Malesian Euphorbiaceae Descriptions
Haegens, R.M.A.P. 2000. Taxonomy, Phylogeny, and Biogeography of Baccaurea, Distichirhops, and Nothobaccaurea (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea Suppl. 12: 1–216.
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Nothobaccaurea Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12 (2000) 198; Radcl.-Sm., Euphorbiacearum (2001) 63 (sub Baccaurea); G.L.Webster in Kubitzki, Fam. & Gen. Vasc. Pl. 11 (2014) 87. — Type: Nothobaccaurea stylaris (Müll.Arg.) Haegens.
Shrub to tree, dioecious, Terminalia branching pattern present. Indumentum of simple hairs. Bark ﬁnely ﬁssured. Leaves simple, alternate to opposite, spirally arranged; petiole apically pulvinate; stipules triangular or foliaceous, caducous, often ciliate; lamina: base rounded to attenuate; margin entire, marginal glands present; apex usually retuse to cuspidate; upper surface (sub)glabrous, raised glands often present, sometimes granulate; lower surface glabrous to sparsely hairy, raised glands often present, discoid glands present, nervation raised; secondary veins curved, usually closed at margin. Inflorescences axillary to ramiflorous to rarely cauline, reduced thyrses, solitary to many clustered together; flowers hypogynous, actinomorphic; pedicel with or without abscission zone. Staminate inflorescences distinctly branched, many-flowered, flowers scattered along inflorescence; bracts triangular to ovate; branchlets 1–5-flowered. Staminate flowers 1–2.5 mm diam.; sepals 3–7, fused at base; petals absent; disc absent; stamens 5–7, longer than sepals, glabrous; anthers basiﬁxed to dorsiﬁxed, opening with an apical slit; staminodes or disc glands absent; pistillode present, small, glabrous. Pistillate inflorescences not branched, few to many-flowered; bracts inserted on rachis and along pedicel, 1–2 per flower, triangular. Pistillate flowers 0.8–2 mm diam.; sepals 5 or 6, slightly imbricate, persistent; petals absent; staminodes present, c. 7; disc absent; ovary ovoid, 2-locular, ovules 2 per locule, attached at apex of column, wings absent; stigmas apically cleft, almost completely divided into 2 lobes; protuberances present. Fruits 1- (or 2-)seeded late dehiscing fleshy capsules, raised glands present; arillode enclosing seed totally.
Distribution — Two species in the Paciﬁc.
Habitat & Ecology — Primary or secondary rain forest. Altitude: sea level up to 1100 m, usually in lowland. Flowering and fruiting throughout the year.
Notes — 1. Nothobaccaurea closely resembles Baccaurea and Maesobotrya. It is also placed within the subtribe Scepinae. Nothobaccaurea differs in a reasonable number of characters from Baccaurea: the sepals of the staminate flowers are fused at base, whereas in Baccaurea they are free; the stamens are longer than the sepals; the presence of staminodes, which is a very rare feature in Baccaurea (B. lanceolata); the stipules are usually foliaceous, instead of triangular. The differences between Nothobaccaurea and the African genus Maesobotrya are less profound: pistillode glabrous in Nothobaccaurea, hairy in Maesobotrya; staminodes absent in Nothobaccaurea, present in Maesobotrya; stigmatic lobes with protuberances in Nothobaccaurea, without protuberances in Maesobotrya; anthers purple in Nothobaccaurea, yellow in Maesobotrya; somewhat longer anthers in Nothobaccaurea. Because of these differences and the enormous gap in distribution, Nothobaccaurea is treated here as a genus distinct from Maesobotrya.
2. The genus is named for its false resemblance with Baccaurea.
Nothobaccaurea stylaris (Müll.Arg.) Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12 (2000) 201, Fig. 3.31, Map 3.48. — Baccaurea stylaris Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866) 465; Pax & K. Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv (1922) 46; A.C. Sm., Allertonia 1 (1978) 383. — Type: Wilkes 75126 (lecto US, selected here; isolecto GH, K), Fiji .
Baccaurea obtusa A.C. Sm., Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 141 (1936) 84. — Type: A.C. Smith 420 (lecto US, selected here; isolecto GH), Fiji, Vanua levu, Thakaundrove, Mt Mariko.
Baccaurea sanctae-crucis Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 35 (1980) 383. — Type: Kajewski 673 (holo K; iso BRI, US), Santa Cruz Islands.
