Flora of Thailand

Euphorbiaceae

 

17. Bridelia

 

S. Dressler & P.C. van Welzen

 

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Genus description

Identification key

Species descriptions

 

Bridelia

 

Willd., Sp. Pl. 4: 978. 1806; corr. Spreng., Anleit. Kenntn. Gew. ed. 2, 2: 887. 1818; Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2: 492. 1866; Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenr. 65: 267. 1887; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 227. 1972; G.L.Webster, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 81: 39. 1994; S.Dressler, Taxon 45: 337. 1996. nom. cons. prop.; Blumea 41: 273. 1996; Welzen, Thai For. Bull. 28: 55, Fig. 2. 2000; S.Dressler & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 59. 2000; Radcl.-Sm., Gen. Euphorbiacearum: 19. 2001; S.Dressler & Welzen in Chayamarit & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 141. 2005; G.L.Webster in Kubitzki, Fam. & Gen. Vasc. Pl. 11: 71. 2014.

 

(Scrambling) shrubs to trees, usually monoecious. Indumentum of simple, non-stinging hairs. Stipules early to late caducous. Leaves distichous, simple, symmetric, basally attached, margin entire to somewhat crenate, not variegated, without glands; venation with usually many nerves either ending in a marginal vein or looped and closed, veins usually densely, scalariform. Inflorescences axillary fascicles of flowers, sometimes on leafless branches and spike-like. Flowers minute, actinomorphic. Sepals 5, valvate, thick, persistent in fruit. Petals 5, minute, shorter than sepals. Disc annular, in pistillate flowers with additional tubular inner disc, latter splitting into scales during fruiting. Stamens 5, episepalous, united into gynoecium with pistillode. Ovary 2-locular, locules with 2 ovules of which 1 develops or only 1 locule developing. Fruits drupaceous, bilocular or unilocular (abortion), sometimes apically tardily dehiscent. Seeds without arilloid.

    About 50 species in the Old World tropics: Tropical Africa, Madagascar, Yemen and in Asia ranging from India and China throughout SE. Asia and Malesia to N. Australia, the Solomons, and Vanuatu; 10 species in Thailand. Classification: Subfam. Phyllanthoideae, tribe Bridelieae.

 

Key to the species

 

1a.

Leaves with secondary nerves ending in marginal vein (craspedodroumous). Drupes 2-locular. Seeds plano-convex (subg. Bridelia).

2

1b.

Leaves with secondary nerves arching and connecting near the margin, but not reaching marginal vein (brochidodromous). Drupes 1-locular. Seeds ± ellipsoid with a deep longitudinal groove (subg. Gentilia (Beille) Jabl.).

8

2a.

Flowers large, calyx 6-12 mm in diameter Fruits 6-11 mm in diameter. Branches and leaves tomentose. 

9. B. stipularis

2b.

Flowers small, calyx up to 6 mm in diameter Fruits 4-9 mm in diameter. Branches and leaves glabrous to tomentose.

3

3a.

Inflorescences terminal on mostly leafless twigs, spike-like. Nerves numerous (> 18 pairs). Leaves coriaceous. 

8. B. retusa

3b.

Inflorescences in the axils of normal leaves. Nerves in less than 18 pairs. Leaves papery to coriaceous.

4

4a.

Nerves usually in more than 11 pairs.

5

4b.

Nerves usually in less than 11 pairs. 

6

5a.

Leaves puberulous to pubescent beneath. 

1. B. affinis

5b.

Leaves glabrous beneath. 

7. B. ovata

6a.

Leaves densely pubescent to tomentose beneath. Sepals hairy outside.

5. B. harmandii

6b.

Leaves glabrous to tomentose beneath, less densely so. Sepals glabrous outside.

7

7a.

Leaves stiffly coriaceous, conspicuously narrowly oblong, subglabrous beneath. 

3. B. curtisii

7b.

Leaves papery to thinly chartaceous, elliptic to obovate, tomentose beneath. 

10. B. tomentosa

8a.

Nerves in 6-9 pairs with a narrowly acute angle of divergence especially at base (< 45°). Leaf base mostly acute, apex very shortly acuminate (3-7 mm). Stipules short (1.5-2 mm). Styles not exerted. 

2. B. cinnamomea

8b.

Nerves in more than 9 pairs with a moderately acute angle of divergens (usually > 45°). Leaf base obtuse to truncate, rarely acute, apex longer acuminate. Stipules longer than 2 mm. Styles (slightly) exerted.

