Flora of Thailand

Euphorbiaceae

 

9. Baccaurea

 

R.M.A.P. Haegens & P.C. van Welzen

 

Goto on this page:

Genus description

Identification key

Species descriptions

 

Baccaurea

 

Lour., Fl. Cochinch.: 661. 1790; Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 367. 1887; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv: 45. 1922) 45; Gagnep. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 547. 1927; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 219. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 63. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 43. 1975; G.L.Webster, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 81: 51. 1994; Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12: 81. 2000; Haegens & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 68. 2000; Radcl.-Sm., Gen. Euphorbiacearum: 62. 2001; Haegens & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 107. 2005; G.L.Webster in Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 11: 86. 2014 Pierardia Roxb. ex Jack, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 14: 119. 1823 Adenocrepis Blume, Bijdr.: 579. 1825 Microsepala Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste bijv.: 444. 1861 Calyptroon Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste bijv.: 471. 1861 Everettiodendron Merr., Philip. J. Sci. 4: 279. 1909 Gatnaia Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 71: 870. 1924.

 

Shrubs to trees, dioecious, candelabriform branching strong or weak. Indumentum of simple and often also of stellate hairs. Stipules caducous, mainly triangular. Leaves alternate, simple; petiole mainly only apically pulvinate; blade symmetric, papery to coriaceous, base cordate to attenuate; margin entire, marginal glands present; apex usually round to cuspidate, upper surface glabrous except often for midrib, lower surface glabrous to densely hairy, disc-like glands sometimes present, nerves pinnate, veins usually ± scalariform. Inflorescences axillary to cauliflorous, usually raceme-like thyrses, 1 to many together. Flowers actinomorphic, usually pedicelled, sepals imbricate, petals and disc sometimes rudimentary, usually absent. Staminate inflorescences not to distinctly branched, usually 3 flowers per bract. Staminate flowers: sepals (3)4 or 5(-8), ± free; stamens 3-10, free, shorter than sepals; staminodes (or disc glands) sometimes 3-8; pistillode usually present. Pistillate inflorescences not branched; bracts inserted on rachis to usually along pedicel, 1 or 3 per flower. Pistillate flowers: sepals 4-6; ovary 2-4-locular, ovules 2 per locule; stigmas complete to divided into 2 lobes. Fruits berries to late dehiscing fleshy capsules. Seeds ± ellipsoid, usually laterally flattened, enclosed by fleshy and usually edible arillode.

    Fourty eight species ranging from India to S.E. Asia Mainland, throughout Malesia to West Pacific.; 12 species in Thailand, all, except three, only present in the Peninsular part. Classification: Subfam. Phyllanthoideae, tribe Antidesmeae, subtribe Scepinae.

 

Key to the species

 

1a.

Leaves glabrous except for some very small stellate hairs on lower surface (use high magnification lens, check basal and upper part of midrib on lower side, especially with young leaves); drying beautifully deep chestnut-brown.

2

1b.

Leaves glabrous or hairy below, with or without stellate hairs (long, stellately bundled simple hairs); drying in various colours, also brown, but not the deep chestnut-brown.

3

2a.

Staminate flowers scattered along rachis. Fruits 35-73 mm in diameter, yellow to brown. Stipules triangular. Stigmas cleft in 2 lobes. 

4. B. macrocarpa

2b.

Staminate flowers in top of rachis. Fruits 9-15 mm in diameter, usually green. Stipules triangular to leaf-shaped. Stigmas not cleft. 

5. B. macrophylla

3a.

(Most) leaves ovate, with black disc-like glands along midrib on lower surface or black dots spread over lower leaf surface, also glands along margin (check several leaves). 

4

3b.

Leaves elliptic to obovate, lower surface without black glands on lower surface or only glands along margin.

5

4a.

Candelabriform branching pattern weak. Stellate hairs present next to simple ones (difficult to see), on black dots on lower leaf surface (dots visible with naked eye). Sepals of more or less equal size. Staminate flowers caducous when opening, pedicelled. Fruits glabrescent outside, (sub)glabrous inside. 

1. B. bracteata

4b.

Candelabriform branching pattern obvious. Only simple hairs present. Leaf blades with black glandular areas along midrib beneath, black dots absent. Sepals all of different size. Staminate flowers not caducous, sessile. Fruits densely hairy outside and inside. 

6. B. minor

5a.

Plants more or less densely hairy, at least branchlets, petioles and lower surface of leaves hairy.

6

5b.

Plants giving a glabrous impression, branchlets, petioles and lower surface not all hairy together, some at most somewhat hairy.

8

6a.

Fruits indehiscent berries, 22-45 mm high when dry. Leaves basally narrowly heart-shaped. 

7. B. motleyana

6b.

Fruits dehiscent capsules or indiscent berries, latter up to 20 mm high. Leaves basally broadly cordate to rounded to cuneate or attenuate, never narrowly heart-shaped.

7

7a.

Young branchlets scaly (candelabriform branching strong). Leaves basally cuneate (to rounded). Stipules 8-16 mm long. Staminate bracts 1.5-6 mm long. Pistillate sepals 4, 5.6-6.5 mm long. Fruits usually indehiscent berries or tardily splitting capsules. 

2. B. brevipes

7b.

Young branchlets smooth (candelabriform branching weak). Leaves basally round to cordate (to attenuate). Stipules 2.2-10 mm long. Staminate bracts 0.2-1.3 mm long. Pistillate sepals 4 or 5, 0.5-5.9 mm long. Fruits dehiscing capsules.

9. B. polyneura

8a.

Leaves greenish grey (or greenish brown) when dry, (sub)glabrous. Inflorescences glabrous. 

3. B. lanceolata

8b.

Leaves brown when dry, somewhat hairy to glabrous. Inflorescences hairy.

9

9a.

Staminate flowers crowded in inflorescence apex. Pistillate flowers geniculate (90 ° ) with petiole. 

