it seems preferable to treat C. grossularioides as incompletely known.

 

    Cansjera rheedii Blanco, Fl. Filip. (1837) 73 (“Cansiera rheedi”); Fl. Filip., ed. 2 (1845) 52 (“Cansiera rhedi”); Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C, 9 (1914) 462. — Type: Blanco? Llanos? (not located),  Philippines.

    Note — No original material could be located. There is one specimen in MA (only photograph seen): “Llanos 112,

In oppid. Angat, vulgo Bignayrugo(?), Antidesma alexiteria Blanco? Cansiera rheedi Blanco?”, designated as “lectotype in sched.”, probably by Quisumbing. The specimen on the photograph is most probably Antidesma ghaesembilla, and the label itself makes it most unlikely that it is the actual type as Blanco himself would hardly have been so indecisive about his own species. Merrill (Sp. Blancoan., 1918: 218) regarded this species as conspecific with Antidesma pentandrum, the basionym of which he considered to be Cansiera pentandra Blanco. Antidesma is here treated as a synonym of Antidesma montanum.

 

Excluded names

 

    Antidesma bicolor Hassk., Cat. Pl. Bogor. Alter (1844) 81 (“bicoler”), nom. nud. (non Pax & K.Hoffm., 1922) = Excoecaria bicolor Hassk., Retzia 1 (1855) 158. — Type: Zollinger s.n.  (L).

 

    Antidesma crenatum H.St.John, Pacific Sci. 26 (1972) 279. — Type: Hobdy 8 (BISH, holo; iso: K, L), Hawaiian Islands, Kauai. = Xylosma crenatum (H.St.John) H.St.John, Phytologia 34 (1976) 147 (Salicaceae s.l.).

 

    Antidesma filiforme Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826–27) 1124. — Type: Blume s.n. (K, iso), Java, in montosis Salak. = Galearia filiformis (Blume) Pax in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3(5) (1890) 82; Forman, Kew Bull. 26 (1971) 160 (Pandaceae).

    Note — The sheet in K is labelled as isotype of Antidesma filiforme Blume, but bears no original handwriting. There is only one historical sheet of this species from Java in L, labelled: “Blume 43/c, Salak, nov. gen. Rhamnearum” in what could be Blume’s handwriting. Although Pax cited the name as “G. filiformis (Bl.) Benth.”, literature search did not return a reference to that name by Bentham anywhere else. The combination made by Pax is validly published according to Art. 32.4, Ex. 5 (Greuter et al. 2000: 54). The author of the new combination is therefore not Boerlage but Pax (see also Forman 1971). Blume’s “var. foliis majusculis” in the protologue of Antidesma filiforme is not validly published according to Art. 23.6(a) (Greuter et al. 2000: 43).

 

    Antidesma litorale Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. (1826–27) 1123. — Type: Blume s.n. (L), Java, in maritimis insulae Nusae Kambangae. = Polyosma integrifolia Blume, fide Hallier, Meded. Rijks.-Herb. (1911) 7; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 167 (Polyosmaceae).

    Note — The genus is currently under revision for “Flora Malesiana” by Saw Leng Guan (KEP).

 

    Antidesma lunatum Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste Bijv. (1861) 467. — Type: Teijsmann s.n. (BO, holotype; iso: K, L, fide Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17, 2004), Sumatra or., in prov. Palembang, Ogan-ulu = Aporosa lunata (Miq.) Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 42(2) (1873) 239 (“lunatum”).

 

    Antidesma megalocarpum S. Moore in H.O.Forbes, J. Bot. 61, Suppl. (1923) 46. — Syntypes: Forbes 497, 417, 225 (K!), New Guinea, Sogeri.  = Rhyticaryum longifolium K.Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Schutzgeb. Sόdsee (1900) 415 (“Rhytidocaryum”), fide Sleumer, Fl. Males. ser. 1, 7 (1971) 39 (Icacinaceae).

 

    Antidesma parasitica Dillwyn, Rev. Hortus Malab. (1839) 33 — Type: Rheede, Hort. Malab. 7 (1688) t. 30. = Scleropyrum pentandrum (Dennst.) Mabb., Taxon 26 (1977) 533 (Santalaceae).

 

    Antidesma praegrandifolium S.Moore in H.O.Forbes, J. Bot. 61, Suppl. (1923) 46. —  Type: Forbes 250 (BM, holo; iso: K, L, MEL), New Guinea, Sogeri. = Aporosa praegrandifolia (S.Moore) Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17 (2004) 309.

    Note — The name was listed as synon. nov. of Antidesma sphaerocarpum Mόll.Arg. by Airy Shaw (Kew Bull. 28, 1973: 277).