9

9a.

Flowers conspicuously pedicelled (2-6 mm), 3-5 mm in diameter. Young branches with inconspicuous lenticels, bark brownish.

4. B. glauca

9b.

Flowers (sub)sessile, 2-3 mm in diameter. Young branches (one but last generation) with raised lenticels, bark then greyish.

6. B. insulana

 

1. Bridelia affinis Craib, Kew Bull.: 456. 1911; Aberdeen Univ. Stud. 57: 182. 1912; Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenr. Heft 65: 73. 1915; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23: 65. 1969; Kew Bull. 26: 228. 1972; S.Dressler, Blumea 41: 276. 1996; S.Dressler & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 61. 2000; in Chayamarit & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 142. 2005  Bridelia colorata Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23: 66. 1969.

 

Undershrub to tree up to 6 m high; branchlets puberulous when young, scattered lenticellate. Stipules narrowly triangular, 4-5 by c. 1 mm, abaxially pubescent, rather persistent. Leaves: petiole 4-6(-7) mm long, pubescent; blade elliptic (to obovate), 4.4-22 by 2.6-8.7 cm, length/width ratio 1.4-3.3, chartaceous, glabrous above, (sub)hirsute beneath, base obtuse to acute, margin entire to shallowly crenate, apex acute to obtuse; venation prominent on both sides, nerves (9-)11-15 pairs, joining marginal vein, tertiary veins scalariform. Inflorescences: glomerules with up to 10 (sub)sessile flowers, pistillate flowers surrounded by staminate ones. Flowers 4-6 mm in diameter, dark red, pedicel indistinct, up to 0.5 mm long. Sepals triangular, 1.5-3 by 1-1.5 mm, glabrous, dark red (also when dry). Petals variable in shape, 1-1.2 by 1-1.3 mm, cream, base spathulate, apex irregularly lobulate with gnawed margin. Stamens: staminal column c. 1 by 0.3 mm; anthers ellipsoid, c. 0.6 by 0.3 mm, cream. Ovary ovoid, styles 2, c. 1.3 mm long; stigmas c. 3 mm long, upper half bifid, not exserting. Fruits 1 or 2 per glomerule, bilobed, 5-7 mm high, 6-8 by 5-6 mm, 2-locular, dark purplish black; endocarp semigloboid, c. 3.5 by 5 by 6 mm, light brown.

    T h a i l a n d NORTHERN: Chiang Mai (type: Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai, KERR 809, holotype K; Doi Inthanon, Doi Muang Awn, Mae Soi, Pang Noi), Lampang (type of B. colorata: Me Saloi, Lampang, WINIT 1487, holotype K, isotype BKF, K; Doi Khun Tan, Doi Pangla, Chae Son, Mae Mao), Phrae (Mae Yom); NORTH-EASTERN: Phetchabun (Nam Nao), Loei (Pha Nok Khao), Sakon Nakhon (Phu Phan), Khon Kaen (Pha Nok Khao, Phu Khiao); EASTERN: Buri Ram, Ubon Ratchatani (Phachanadai).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n China (Yunnan and Hainan), Thailand.

    E c o l o g y Deciduous and evergreen primary forest, also in disturbed places; probably no preference for soil, on granite bedrock to limestone. Altitude: 250-750 m. Shade and humidity seemingly required; locally common.

    V e r n a c u l a r Kang pla (้างลา) (Ang Thong).

    U s e s Medicinal tree (Thailand, Collins 1588, K).

 

2. Bridelia cinnamomea Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 273. 1887; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 74. 1973; S.Dressler, Blumea 41: 307, fig. 3, map 9. 1996; S.Dressler & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 61, Fig. 2. 2000; in Chayamarit & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 142, fig. 31. 2005 Bridelia griffithii Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 272. 1887; Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.viii: 74. 1915 Bridelia griffithii Hook.f. var. cinnamomea (Hook.f.) Gehrm., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 41, Beibl. 95: 38 (1908); Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 64. 1975; Kew Bull. 36: 273. 1981 Bridelia gehrmannii Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.viii: 73. 1915.