13. B. sumatrana

9b.

Staminate flowers along inflorescence. Pistillate flowers straight on petiole.

10

10a.

Staminate bracts (1.5-)3-4.5 mm long; bracteoles absent. Fruits indehiscent berries, globose to ovoid (pear-shaped). Pistillate inflorescences up to 10 cm long; flowers yellowish. 

12. B. ramiflora

10b.

Staminate bracts up to 1.6 mm long; bracteoles present. Fruits indehiscent berries, then with fusiform shape; or fruits with loculicidally dehiscing outer wall, these (sub)globose. Pistillate inflorescences up to 28 cm long, flowers white, greenish yellow, yellow or red.

11

11a.

Flowers yellow to white. Staminate inflorescences 3-10 cm long; staminate pedicel 0.4-3 mm long. Pistillate pedicels 1-2.9(-6.7) mm long. Fruits (sub)globose, not winged, outer wall loculicidally dehiscent.

11. B. racemosa

11b.

Flowers yellow or white to red. Staminate inflorescences 4-28 cm long; staminate pedicel 0.4-6 mm long. Pistillate pedicel 1.5-6(-9) mm long. Fruits fusiform, usually 6-winged, indehiscent.

12

12a.

Inflorescences cauliflorous on basal part of trunk. Flowers yellowish to red. 

8. B. parviflora

12b.

Inflorescences cauliflorous to axillary. Flowers red.

10. B. ptychopyxis

 

1. Baccaurea bracteata Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 466. 1866; Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 372. 1887; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 219. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 76. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 46. 1975; Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12: 99, fig. 3.6, map 3.3. 2000; Haegens & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 69. 2000; in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 109; plate IV: 1. 2005 Baccaurea crassifolia J.J.Sm., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 3, 1: 394. 1920.

 

    Baccbrac-habit.gif (50603 bytes)

 

Trees up to 25 m high, candelabriform branching pattern weak, usually hairy. Indumentum of simple and stellate hairs on black dots. Stipules triangular, 2-6 by 1-2.5 mm. Leaves: petiole 8-65(-87) mm long; blade ovate (to obovate), 3.5-21 by 1.7-9.8 cm, length/width ratio 1.4-3.4, papery to sub-leathery, base truncate to attenuate, lower surface with black disc-like glands, nerves 3-8 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary to just below the leaves, 1-3 together, up to 16 cm long; bracts 2-6 mm, bracteoles present. Staminate flowers 1.5-2.9 mm in diameter, caducous at moment of opening; pedicel 0.3-1.2 mm long; sepals 4 or 5, ovate, 1-2.2 by 0.6-1.5 mm, white to yellow to green to pink to red to brown; stamens 4 or 5, 0.25-0.5 mm long, filaments 0.05-0.3 mm long, straight, anthers 0.1-0.25 by 0.15-0.2 mm. Pistillate inflorescences axillary to just below the leaves, single, up to 6.5 cm long. Pistillate flowers 4-12 mm in diameter, yellowish to greenish to (red)brown; pedicel 1-5 mm long; sepals 4 or 5(6), ovate to elliptic, 3.5-11 by 0.9-3.5 mm; staminodes exceptionally present; ovary 2- or 3-locular; style 0-1.6 by 0.5-1 mm; stigmas 0.9-2.5 mm long, cleft for upper 70-90 %. Fruits globose to pyramidal, fleshy capsules, 19-25 mm in diameter when fresh, 10.5-23 by 14-25 by 14-25 mm when dry, red to orange-brown-green, only partly loculicidally dehiscent, subglabrous to densely hairy outside, (sub)glabrous inside. Seeds (6.2-)7-10 by (4-)4.5-6.5 by 3-4.8 mm; arillode (orange) yellow

    T h a i l a n d.— EASTERN: Ubon Ratchathani (Chae Waterfall); PENINSULAR: Surat Thani (Khao Pu Thong, Ko Samui), Narathiwat (Kok Dan, Sirinthorn, Sungi Padi, To Deang, Waeng).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— Thailand, Malay Peninsula (type), Sumatra, Borneo.

Baccbrac-map.gif (100048 bytes)

    E c o l o g y.— Primary, secondary forest, freshwater swamp, peat swamp, heath swamp, kerangas, exceptionally in mangrove forest; soil: usually white sand. Altitude: 0-40(-900) m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Khwan khao (ัญ้ัา) (Trang); ramai pa (ะำไ่า), kho laen (ูลน) (Narathiwat); kho raeng (), la fai pa (ไฟ่า), ma fai ling (มะไฟล) (Peninsular); tue-ro-bae-wo (แบ) (Malay-Narathiwat).

    U s e s.— Aril and fruit wall edible, sour. In Sarawak and Sabah wood used for building.

 

2. Baccaurea brevipes Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 372. 1887; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 66. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 47. 1975; Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12: 102, map 3.4. 2000; Haegens & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 69. 2000; in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 109, plate IV: 2. 2005.

 

    Baccbrev-Fruit-Photo2.jpg (90265 bytes)    Baccbrev-Fruit-Photo1.jpg (81778 bytes)

 

Trees up to 10 m high, candelabriform branching pattern strong, densely hairy when young. Indumentum of simple hairs. Stipules 8-16 by 2-5 mm. Leaves: petiole 11-50 mm long; blade elliptic to obovate, 15-35 by 6.2-14.4 cm, length/width ratio 1.9-3, papery, base cuneate to round, lower surface without disc-like glands, nerves 11-15 per side. Staminate inflorescences ramiflorous to just below the leaves (to axillary), 1-8 together, up to 17.5 cm long; bracts 1.5-6 mm long, bracteoles usually present. Staminate flowers 1.5-3 mm in diameter, yellowish green; pedicel 1.7-2.2 mm long; sepals 3-6, obovate or different in shape, 0.5-2 by 0.5-1.4 mm; stamens 5, 0.5-1 mm long; filaments 0.3-0.9 mm long, geniculate; anthers 0.1-0.2 by 0.1-0.2 mm. Pistillate inflorescences cauliflorous (to ramiflorous to axillary), 1-3 together, up to 22.5 cm long. Pistillate flowers 5-7 mm in diameter; pedicel 0-4.5 mm long; sepals 4, obovate to elliptic, 5.6-6.5 by 1.5-3.5 mm; ovary 2- or 3-loculate; style c. 0.2 by 1 mm wide; stigmas c. 1 mm long. Fruits globose, fleshy capsules to berries, 14-20 by 10-18.5 by 10-17 mm, white to red to pink, not dehiscing to exceptionally splitting, glabrous to densely hairy outside, glabrous inside. Seeds 8-13 by 6-8 by 3.1-5 mm; arillode blue to violet to exceptionally red.

