Malesian Euphorbiaceae Descriptions
Sevilla, S. & P.C. van Welzen. 2001. Revision and Phylogeny of Agrostistachys and Chondrostylis (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 46: 7197.
Phylogeny of Chondrostylis (Agrostistachidae)
Phylogeny of the Chrozophorinae
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Key to the species
Chondrostylis Boerl., Icon. Bogor. 1 (1897) 71, t. 23; Koord., Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 29 (1904) 45, pl. 4, 5; Pax & K. Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenfam. IV.147.vii (1914) 15; in Engl. & Harms, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 19c (1931) 104; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 14 (1960) 359; Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 231; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 77; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 69; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 276; G.L. Webster, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 81 (1994) 70; Sevilla & Welzen, Blumea 46 (2001) 89; Radcl.-Sm., Gen. Euphorbiacearum (2001) 134; Welzen & Sevilla in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 155; G.L.Webster in Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 11 (2014) 111. Type: Chondrostylis bancana Boerl.
[Kunstlera King ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5 (1887) 443, nom. nud., in observations]. Kunstlerodendron Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 3 (1924) 283; Pax & K. Hoffm. in Engl. & Harms, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 19c (1931) 230. Type: Kunstlerodendron sublanceolata Ridl. [= Chondrostlyis kunstleri (King ex Hook.f.) Airy Shaw]
Shrubs to trees, monoecious; flowering twigs glabrous, rather smooth. Indumentum consisting of simple hairs only. Leaves alternate, simple; stipules linearly triangular, glabrous, base amplexicaul, margin entire, apex mucronate, venation distinct parallel, caducous, scars up to 2 cm below the leaves; petiole reniform in transverse section, basally pulvinate, with glands at both sides of the apex or in the upper part; blade elliptic to obovate, symmetric, subcoriaceous to coriaceous, base attenuate to rounded, margin dentate to crenulate, teeth ending in a gland, apex acuminate to cuspidate, upper and lower surface smooth, glabrous, upper surface with glands; venation raised below, nerves 1035 per side, looped at the margin, ending open or united, sometimes intramarginal veins, veins and veinlets scalariform to reticulate. Inflorescences unisexual, axillary panicles, single, subsericeous to sericeous, with groups of flowers per node. Bracts and bracteoles to the cymules keeled, thickened in the middle, ovate, margin ciliate, apex acuminate, outside glabrous to subsericeous with the central part sericeous. Flowers actinomorphic, white to cream to pale greenish to yellow; petals absent. Staminate flowers: pedicel glabrous to subsericeous; sepals 3 or 4, margin ciliate, apex acuminate to cuspidate, sericeous, outside subsericeous; disc lobes between the stamens, margin with hairs; stamens 30 or 31, glabrous, filaments free, thread-like, anthers with 2 pairs of thecae, connective broad, separating pairs of thecae, apically widening, with thecae only apically attached, opening more or less latrorsely, slits per pair adjoining; pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers: pedicel with abscission zone; sepals c. 5, bract like, imbricate, free; disc annular, hairy; pistil 3-locular, 1 ovule per locule, ovary subsericeous, stigmas sessile, split in upper part, on upper surface with broad papillae, latter covered with smaller papillae. Fruit a rhegma, lobed, septicidal and partly apically locucidal, smooth, glabrous to sericeous, sepals and stigmas persistent, wall thin, woody; column after dehiscence apically not broadened, with narrow, quite entire septal margins. Seeds obovoid, base very acute, apically with a caruncle.
Distribution Two species, one in Peninsular Thailand, Malay Peninsula and Sumatra; the other in Sumatra and Borneo.
Petiole 0.21.5 cm long, with glands at both sides of the apex; blade narrowly obovate to linear elliptic, 1670 by 3.517 cm, base emarginate to rounded.
Petiole 210 cm long, sometimes with glands at the upper part; blade elliptic to narrowly elliptic, 745 by 215 cm, base attenuate.
Chondrostylis bancana Boerl., Icon. Bogor. 1 (1897) t. 23; Koord., Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 29 (1904) 45, pl. 4, 5; Pax & K. Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenfam. IV.147.vii (1914) 15; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 14 (1960) 359; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 276; Sevilla & Welzen, Blumea 46 (2001) 90, Fig. 4g, h, Map 7; Welzen & Sevilla in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1 (2005) 155, plate IX: 1; Fl. Thailand 8, 2 (2007) 614, Fig. 5. Lectotype (Sevilla & Welzen, 2001): Boerlage, Icon. Bogor. 1, t. 23, Indonesia, Bogor Botanical Garden (see note).