Shrub or tree 2–20 m high, dbh 19–48 cm, buttresses rarely present, up to 45 cm high; branchlets subglabrous to sparsely hairy, densely hairy when young; young shoots grey to red to dark-brown when dry, Terminalia branching pattern usually weak. Bark white to grey to brown when fresh, brown to grey when dry, 0.2 mm thick, smooth, hard to soft; inner bark (pale) brown. Sapwood white to cream to brownish, hard. Leaves alternate and/or opposite; petiole 3–41 mm long, glabrous to sparsely hairy, transverse cracks usually absent, (greyish to reddish to blackish)-brown when dry, small raised glands present; stipules triangular (to foliaceous), 1–4.5 by 0.5–1.5 mm, sparsely hairy to velutinous outside, midrib densely hairy to velutinous, glabrous to densely hairy inside, margin often ciliate, not hyaline; lamina ovate to obovate, 2.3–15 by 1.2–8.5 cm, l/w ratio 1.1–2.8, papery to slightly leathery; base rounded to attenuate; apex retuse to cuspidate, up to 15 mm long; upper surface glabrous, small raised glands often present, often granulate, (dark) green when fresh, (dark to red to green)-brown when dry; lower surface (sub)glabrous, veins glabrous to sparsely hairy, small raised glands often present, discoid glands present, often in a row parallel to midrib and/or between the secondary veins, (dark) green when fresh, (green to pale)-brown when dry; secondary veins 4–9 per side, almost closed at margin; nervation reticulate. Staminate inflorescences axillary to just below the leaves, solitary to few clustered together, 0.3–4.5 cm long, 0.2–0.5 mm thick, sometimes branched, subglabrous to densely hairy, many-flowered, usually less than 36, dark red to reddish pink; bracts absent or 1, 0.9–1 mm long, subglabrous to densely hairy outside, glabrous inside, margin usually ciliate, not hyaline; bracteoles (0 or) 1(–5), 0.5–1.5 mm long, glabrous to densely hairy outside, glabrous inside; branchlets cylindrical, 1–6 mm long, glabrous to sparsely hairy, 1–5-flowered. Staminate flowers 1–3 mm diam., reddish brown to dark red to whitish; pedicel 0–1.8 mm long, abscission zone often hardly visible, upper part 0–0.5 mm long, glabrous to sparsely hairy; sepals 3–6, (ob)ovate, 0.5–1.2 by 0.2–0.9 mm, glabrous outside and inside, margin ciliate; stamens 5–7, 0.9–2.5 mm long, glabrous, purple; ﬁlaments 0.5–2.1 mm long, straight; anthers 0.25–0.6 by 0.25–0.6 by 0.2–0.4 mm, purple; pistillode obtriangular to cylindrical, 0.3–0.8 mm high, glabrous, hollow. Pistillate inflorescences axillary to ramiflorous, solitary to few clustered together, 0.5–3 cm long, 0.3–0.5 mm thick, subglabrous to densely hairy, 3–20-flowered; petiole 0.2–1.7 mm long, geniculate (90° bent) at abscission zone, upper part 0.1–0.4 mm long, subglabrous; bracts 1 or 2, subglabrous to densely hairy outside, glabrous inside, margin ciliate. Pistillate flowers 0.8–2 mm diam., (dark) red; sepals 5 or 6, ovate, 0.5–1.2 by 0.2–0.5 mm, (sub)glabrous outside, glabrous inside, persistent; staminodes c. 7, small; ovary 1–2.5 by 0.5–1.2 mm, subglabrous at tip, base sparsely to densely hairy, style 0.1–1.2 by 0.25–0.5 mm, (sub)glabrous; stigmas 0.3–0.8 mm long, cleft for upper c. 90%, persistent; lobes 0.3–0.7 by 0.2–0.8 mm, protuberances present above and below, glabrous above, subglabrous below. Fruits globose to ovoid, 1- (or 2-)seeded, fleshy capsules, (5–)8–12.5 by (2–) 6–9 by (2–)5–9 mm, loculicidally dehiscent, small raised glands present, (sub)glabrous outside, glabrous inside, septa rarely subglabrous, (light) green to red to brown; pericarp 0.2–1 mm thick; column 5–9.5 mm, caducous to persistent, usually curved; pedicel 0.4–4 mm long, upper part 0.1–1.2 mm long. Seeds globose, sometimes laterally flattened, 4–6.8 by 3.8–5.3 by 3.3–5 mm; arillode dull purple; testa red; cotyledons 2–3.2 by 2.2–3 by 0.02–0.1; radicle 0.5–1 mm; endosperm papery to c. 1 mm thick.
Distribution — Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Fiji.
Habitat & Ecology — Primary or secondary rain forest. Altitude: sea level up to 1100 m. Flowering and fruiting throughout the year. Fruits eaten by pigeons.
Vernacular names — Fiji: Innoka, kailoa, midra, sinumbuta, vurevure.