    T h a i l a n d.— PENINSULAR: Trang (Khao Chong, Khao Phap Pha), Satun (Kuan Kalong), Songkhla (Boriphat Falls, Ko Hong Hill), Pattani (To Mo), Narathiwat (Banang Sta, Khao Nakharat, Khao Sam Nuk, Khao Chana, Waeng).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— Thailand, Malay Peninsula (type), Sumatra, N.W. Borneo.

Baccbrev-map.gif (70172 bytes)

    E c o l o g y.— Primary and secondary forest, seasonal swamp forest; soil: sand, clay, granite. Altitude: 20-700 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Fai tao (ไฟ่า), la fai pa (ไฟ่า), ma fai (มะไฟ), mayom pa (มะ่า) (Peninsular).

    U s e s.— Locally grown for its edible fruits.

    N o t e.— Airy Shaw (Kew Bull. 26: 221. 1972) refers to this species as B. velutina (Ridl.) Ridl.

 

3. Baccaurea lanceolata (Miq.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 457. 1866; Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 368. 1887; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1: 454. 1963; Airy Shaw, Kew. Bull. 26: 220. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 65. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 49. 1975; Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12: 119, fig. 3.10, map 3.13, photo 2, 3. 2000; Haegens & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 70. 2000; in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 110. 2005 Hedycarpus lanceolatus Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1, 2: 359. 1859 Pierardia pyrrhodasya Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste bijv.: 441. 1861 Adenocrepis lanceolatus (Miq.) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32: 82. 1863 Baccaurea pyrrhodasya (Miq.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 462. 1866  Baccaurea glabriflora Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv: 59. 1922.

 

Bacclanc-fruit.gif (41020 bytes)

 

Trees up to 30 m high; candelabriform branching pattern usually weak; branchlets (sub)glabrous. Indumentum of simple hairs. Stipules (3-)5-16 by 2-6 mm. Leaves: petiole 16-184 mm long; blade elliptic to obovate, 9.2-45 by 3.7-26.5 cm, length/width ratio 1.7-3.4, papery, greenish grey (to greenish brown) when dry, base attenuate to round, lower surface without disc-like glands, nerves 6-13 per side. Staminate inflorescences cauliflorous, many together, up to18 cm long; bracts 0.4-1.5 mm long, bracteoles present. Staminate flowers 2-7 mm in diameter, yellow to pink to purple to cream-white; pedicel 1.8-7 mm long; sepals (3)4 or 5, obovate to spathulate, often variable in size and shape, 1.1-5.5 by 0.6-2.7 mm; petals often 3-5, rudimentary; staminodes 3-5; stamens (3)4 or 5, 0.4-0.6 mm long, filaments 0.1-0.3 mm long, straight; anthers 0.2-0.35 by 0.2-0.4 mm. Pistillate inflorescences cauliflorous, few together, up to 33(-50) cm long. Pistillate flowers 3.5-10 mm in diameter, yellow to orange to purple to reddish cream to whitish; pedicel 0.8-4.5 mm long; sepals 4 or 5, ovate to obovate, 1-6 by 0.9-3.2 mm; petals 2-8, reduced; ovary 3- or 4-locular; style absent; stigmas 0.7-1 mm long, cleft for upper 10-90 %. Fruits globose to ellipsoid berries, c. 38 by 60 mm when fresh, 24-54 by 16.5-41 by 16.5-41 mm when dry, green to yellow to whitish to greyish to brownish, glabrous outside and inside. Seeds 12.2-26 by 8-15 by 4.8-9 mm; arillode white to grey, translucent.

    T h a i l a n d.— PENINSULAR: Nakhon Si Thammarat, Trang (Khao Chong), Pattani (Banang Sta, Khao Kalakiri), Narathiwat (Nikom Waeng).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, N. Java (type), Borneo, Palawan.

Bacclanc-map.gif (93993 bytes)

    E c o l o g y.— Primary and secondary forest, riverine forest, on slopes; soil: sandy clay to loam. Altitude: 0-1300 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Mafai ri (มะไฟ) (Trang); som huk (มห), som lok () (Nakhon Si Thammarat).

    U s e s.— In bamboo pounded leaves drunk with water are used against stomach ache. Fruit wall and arillode edible but sour and, therefore, eaten with sugar or salt, nice with chicken rice. Occasionally cultivated.

 

4. Baccaurea macrocarpa (Miq.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 457. 1866; Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 375. 1887; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 50; Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12: 121, fig. 3.11, map 3.14, photo 4. 2000; Haegens & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 70. 2000; in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 111. 2005 Pierardia macrocarpa Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste bijv.: 441. 1861 Mappa borneensis Müll.Arg., Flora 47: 468. 1864 Baccaurea borneensis (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 460. 1866  Baccaurea griffithii Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 371. 1887.