Shrubs, up to 5 m high; flowering twigs up to 1 cm thick. Outer bark brown, smooth. Leaves: stipules c. 2 by 0.2 cm, scars up to 2 cm below leaves; petiole 0.2 1.5 cm long, with glands at both sides of the apex; blade narrowly obovate to linear elliptic, 1670 by 3.517 cm, index 46, coriaceous, base emarginate to rounded; nerves 2035 per side, almost always intercalated with smaller ones, largest nerves marginally closed. Inflorescences up to 30 cm long. Bracts and bracteoles 12 by 11.5 mm. Flowers: pedicels sericeous, pale greenish to yellow. Staminate flowers 23 by 12 mm; pedicel c. 1.5 mm long; sepals 4, 2.53.5 by 11.5 mm, nerves darker inside, disc lobes 0.20.5 mm high; stamens c. 31, filaments 34 mm long. Pistillate flowers 23 by 23 mm; pedicel 23 mm long, sepals 5, c. 1.5 by 1 mm, imbricate, free; disc not seen; ovary 12 by c. 2 mm, stigmas c. 1 mm long, split in upper 0.5 mm. Fruit c. 1 by 1.5 cm high, glabrous. Seeds 57 by 68 mm.
Distribution --- Sumatra (Bangka), Borneo (Central Kalimantan).
(stars on Bangka Island, near Sumatra, and in Central Kalimantan)
Habitat & Ecology --- Primary forests, lowland mixed dipterocarp forests, evergreen forests, along logging areas, rivers, on hill slopes and ridges; recorded to grow on well drained ground. Alt.: 50200 m. Flowering and fruiting: December to March.
Note --- No specimens matching Boerlages plate, nor specimens bearing his writing or the species name could be found, therefore a plate is selected as lectotype.
Chondrostylis kunstleri (King ex Hook.f.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 14 (1960) 359; Kew Bull. 16 (1963) 345; Kew Bull. 20 (1966) 27, 398; Kew Bull. 26 (1972) 231; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2 (1973) 77; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4 (1975) 69; Kew Bull. 36 (1981) 277; Sevilla & Welzen, Blumea 46 (2001) 92, Fig. 4a-f, Map 7. Mallotus ? kunstleri King ex Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5 (1887) 443. Kunstlera glumacea King ex Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5 (1887) 443, in observation Kunstlerodendron sublanceolata Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 3 (1924) 283, nom. superfl.; Pax & K. Hoffm. in Engl. & Harms, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 19c (1931) 230. Lectotype (designated by Sevilla & Welzen, 2001): Kings collector 4252. (holo K; photo in L), Malaysia, Perak, Larut.
Shrub to tree, up to 17 m high, d.b.h. up to 11 cm; flowering twigs up to 7 mm thick. Outer bark fawn, dark red-brown to grey-brown, smooth; inner bark orange to brown, granular; sapwood white to cream. Leaves: stipules 710 by 23 mm, scars up to 2 cm below leaves; petiole 210 cm long, sometimes with glands at the upper part; blade elliptic to narrowly elliptic, 745 by 215 cm, index 2.44.5, subcoriaceous to coriaceous, base attenuate; nerves 1025 per side, at the margin open (few times closed, forming intramarginal vein). Inflorescences up to 25 cm long. Bracts and bracteoles 11.5 by c. 1 mm. Staminate flowers 23 by 2.53.5 mm; pedicel c. 1 mm long; sepals 3 or 4, c. 2.5 by 1 mm; stamens c. 30, filaments 23 mm long. Pistillode flowers c. 3 by 4 mm; pedicel c.1.5 mm long; sepals c. 1.5 by 1 mm; disc 0.5 mm high; ovary 22.5 by 2.53 mm, stigmas 2 mm long, split in upper 0.5 mm. Fruit 0.41 by 0.51.5 cm high, glabrous to sericeous. Seeds 512 by 47 mm.
Distribution Peninsular Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo (Sarawak).
(dots on Malaysia, Sumatra, and W. Borneo)
Habitat & Ecology Primary lowland mixed dipterocarp forests, evergreen forests; on hillsides and ridges, often near streams or rivers. Soil: sandy loam, clay-loam; bedrock granite. Alt.: 702310 m. Flowering: April to August; fruiting: June to November.
Vernacular names Peninsular Malaysia: Maloputo, lidah sapi; julong-julong (Pahang); jenjulong (Perak). Borneo (Sarawak): malau puchok.