 

Bridcinn-habit.gif (53516 bytes)    Bridcinn-male.gif (89685 bytes)    Bridcinn-female.gif (107020 bytes)

 

Scrambling shrub to rarely a tree up to 6 m high; branchlets pubescent to tomentose, glabrescent, lenticels whitish; stem thorny. Stipules widely ovate, 1.5-2 by c. 2 mm, brownish pubescent, early caducous. Leaves: petiole 4-8 mm long, pubescent to tomentose; blade elliptic (to obovate), 4-12 by 2-6.4 cm, length/width ratio 1.4-2.4, chartaceous, glabrous above except for veins, puberulous to pubescent (to subglabrous) beneath, base (bluntly rounded to) acute, margin (sub)entire, apex acuminate; venation especially prominent beneath, nerves (5 or) 6-9 (or 10) pairs, especially basally with a rather acute angle of divergence, not joining marginal vein but closing with next nerve, tertiary veins scalariform. Inflorescences: glomerules with 10-20 subsessile to pedicelled flowers. Flowers brownish red with yellow to green centre, 4-5 mm in diameter; pedicel up to 3 mm long. Sepals triangular, 1.5-2 by 1.2-1.5 mm, puberulous, at least at base outside. Petals variable in shape, c. 1 by 0.7-0.8 mm, greenish yellow with pink base, base spathulate, apex roundish to lobulate, in pistillate flowers outside pubescent to tomentose and somewhat fleshy. Stamens: staminal column c. 1 mm long; free part of filaments 1-1.2 mm long; anthers shortly semigloboid, 0.4-0.5 mm in diameter. Ovary globose, c. 1.2 by 1.2 mm in diameter; styles 2, basally united, together with stigmas c. 1 mm long, not exserting flower, stigmas bifid. Fruits 3 or 4 per glomerule, ovoid to globose, tapering or only pointed at apex, 6-7 by 5-5.5 mm in diameter, 1-locular, dark brown; endocarp 1, glossy. Seeds (semi)ellipsoid with lateral furrow, 4-5 by 2.3-3.5 mm in diameter, light brown.

    T h a i l a n d PENINSULAR: Narathiwat (Pa Win, Sirinthorn).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n Thailand, Malay Peninsula (type), Sumatra, Borneo (Sabah and Sarawak).

Bridcinn-map.gif (89876 bytes)

    E c o l o g y Primary and secondary mixed peat swamp forest; occasional. Altitude: sea level to 600 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r Kang pla phru (้างลาพุ) (Narathiwat).

 

3. Bridelia curtisii Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 273. 1887; Boerl., Handl. 3: 271. 1900; Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 3: 184. 1924; S.Dressler, Blumea 41: 278, map 1. 1996; S.Dressler & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 61. 2000; in Chayamarit & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 143, plate V: 3. 2005 Bridelia ovata Decne. var. curtisii (Hook.f.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 229. 1972.

 

 

Scrambling shrub to tree up to 7 m high; branchlets glabrous to puberulous, with scattered lenticels. Stipules narrowly triangular, up to 4 by 0.6-0.7 mm, glabrous, early caducous. Leaves: petiole 3.5-6 mm long, rarely puberulous; blade (elliptic to) oblong with ± parallel sides, 3-8 by 1-3.6 cm, length/width ratio (1.5-)2-2.8, stiffly coriaceous, glabrous (to some hairs on nerves), base mainly rounded to obtuse, margin entire, apex rounded (to bluntly acute); venation prominent on both sides, nerves 5-10(-12) pairs, joining marginal vein, tertiary veins usually reticulate. Inflorescences: glomerules with up to 12 sessile flowers. Flowers green; staminate ones 3-5 mm in diameter; pistillate ones 4-5 mm in diameter, pedicel rarely up to 1 mm long. Sepals triangular-ovate, 1.5-3 by 1-1.5 mm, glabrous, greenish yellow. Petals variable in shape, up to 1 by 0.7 mm, whitish yellow, base cuneate to spathulate, apex roundish, notched or lobulate. Stamens: staminal column c. 1 by 0.3 mm; free part of filaments up to 0.7 mm long; anthers ellipsoid, 0.6-0.7 by 0.3-0.4 mm. Ovary globose, c. 1.5 mm in diameter; styles 2, only basally united, with stigmas up to 1.2 mm long, stigmas deeply bifid. Fruits 2 or 3(-6) per glomerule, depressed-ovoid, apically emarginate, slightly bilobate, 4.5-6.5 mm in diameter, 2-locular, greenish purple to black; endocarps 2, semigloboid, c. 4 by 5 by 2.5 mm, brown. Seeds semigloboid to ovoid, with lateral furrow, c. 3 by 4 by 2 mm, brown.