 

Baccmacc-habit.gif (40215 bytes)

 

Trees up to 27 m high, candelabriform branching pattern weak, branchlets glabrous. Indumentum of small stellate and simple hairs. Stipules 2-9 by 1-5 mm. Leaves: petiole (10-)22-145 mm long; blade (ovate to) elliptic (to obovate), (7.2-)9-37 by 3.1-17.5 cm, length/width ratio (1.1-)1.6-2.8(-3.5), leathery to papery, base attenuate to cuneate (to round), lower surface mostly scarcely hairy on midrib and nerves, disc-like glands present, nerves 6-10(-13) per side. Staminate inflorescences (axillary to) ramiflorous to cauliflorous, 1 to few together, up to13 cm long; bracts 1-3 mm long, bracteoles usually present. Staminate flowers 0.7-2 mm in diameter, green to yellow to white; pedicel 1-2 mm; sepals 5, elliptic, 0.7-1.5 by 0.4-0.7 mm; stamens 5(6), 0.1-0.25 mm long, filaments 0.1-0.2 mm long, straight, anthers c. 0.1 by 0.15 mm. Pistillate inflorescences ramiflorous to cauliflorous, 1-3 together, up to 18 cm long. Pistillate flowers 2-4.5 mm in diameter; pedicel 3-7.5 mm long; sepals 4-6, ovate, 1.5-2.8 by 1-1.3 mm; ovary 3- or 4-locular; style 0.5-1.5 by c. 1 mm wide; stigmas 0.5-1 mm long, cleft. Fruits (sub)globose, fleshy capsules, up to 80 mm in diameter when fresh, 30-65 by 34-75 by 34-75 mm when dry, brown to yellow to orange to dull red to dark green, loculicidally (and septicidally) dehiscent, (sub)glabrous outside, subglabrous to densely hairy inside. Seeds 13-23 by 11-18.5 by 4-7 mm; arillode white to yellow (to orange).

    T h a i l a n d.— PENINSULAR: Narathiwat (Waeng).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra (type), Borneo, (Ambon, Irian Jaya).

Baccmacc-map.gif (100773 bytes)

    E c o l o g y.— Primary rainforest, riverine forest, swamp forest, exceptionally in secondary forest; soil: granitic sand, sandy clay, red clay. Altitude: 0-1600 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Lang khae (ลังแข) (Peninsular).

    U s e s.— Arillode edible, sweet to sour. Often cultivated. Fruits sold in the market.

 

5. Baccaurea macrophylla (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 460. 1866; Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 369. 1887; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 220. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 66. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 51. 1975; Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12: 124, map 3.15. 2000; Haegens & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 71. 2000; in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 112. 2005 Pierardia macrophylla Müll.Arg., Flora 47: 516. 1864 Baccaurea beccariana Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv: 62. 1922.

 

Trees up to 27 m high, candelabriform branching pattern weak, branchlets (sub)glabrous. Indumentum of stellate hairs. Stipules often leaf-shaped, 2-11 by 3-11.5 mm. Leaves: petiole 30-88 mm long; blade (ovate to) elliptic (to obovate), 9.6-33 by 4.5-14.4 cm, length/width ratio 1.9-2.3(-2.9), papery, base round to cuneate, lower surface (sub)glabrous, disc-like glands present, nerves 6-13 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary to ramiflorous, 1 to few clustered together, up to 8.6 cm long; bracts 1.5-2.5 mm long, bracteoles present. Staminate flowers 0.7-1.5 mm in diameter, green to yellow; pedicel 0-0.7 mm long; sepals 4 or 5, ovate, 0.4-0.9 by 0.4-0.6 mm; staminodes 0-4; stamens 4 or 5, 0.2-0.7 mm long, filaments 0.1-0.7 mm long, straight, anthers 0.1-0.2 by 0.2-0.3 mm. Pistillate inflorescences ramiflorous, few together, up to 25 cm long. Pistillate flowers 2-4 mm in diameter, green; pedicel 2-5 mm long, upper part geniculate (90 ° bent); sepals 4, lanceolate, c. 1.5 by 1-1.5 mm; ovary (2)3-locular; stigmas sessile, c. 0.7 mm long, not lobed. Fruits globose, fleshy capsules, 10-16 by 9.5-15 by 9.5-15 mm, usually green to sometimes light yellow to whitish violet to reddish to brown, loculicidally dehiscent to irregularly splitting, (sub)glabrous outside, glabrous to densely hairy inside. Seeds 8-12.5 by 7.5-11 by 2-4 mm; arillode translucent.

    T h a i l a n d.— PENINSULAR: Pattani (To Mo).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— Thailand, Malay Peninsula (type), Sumatra, Borneo, Molluccas.

Baccmacp-map.gif (92795 bytes)

    E c o l o g y.— Primary and secondary rainforest, peat swamp forest. Altitude: 0-650 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Lam khae (), lang khae (ลังแข), ma khae (แข) (Pattani).

    U s e s.— Arillode edible, sweet to sour.

 

6. Baccaurea minor Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 370. 1887; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 16: 342. 1963; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 66. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 51. 1975; Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12: 129, fig. 3.13, map 3.18. 2000; Haegens & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 71. 2000; in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 112. 2005 Aporosa billitonensis Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv: 97. 1922 Baccaurea pendula Merr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15: 152. 1929.

 

Baccmino-fruit.gif (52563 bytes)

 

Trees up to 35 m high, candelabriform branching pattern strong, branchlets subglabrous. Indumentum of simple hairs. Stipules 1-4 by 0.7-1.5 mm. Leaves: petiole 7-35 mm long; blade ovate (to obovate), 3.5-16.3 by 1.6-8.5 cm, length/width ratio 1.5-3.2(-4.2), papery, base (rounded to) cuneate to attenuate, lower surface usually with disc-like glands, nerves 4-8 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary to just below the leaves, 1-3 together, up to 5 cm long; bracts c. 4.5 mm long, bracteoles present. Staminate flowers 0.8-2 mm in diameter, clustered at top of branchlets, greenish yellow to yellow, exceptionally flushed pink; pedicel absent; sepals 4 (5), each with a different shape, 0.3-1 by 0.3-1 mm; stamens 4(5), 0.2-1 mm long, filaments 0.2-1 mm long, straight, anthers 0.1-0.2 by 0.1-0.2 mm. Pistillate inflorescences ramiflorous, 1-4 together, up to 28 cm long. Pistillate flowers 3-8 mm in diameter, green; pedicel 2-2.5 mm long; sepals 4, ovate to obovate, each with a different size and shape, 2.2-4.5 by 1-2.2 mm; staminodes exceptionally present; ovary 3-locular; style 0-3 mm long; stigmas 0.8-1.4 mm long, apically lobed up to the base. Fruits globose, fleshy capsules, 8-14 by 10-15 by 10-15 mm, orange to ochre, dehiscing septicidally and loculicidally, densely hairy outside, velutinous inside. Seeds 5.9-9.5 by 5.4-8.3 by 0.1-0.3 mm; arillode dull, yellow to orange.

    T h a i l a n d.— PENINSULAR: Narathiwat (Bala-Hala).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— Thailand, Malay Peninsula (type), Sumatra, Borneo.

Baccmino-map.gif (92193 bytes)

    E c o l o g y.— Primary, old secondary, and bamboo forest, on ridges or slopes; soil: granite, yellow sand or yellow sandy loam. Altitude: 0-1200 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Champu ning (ูน) (Peninsular).

    U s e s.— Arillode edible, sour-bitter. Wood used in house construction.

 

7. Baccaurea motleyana (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 461. 1866; Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 371. 1887; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1: 454. 1963; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 220. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 66. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 52. 1975; Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12: 134, fig. 3.15, map 3.20, photo 5, 6. 2000; Haegens & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 71. 2000; in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 113. 2005 Pierardia motleyana Müll.Arg., Flora 47: 516. 1864 Baccaurea pubescens Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv: 61. 1922.

 

Baccmotl-habit.gif (47358 bytes)

 

Trees up to 20 m high, candelabriform branching pattern weak, branchlets densely hairy. Indumentum of simple hairs. Stipules 5-10 by 1.5-3.5 mm. Leaves: petiole 23-84 mm long; blade elliptic to obovate, 13.5-37 by 5.2-15 cm, length/width ratio 1.9-2.5, papery: base round to usually narrowly cordate, lower surface hairy, without disc-like, nerves 10-17 per side. Staminate inflorescences cauliflorous to axillary, 1-5 together, up to 24 cm long; bracts 1-2.5 mm long; bracteoles bract-like. Staminate flowers 2-3 mm in diameter, green to yellow; pedicel 1.6-2.3 mm long; sepals 4 or 5, ovate, 0.7-1.4 by 0.5-1.4 mm; stamens 5-10, 0.4-0.6 mm long, filaments 0.4-0.6 mm long, geniculate to straight, anthers c. 0.1 by 0.2 mm. Pistillate inflorescences ramiflorous to cauliflorous, 1-5 together, up to 42 cm long. Pistillate flowers 4-10 mm in diameter, green to yellow; pedicel 2-5.5 mm long; sepals 4 or 5, ovate, 4-8 by 1.5-3.5 mm; ovary 3-locular; style 0-0.4 by 0.8-1.2 mm wide; stigmas 0.5-1 mm long. Fruits globose to ellipsoid berries, 22-45 by 15-25 by c. 25 mm, greenish yellow to white, glabrous to densely hairy outside, glabrous inside. Seeds 13-20 by 9-14.5 by 2.5-4 mm; arillode translucent white to exceptionally purple.

    T h a i l a n d.— PENINSULAR: Phangnga, Songkhla (Ban Pien), Pattani (Sai Khao Waterfall), Narathiwat (Tak Bai).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo (type), Moluccas (Halmahera).

Baccmotl-map.gif (102294 bytes)

    E c o l o g y.— Primary and secondary rainforest, exceptionally riverine forest, often cultivated; soil: yellow clay, sand or limestone. Altitude: 15-500 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Mafai farang (มะไฟั่ง) (Bangkok); lam khae (), rama (ะมะ) (Pattani); la mai (ละไ) (Peninsular); ra-ma (ระมะ), ra-mai (ระ), ram-bai (), ram-be () (Malay-Peninsular); ra-ma-ti-ku () (Malay-Narathiwat).

    U s e s.— Locally grown for its edible fruits; arillode edible, sour to sweet. Squeezed inner bark used for sore eyes.

 

8. Baccaurea parviflora (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 462. 1866; Kurz, Fl. Burm. 2: 357. 1877; Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 368. 1887; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 220. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 64. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 52. 1975; Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12: 152, fig. 3.18, map 3.26. 2000; Haegens & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 72. 2000; in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 113, fig. 24a-f. 2005  Pierardia dasystachya Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1, 2: 358. 1859 Pierardia parviflora Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32: 82. 1863 Baccaurea dasystachya (Miq.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 458. 1866 Baccaurea affinis Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 459. 1866 Baccaurea scortechinii Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 368. 1887 Baccaurea singaporica Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv: 54. 1922 Baccaurea rostrata Merr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15: 150. 1929.