    T h a i l a n d NORTHERN: Chiang Mai (Bo Luang, Mae Sanam), Mae Hong Son (Mae Taeng-pai), Lamphun (Doi Khun Tan); CENTRAL: Suphan Buri (U-thong), Nakhon Nayok (Khao Yai), Bangkok (Thon Buri, Klong San); EASTERN: Ubon Ratchathani (Kaeng Saphoe); PENINSULAR: Surat Thani (Tasae, Khao Nam Ron), Krabi (Ko Pipi), Yala (Banang Sata).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Malay Peninsula (type), N. Sumatra.

Bridcurt-map.gif (94799 bytes)

    E c o l o g y Mangrove, tidal riversides, evergreen forest, open and disturbed areas (savannah), road sides; often on limestone. Altitude: 10-1000 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r Maka bai na (มะนา) (General).

    U s e s The fruits are edible and medicinally used in Cambodia (Martin 155, L).

 

4. Bridelia glauca Blume, Bijdr.: 597. 1826; Baill., Ιtude Euphorb.: 584. 1858; Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2: 497. 1866; Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.viii: 74. 1915; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 64. 1975; S.Dressler, Blumea 41: 311, fig. 4, map 10; S.Dressler & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 63. 2000; in Chayamarit & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 145. 2005 Bridelia pubescens Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 42, ii: 241. 1874; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 230. 1972 Bridelia nooteboomii Chakrab., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 5: 949. 1984.

 

Bridglau-habit.gif (51652 bytes)    Bridglau-fruit.gif (25832 bytes)

 

(Shrub to) tree up to 30 m high; branchlets pubescent to tomentose, glabrescent, lenticels inconspicuous on especially the young branches, bark brownish; older branches thorny. Stipules ovate triangular, 8-12 by 3-5(-6) mm, brownish pubescent, caducous. Leaves: petiole 5-11 mm long, pubescent; blade ovate (to elliptic), 4-28 by 2-12 cm, length/width ratio 1.9-3.1, (membranous to) chartaceous, glabrous above (except for veins), pubescent (to glabrous or tomentose) beneath, base truncate to acute, margin entire, apex acute to acuminate; venation prominent beneath, nerves (7-)11-18(-20) pairs, with a moderately acute angle of divergence, not joining marginal vein but closing with next nerve, tertiary veins ± reticulate. Inflorescences: glomerules with up to 50 pedicelled flowers. Flowers yellowish green, 3-5 mm in diameter; pedicel (1-)2-6 mm long. Sepals (narrowly) triangular, 1.5-2.3 by 1-1.5 mm, pubescent or puberulous outside. Petals variable in shape, 0.6-0.8 by 0.2-0.5 mm, white, base ± narrowed. Stamens: staminal column 0.8-1.5 mm long; free part of filaments up to 1 mm long, whitish; anthers ellipsoid to slightly ovoid, 0.5-0.6 by 0.3-0.4 mm, pale yellow. Ovary globose to slightly ovoid, 0.6-0.7 by 0.3-0.4 mm in diameter; styles 2, basally united, together with stigmas up to 1.2 mm long, slightly exserting flower, stigmas bifid. Fruits up to 8 per glomerule, (conical) ellipsoid, acute or blunt at apex, 5.5-10(-12) by 4.5-7.5(-9) mm in diameter, 1-locular, bluish black; endocarp 1, ellipsoid, 5-8 by 4.5-6.5 by 3-4.5 mm diam, light greenish brown. Seeds not known.

    T h a i l a n d NORTHERN: Chiang Mai (Ban Pa Pae, Doi Chiang Dao, Doi Inthanon, Doi Lon, Doi Pui, Doi Saket, Doi Suthep, Khun Aon, Mae Sao, Pang Ton, Phu Langka), Chiang Rai (Khun kon), Lampang (Chae Son), Nan (Doi Phukha National Park), Lampang (Khan Tan); NORTH-EASTERN: Phetchabun (Nam Nao), Loei (Phu Kradueng); SOUTH-EASTERN: Chon Buri (Khao Khiao).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n From E. India, Bhutan, Sikkim, Myanmar and Thailand throughout Malesia (Java: type) except for the Lesser Sunda Islands.