 

    Baccparv-male.gif (98188 bytes)    Baccparv-female.gif (139344 bytes)    Baccparv-fruit.gif (93277 bytes)    Baccparv-Fruit-Photo1.gif (392231 bytes)    Baccparv-Fruit-Photo2.gif (491108 bytes)

 

Shrubs to trees, up to 15 m high, candelabriform branching pattern strong, branchlets glabrous. Indumentum of simple hairs. Stipules usually 2.5-7 by 1.5-2.5 mm. Leaves: petiole 4-55 mm long; blade elliptic to obovate, 5-23 by 2-9.5 cm, length/width ratio 1.6-3.7, papery, base attenuate to cuneate, lower surface without disc-like glands, nerves (3-)5-10 per side. Staminate inflorescences cauliflorous, at base of trunk, many together, up to 28 cm long; bracts 0.3-1.6 mm long, bracteoles present. Staminate flowers 1-5 mm in diameter; pedicel 0.4-6 mm long; sepals 4 or 5, obovate, each with a different size and shape, 0.5-3 by 0.5-1.2 mm, maroon to yellow outside, cream to yellow inside, whitish outside; stamens 5-7, 0.5-0.9 mm long, filaments 0.4-0.8 mm long, straight, anthers 0.2-0.3 by 0.1-0.2 mm. Pistillate inflorescences cauliflorous, at base of trunk, many together, up to 28 cm long. Pistillate flowers 5-7.5 mm in diameter; pedicel 2-6(-9) mm long; sepals 4 or 5, narrowly elliptic to obovate, 2.7-8 by 0.9-2 mm, white to yellow to usually red; ovary with or without 6 wings, (2)3(4)-locular; style 0-2 by c. 1 mm; stigmas 0.1-1.5 mm long, cleft apically only or up to base. Fruits fusiform berries, often with 4-6 narrow longitudinal wings, 16-32 by 7-15 mm, dull red to maroon turning purple to black, (sub)glabrous outside, glabrous inside. Seeds 9-16 by 4-8 by 1-5 mm; arillode red to purple to white.

    T h a i l a n d.— SOUTH-WESTERN: Uthai Thani (Huay Kha Khaeng); PENINSULAR: Chumphon (Ta Ngaw), Ranong (Klong Nakha, Khlong Nang Yon, Kraburi, Muang Len), Phangnga (Khao Phra Mi), Krabi (Khao Pra, Ko Lanta Yai), Nakhon Si Thammarat, Trang (Khao Chong, Ko Talibong), Satun, Songkhla (Khao Nam Kang, Kho Hong Hill), Pattani (Bukit), Narathiwat (Nikom Waeng).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— India (type), Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo.

Baccparv-map.gif (98629 bytes)

    E c o l o g y Primary and secondary evergreen forest, riverine forest, dipterocarp forest with much bamboo, gingers, and Donax grandis in undergrowth; on steep hillsides to dry parts of swamps; soil: sandstone to white sandy soil. Altitude: 0-1250 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r Ma fai tao (มะไฟ่า) (Satun); som fai din (ไฟด), som fai pa (ไฟ่า) (Nakhon Si Thammarat); ma fai ka (มะไฟ) (Peninsular); Chinese lantern tree (English).

    U s e s Fruit wall and arillode edible, sour-sweet. Wood used as box-wood.

 

9. Baccaurea polyneura Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 369. 1887; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 67. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 36: 265. 1981; Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12: 159, map 3.28. 2000; Haegens & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 72. 2000; in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 114. 2005 Baccaurea kunstleri King ex Gage, Rec. Bot. Surv. India 9, 2: 230. 1922; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 219. 1972 Baccaurea hookeri Gage, Rec. Bot. Surv. India 9: 232. 1922 Baccaurea cordata Merr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15: 147. 1929.

 

Trees up to 30 m high, candelabriform branching pattern weak, branchlets velutinous. Indumentum of simple and stellate hairs. Stipules 2.2-10 by 0.5-2 mm. Leaves: petiole 7-78 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, 5.5-21.5 by 3.1-12.5 cm, length/width ratio 1.4-2.7, papery to slightly leathery, base round to cordate (to attenuate), lower surface without disc-like glands, nerves 7-14 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary to just below the leaves (to ramiflorous), 1-5 together, up to 7 cm long; bracts 0.2-1.3 mm long, bracteoles usually present. Staminate flowers 1.1-3.3 mm in diameter, green to yellow to greenish-white; pedicel 0-0.5 mm long; sepals 4-6, ovate, 0.7-1.5 by 0.5-1.5 mm; stamens 4-8, 0.3-0.7 mm long, filaments 0.2-0.6 mm long, geniculate to straight, anthers c. 0.1 by 0.2-0.3 mm. Pistillate inflorescences axillary to ramiflorous, 1-3 together, up to 34.5 cm long. Pistillate flowers 2.5-6.5 mm in diameter; pedicel 2-5.8 mm long; sepals 4 or 5, ovate, 0.5-5.9 by 0.3-3.5 mm, ochre; ovary 3-locular; style 0.1-0.2 by 0.5-0.8 mm; stigmas 0.6-0.9 mm long, cleft for upper 60-90 %. Fruits globose to subglobose, fleshy capsules, 10-26 by 12-26 by 12-26 mm, loculicidally dehiscent, yellow to orange, scarcely hairy to velutinous outside and inside. Seeds 7.8-11 by 5-9.8 by 2-5 mm; arillode red; testa orange.

    T h a i l a n d PENINSULAR: Surat Thani (Pachang), Phangnga (Kao Nanghong), Krabi (Kao Phanom), Nakhon Si Thammarat (Gahrome waterfalls, Khao Luang, Yong Waterfalls, Wat Khiriwong), Trang (Khao Chong), Satun (Klong Ton).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n Thailand, Malay Peninsula (type), Sumatra, Borneo.

Baccpoly-map.gif (91614 bytes)

    E c o l o g y Primary and secondary forest, swamp forest; soil: sand, clay, loam, granite. Altitude: 20-600 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r Chang rai (ังไหร) (Trang); ka cham pu ling (ูล) (Trang, Yala); cham rai (หร) (Nakhon Si Thammarat); cham ri () (Pattani); mafai ling (มะไฟล) (Narathiwat); lam yai khao () (Peninsular).

    U s e s Arillode edible, sweet to sour.

 

10. Baccaurea ptychopyxis Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 21: 354. 1968; Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12: 161,map 3.29. 2000; Haegens & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 73. 2000; in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 116. 2005.