Bridglau-map.gif (76040 bytes)

    E c o l o g y Primary and secondary forest, often near rivers; soil: well-drained volcanic, sandy, loamy, clayey, sandstone, limestone, grey schists, granite; scattered to locally common. Altitude: sea level up to 1500 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r Chi on (ี้้น), pha ni (พานี), si thao () (Northern); si-tho-pha-ni (าะพาน) (Karen-Chiang Mai), si-wa-la-thi (าละำ) (Karen-Mae Hong Son) (Northern).

    U s e s Timber tree, wood hard and durable, used for house and bridge construction in Indonesia, for house posts and fuel in Mindanao (Philippines), and used in an Agri ritual on Mindanao.

 

5. Bridelia harmandii Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 70: 433. 1923; in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 491, f. 63.2-8. 1926; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 228. 1972; Pham-hoang Ho, Cayco Vietnam 2: 290. 1992; S.Dressler, Blumea 41: 281. 1996; S.Dressler & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 63. 2000; in Chayamarit & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 146. 2005.

 

Decumbent shrub up to 60 cm high; branches strongly pubescent when young. Stipules very narrowly triangular, up to 6 by 0.9 mm, abaxially puberulous, long persistent. Leaves: petiole (2.5-)3-5 mm long, densely tomentose; blade broadly ovate to elliptic (to obovate), (2-)3-8 by 1.3-5(-5.6) cm, length/width ratio 1.3-2.1, stiffly coriaceous, subhirsute above, glabrescent, densely pubescent to tomentose beneath, base mainly rounded, margin entire to faintly crenate, apex obtuse (to bluntly acute); venation prominent beneath, nerves 7-10(-12) pairs, joining marginal vein, tertiary veins reticulate to scalariform. Inflorescences: glomerules with 3-6(-10) subsessile flowers. Flowers whitish yellow; staminate ones (3-)4-5 mm in diameter, cup-shaped, not widely opened; pistillate ones 5-6(-7) mm in diameter, pedicel up to 1 mm long. Sepals narrow ovate-triangular, 1.5-2 by c. 1 mm, hairy outside. Petals rotundate to elliptic, 0.8-1.4 by 0.7-1.2 mm, whitish yellow, base cuneate to spathulate, apex slightly notched. Stamens: staminal column 0.8-1 mm long; free part of filaments c. 0.5 mm long; anthers shortly ellipsoid, 0.6-0.9 by 0.4-0.7 mm. Ovary globose, c. 1 mm in diameter; styles 2, basally united, with stigmas up to 1 mm long, stigmas shortly bilobed. Fruits 3 (4) per glomerule, depressed- and compressed-globose, bilobate, emarginate at apex, 5-7 by 3-5 by 4-6 mm, 2-locular, dull dark reddish to black; endocarps 2, semigloboid, brown. Seeds semigloboid, with ventral furrow, c. 4 by 3.8 by 2.5 mm, blackish.

    T h a i l a n d NORTHERN: Tak (Lansang National Park), Nakhon Sawan (Hua Wai); NORTH-EASTERN: Loei (Wang Sa Phung), Udon Thani, Khon Kaen; EASTERN: Nakhon Ratchasima (Ban Chum Saeng, Pak Chong, Pak Thong Chai), Surin (Sangkha), Ubon Ratchathani (Non Ngam); SOUTH-EASTERN: Chachoengsao (Roi Pi Botanical Garden), Chon Buri (Khao Khiao).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n Thailand and Indochina (Laos: type).

    E c o l o g y Deciduous forest, open Dipterocarp forest, open spaces in forest; reported from sandy soil. Altitude: sea level to 460 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r Samsa tia (ี้) (Loei, Northeastern).

 

6. Bridelia insulana Hance, J. Bot. 15: 337. 1877; Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.viii: 63. 1915; S.Dressler, Blumea 41: 315, map 11. 1996; S.Dressler & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 63. 2000; in Chayamarit & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 146. 2005 Bridelia penangiana Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 272. 1887; Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.viii: 75. 1915; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 229. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 75. 1973; Airy Shaw Add. Ser. 4: 64. 1975; Kew Bull. 31: 382. 1976 Bridelia minutiflora Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 273. 1887 Bridelia nicobarica Chakrab. & Vasudeva Rao, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 5: 945. 1984.

 

Medium to large tree up to 25 m high; branchlets glabrous, lenticels raised and very conspicuous on one but last generation branches, bark then greyish. Stipules very narrowly triangular, up to 5 by 0.8-1.3 mm, sparsely brownish puberulous, early caducous. Leaves: petiole 4-8 mm long, glabrous; blade (broadly) elliptic (to obovate), 4.5-21 by 2.5-8.8 cm, length/width ratio 1.5-2.7, chartaceous (to subcoriaceous), glabrous above, glabrous to puberulous on venation beneath, base obtuse to acute, margin entire, apex shortly acuminate; venation prominent beneath, nerves 9-13(-14) pairs, with a rather moderately acute angle of divergence, not joining marginal vein but closing with next nerve, tertiary veins reticulate. Inflorescences: glomerules with 15-30 sessile to shortly pedicelled flowers. Staminate flowers 2-2.5 mm in diameter, creamy yellow; pistillate ones 2-3(-3.5) mm in diameter, whitish cream with red disc; pedicel 0-1.5 mm long. Sepals triangular, c. 1.2 by 1.2 mm, puberulous outside. Petals variable in shape, tiny, 0.3-0.5 by 0.3-0.5 mm, base cuneate. Stamens: staminal column c. 1 mm long; free part of filaments up to 0.8 mm long; anthers ovoid to semigloboid, c. 0.4 mm in diameter. Ovary ovoid, c. 1 by 0.7 mm in diameter; styles 2, basally united, together with stigmas 1-1.5 mm long, exserting flower, stigmas shortly bifid. Fruits up to 10 per glomerule, ellipsoid to ovoid, pointed at apex, 6-11 by 4-6 mm in diameter, 1-locular, bluish black; endocarp 1, woody. Seeds ovoid, tapering at apex, 6-7 by 3.5-4.5 mm in diameter, greenish brown.

    T h a i l a n d SOUTH-WESTERN: Phetchaburi (Kaeng Krachan); EASTERN: Nakhon Ratchasima (Khao Yai National Park); CENTRAL: Nakhon Nayok (Khao Yai National Park); SOUTH-EASTERN: Prachin Buri (Sa Khaeo), Chon Buri (Khao Khiao); PENINSULAR: Trang (Khao Chong), Songkhla (Boriphat Waterfalls), Yala (Nikom Kua Long), Narathiwat (Phru To Deang).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n From Myanmar to Vietnam (type) throughout Malesia to the Solomons and N.E. Australia.

Bridinsu-map.gif (82967 bytes)

    E c o l o g y Primary and secondary rain forest, often along rivers, but also on dry land; soil: sandy to loamy, clayey, limestone. Altitude: from sea level to 1500 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r Maka ton (มะ้น) (General).

    U s e s Timber sometimes used in house-building (Sulawesi), as house posts (Bougainville), for knife handles (Lesser Sunda Islands). Bark used for colouring the saguwer (palm wine) red. The fruits are edible. The plant provides native medicine for headache (Sabah, Borneo) and a decoction of the leaves is applied as a lotion against itch (Malay Peninsular). The leaves provide a wrapping for smokes (Papua New Guinea).

 

7. Bridelia ovata Decne., Nouv. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 3: 484. 1834; Baill., Ιtude Euphorb.: 583. 1858; Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2: 495. 1866; Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 4: 274. 1887; Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.viii: 61, 63. 1915; Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 3: 184. 1924; Gagnep. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 489. 1926; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 229. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 74. 1973; S.Dressler, Blumea 41: 285, map 3. 1996; S.Dressler & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 64. 2000; in Chayamarit & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 147. 2005 Amanoa ovata (Decne.) Baill., Adansonia 6: 336. 1866 Bridelia burmanica Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 269. 1887 Bridelia kurzii Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 272. 1887 Bridelia pedicellata Ridl., .J. Str. Br. Roy. As. Soc. 59: 167. 1911.

 

   

 