Shrubs to trees up to 9 m high, candelabriform branching pattern strong, branchlets (sub)glabrous. Indumentum of simple hairs. Stipules 4.3-6.5 by 1.7-3 mm. Leaves: petiole 9-46 mm long; blade (ovate to) elliptic to obovate, 7.4-20 by 3.3-7.8 cm, length/width ratio 1.6-2.8, papery, base attenuate to cuneate, lower surface without disc-like glands, nerves 6-8 per side. Staminate inflorescences cauliflorous to axillary, single, up to 15 cm long; bracts 0.3-1.6 mm long, bracteoles minute. Staminate flowers 2.6-3.1 mm in diameter, red; pedicel 1.4-2.6 mm long; sepals 4 or 5, obovate, 0.5-3 by 0.5-1.2 mm; stamens 5-7, 0.5-0.9 mm long, filamens 0.4-0.9 mm long, anthers 0.2-0.3 by 0.1-0.2 mm. Pistillate inflorescences cauliflorous to ramiflorous, many clustered together, up to 36 cm long. Pistillate flowers 4.2-9 mm in diameter, reddish; pedicel 1.5-5 mm long; sepals 5, elliptic to obovate, 4-9 by 1-2 mm; ovary 3-locular, 6-winged; style c. 1 by 1 mm; stigmas c. 1.2 mm long, cleft for upper 80 %. Fruits fusiform berries, 17-20.3 by 7.2-11 by 7.2-11.6 mm, rugose between narrow wings.

    T h a i l a n d PENINSULAR: Chumphon (Thasan), Ranong (Kkao Num Kao, Kra Buri), Surat Thani (Khian Sa, Pa-Kiampoa), Nakhon Si Thammarat (Khao Khaichang), Phatthalung (Chong, Klong Hin Kao), Trang (Khao Chong), Satun (Kuan Kalong).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n Bangladesh, Myanmar (type), Thailand.

Baccptyc-map.gif (49551 bytes)

    E c o l o g y Evergreen and swamp forest. Altitude: 1-200 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r Fai tao (ไฟ่า), ma fai ka (มะไฟ), som fai din (ไฟด) (Peninsular).

 

11. Baccaurea racemosa (Reinw. ex Blume) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 461. 1866; Back. & Bakh.f, Fl. Java 1: 454. 1963; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 64. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 53. 1975; Lemmens et al., Prosea 3: 16. 1991; Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12: 169, fig. 3.22, map 3.33. 2000; Haegens & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 73. 2000; in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 117. 2005 Coccomelia racemosa Reinw. ex Blume, Cat.: 110. 1823 Pierardia racemosa (Reinw. ex Blume) Blume, Bijdr.: 579. 1825 Pierardia racemosa (Reinw. ex Blume) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1. 2: 358. 1859  Baccaurea wallichii Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 375. 1887 Baccaurea bhaswatii Chakrab. & M.Gangop., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18: 420. 1994.

 

Baccrace-habit.gif (45475 bytes)

 

Trees up to 15(-20) m high, candelabriform branching pattern strong, branchlets (sub)glabrous. Indumentum of simple hairs. Stipules usually 3-7.5 by 1-1.5 mm. Leaves: petiole 12-77 mm long; blade (ovate to) elliptic to obovate, 5.8-22 by 2.3-18.8 cm, length/width ratio 2.2-4.6, papery, base cuneate, lower surface without disc-like glands, nerves 4-10 per side. Staminate inflorescences cauliflorous to just below the leaves, 1-5 together, up to 10 cm long; bracts 0.2-1.1 mm long, bracteoles minute. Staminate flowers 1-3 mm in diameter, creamy yellow to white; pedicel 0.4-2.5 mm long; sepals 4(5), ovate to obovate, 0.9-1.8 by 0.7-1.5 mm; stamens 5-7, 0.5-0.8 mm long, filaments 0.4-0.6 mm long, straight, anthers c. 0.15 by 0.2-0.25 mm. Pistillate inflorescences cauliflorous to axillary, single (to few together), up to 28 cm long. Pistillate flowers 3-9.2 mm in diameter, greenish yellow; pedicel 1-2.9(-6.7) mm long; sepals 4(5), obovate to lanceolate, 2-6 by 1-2.7 mm, indumentum of silvery hairs when dry; ovary (2)3(4)-locular; style 0.2-0.4 by c. 1 mm; stigmas c. 0.3 mm long, not lobed. Fruits (sub)globose berries or fleshy capsules, 14-30 by 16-25 by 16-25 mm, yellow to orange (to pink to red), outer fruit-wall loculicidally dehiscing, inner fruit wall indehiscent, glabrous to scarcely hairy outside, glabrous inside. Seeds 9-11.5 by 6.5-9.2 by 2.5-6 mm; arillode blue to purple to violet.

    T h a i l a n d PENINSULAR: Trang (Khao Chang), Narathiwat (Nikom Waeng).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java (type), Bali, Borneo, Sulawesi.

Baccrace-map.gif (93018 bytes)

    E c o l o g y Primary and secondary rainforest, riverine forest, fresh water swamp forest; soil: yellow or red sandy clay, granite.

    U s e s Arillode edible, sour to sweet.

 

12. Baccaurea ramiflora Lour., Fl. Cochinch.: 661. 1790; Gagnep., Blumen. I.-C. 5: 551. 1927; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 221. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 65. 1973; Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12: 172, map 3.34, photo 9. 2000; Haegens & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 73. 2000; in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 117, plate IV: 3. 2005 Baccaurea cauliflora Lour., Fl. Cochinch.: 661. 1790 Pierardia sapida Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2: 254. 1832 Baccaurea sapida (Roxb.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 459. 1866  Baccaurea flaccida Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 459. 1866 Baccaurea propinqua Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 463. 1866 Baccaurea wrayi King ex Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 374. 1887  Baccaurea oxycarpa Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 23: 431. 1923 Gatnaia annamica Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 24: 870. 1924.

 

Baccrami-tree-Photo1.jpg (99967 bytes)        Baccrami-Fruit-Photo2i.jpg (96656 bytes)    Baccrami-Fruit-Photo3.jpg (50635 bytes)    Baccrami-Fruit-Photo4.jpg (70292 bytes)

Trees up to 13 m high, candelabriform branching pattern strong, branchlets (sub)glabrous. Indumentum of simple hairs. Stipules 2.5-6 by 1-2.5 mm. Leaves: petiole 10-63 mm long; blade elliptic to obovate, 7.1-25.5 by 2.9-8.8 cm, length/width ratio 1.8-4, papery, base attenuate to cuneate, lower surface without disc-like glands absent, nerves 4-9 per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary to cauliflorous, 1 to many together, up to 8.5(-15.5) cm long; bracts (1.5-)3-4 mm long, bracteoles absent. Staminate flowers 1.1-4 mm in diameter, yellow; pedicel 0.8-2.6 mm long; sepals 4 or 5, different in shape, 1-2.4 by 0.5-1.4 mm; stamens 5-8, 0.7-1.1 mm long, filaments 0.5-0.9 mm long, straight, anthers 0.2-0.3 by 0.2-0.4 mm. Pistillate inflorescences just below the leaves to cauliflorous, single to many together, c. 10 cm long. Pistllate flowers 3-8 mm in diameter, yellow; pedicel 1.5-3 mm long; sepals 4 or 5, elliptic, 3.5-5 by 1-2 mm; ovary (2)3(4)-locular; stigmas sessile, c. 0.5 mm long, not lobed. Fruits globose to ovoid berries, 19-37 by 14-28 by 14-28 mm, red to orange to pink to purplish outside, cream inside, (sub)glabrous outside, glabrous inside. Seeds 9-15 by 9-11 by 1.5-6 mm; arillode white.

    T h a i l a n d NORTHERN: Chiang Mai, Phrayao, Lampang, Phrae, Sukothai, Phitsanulok; NORTH-EASTERN: Phetchabun, Loei, Kalasin, Khon Kaen; EASTERN: Chaiyaphum, Nakhon Ratchasima; SOUTH-WESTERN: Uthai Thani, Kanchanaburi; CENTRAL: Saraburi, Nakhon Nayok; SOUTH-EASTERN: Prachin Buri, Chachoengsao, Chon Buri, Chanthaburi, Trat; PENINSULAR: Chumphon, Ranong, Surat Thani, Phangnga, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Trang, Satun, Songkhla, Narathiwat.

    D i s t r i b u t i o n India (Assam), Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, China (Yunnan, Hainan), Vietnam (type), Malay Peninsula, Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Baccrami-map.gif (56470 bytes)

    E c o l o g y Primary rain forest, often cultivated; soil: sand, granite. Altitude: 50-1700.

    V e r n a c u l a r Mafai (ไฟ) (General); khi mi (ี้หม) (Northern); sae-khruea-sae () (Karen-Mae Hong Son); ham kang (ัง) (Phetchabun); pha-yio (ะำ) (Khmer-Surin); mafai pa (มะไฟ่า) (Eastern, Southeastern); mafai ka (มะไฟ), som fai (ไฟ) (Peninsular).

    U s e s Arillode edible, sweet to sour.; in northern used by hilltribes as medicine, bark, root bark and wood are used in decoction of dried and grinded material.

 

13. Baccaurea sumatrana (Miq.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 466. 1866; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 65. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 55. 1975; G.L.Webster, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 81: 51. 1994; Haegens, Blumea Suppl. 12: 182, fig. 3.25, map 3.39. 2000; Haegens & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 74. 2000; in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 118, fig. 24g-i. 2005 Calyptroon sumatranum Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste bijv.: 472. 1861 Baccaurea kingii Gage, Rec. Bot. Surv. India 9: 231. 1922 Baccaurea bivalvis Merr., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 15: 148. 1929.

Baccsuma.gif (212217 bytes)

 

Trees up to 43 m high, candelabriform branching pattern strong, branchlets glabrous. Indumentum of simple hairs. Stipules 1-7 by c. 1 mm. Leaves: petiole 5-48 mm long; blade ovate to sometimes obovate, 3-19 by 1.2-7.5 cm, length/width ratio 1.1-2.9(-3.75), papery, base attenuate to cuneate (to rounded), lower surface without disc-like glands, nerves, 5-8(-10) per side. Staminate inflorescences axillary to somewhat ramiflorous, 1(-3) together, up to 2.3(-5.4) cm long, flowers grouped at upper part of inflorescence; bracts c. 1 mm long, bracteoles absent. Staminate flowers sessile, 0.9-1.8 mm in diameter, yellow-green; sepals 3-5, each with a different size and shape, 0.3-1.2 by 0.3-1 mm; stamens 4-6, 0.4-1 mm long, filaments 0.4-0.9 mm long, anthers 0.1-0.15 mm. Pistillate inflorescences axillary to ramiflorous, 1(-4) together, up to 6.5(-9) cm long. Pistillate flowers 1.5-2 mm in diameter; pedicel geniculate (90 ° bend) at abscission zone, 2.2-2.5 mm long; sepals 4 or 5, ovate to obovate, each with a different size and shape, 0.5-1.3 by 0.5-1.4 mm; ovary 2-locular; style 0-0.1 mm long; stigmas not lobed to apically lobed up to the base. Fruits flattened, ellipsoid, fleshy capsules, 9-17 by 4-10 mm, yellow to orange to reddish, dehiscing loculicidally, subglabrous outside, glabrous inside. Seeds 6-9 by 4-7.5 by 2-4 mm; arillode orange.

    T h a i l a n d PENINSULAR: Narathiwat (Tak Bai).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra (type), Borneo.

Baccsuma-map.gif (84253 bytes)

    E c o l o g y Primary and secondary forest; soil: sand, sandy clay. Altitude: 0-1550 m.

    U s e s Used as timber wood.