Scrambling shrub to tree up to 8 m high; branchlets glabrous, with scattered lenticels. Stipules narrowly triangular, up to 7(-10) by up to 1.2 mm, glabrous, early caducous. Leaves: petiole (3-)4-6 mm long, glabrous; blade elliptic (to oblong), 5-18 by 2-8(-10) cm, length/width ratio (1.4-)2-2.2, chartaceous, glabrous on both sides, base (slightly cordate to) obtuse, margin entire, apex obtuse to rounded (to bluntly acute); venation prominent on both sides, nerves 13-17 pairs, joining marginal vein, tertiary veins reticulate to scalariform. Inflorescences: glomerules with 1 to more than 20 subsessile to shortly pedicelled flowers. Flowers yellowish green; staminate ones 3-5 mm in diameter; pistillate ones 4-6 mm in diameter, pedicel 1.5-2(-2.5) mm long. Sepals triangular, up to 2 by 1.5 mm, glabrous, greenish cream tinged red. Petals elliptic, 0.5-1.2 by 0.7-1 mm, whitish yellow, apex roundish or notched. Stamens: staminal column c. 1 by 0.3 mm; free part of filaments up to 0.8 mm long; anthers shortly ellipsoid, c. 0.5 by 0.3-0.4 mm. Ovary globose, 0.6-0.7(-1) mm in diameter; styles 2, only basally united, together with stigmas up to 1.2 mm long, stigmas deeply bifid. Fruits to 9 per glomerule, depressed-ellipsoid, apically emarginate, bilobate, 5-7 by 6-7.5 by 7-8 mm, 2-locular, pale greenish purple to black; endocarps 2, semigloboid, c. 6 by 4-5.5 by 3-3.5 mm, brown. Seeds semigloboid, with lateral furrow, c. 3.5-5 by 4.5-5 by 2-2.5 mm, reddish black.

    T h a i l a n d NORTHERN: Lampang, Tak, Nakhon Sawan; NORTH-EASTERN: Loei, Sakon Nakhon; CENTRAL: Saraburi, Bangkok; SOUTH-EASTERN: Prachin Buri, Chachoengsao, Chon Buri; Rayong; SOUTH-WESTERN: Kanchanaburi, Phetchaburi, Prachuap Khiri Khan; CENTRAL: Saraburi, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Nayok, Nonthaburi; PENINSULAR: Surat Thani.

    D i s t r i b u t i o n Myanmar, Thailand, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, N. Malaysia, Indonesia: E. Java and Lesser Sunda Islands (type).

 

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    E c o l o g y Sandy beach, savannah, dry evergreen and deciduous forest, moist monsoon forest; on sandy, calcareous soil or limestone; locally common. Altitude: sea level up to 800 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r Maka (), mai maka (มมะ) (General); cham-cha maka (มะ), kong () (Northern); kong kaep () (Chiang Mai); salao (ล้า), si-wa-la (าูลา) (Karen-Mae Hong Son); khi lao mat ka (ี้ล้าาด) (Khon Kaen); mat ka (, าด) (Nong Khai); samsa () (Loei); khai maka (มะ), som ka () (Central).

    U s e s The leaves are used in Thailand for wrapping cigarettes and medicinally against lues (syphilis) and as a purgative.

 

8. Bridelia retusa (L.) A.Juss., Euphorb. Gen.: 109, t. 7, f. 22. 1824; Baill., Ιtude Euphorb.: 584, Atlas t. 25, f. 25-34. 1858; S.Dressler, Blumea 41: 289. 1996; S.Dressler & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 64. 2000; in Chayamarit & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 148. 2005 Clutia retusa L., Sp. Pl.: 1042. 1753 Clutia spinosa Roxb., Pl. Corom. 2: 38, t. 172. 1802 Bridelia spinosa (Roxb.) Willd., Sp. Pl. 4: 979. 1806 Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3: 48. 1826, pro comb. nov.; Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2: 493. 1866; Craib, Kew Bull.: 457. 1911; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23: 67. 1969; Kew Bull. 26: 230. 1972; Kew Bull. 36: 274. 1981 Bridelia squamosa (Lam.) Gehrm., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 41, Beibl. 95: 30. 1908 Bridelia cambodiana Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 70: 432. 1923 Bridelia pierrei Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 70: 434. 1923; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 229. 1972.

 

Tree up to 10(-20) m high; branchlets densely pilose when young, glabrescent; stems somewhat spiny. Stipules ovate triangular, up to 2 by 2 mm, whitish woolly, early caducous. Leaves: petiole 7-12 mm long, glabrous; blade elliptic (to obovate), 6-25.5 by 3-11.5 cm, length/width ratio 1.4-2.7, stiffly (sub)coriaceous, glabrous above (except midrib), pubescent to tomentose (to glabrous) beneath, base (subcordate to) rounded to obtuse (to acute), margin entire to shallowly crenate, apex (emarginate to) obtuse to acute; venation prominent on both sides, nerves (16-)19-23(-27) pairs, joining marginal vein, tertiary veins scalariform. Inflorescences: glomerules usually on leafless branches and spike-like, with (3-)8-15 subsessile flowers. Staminate flowers 4-5 mm in diameter, pale yellow green to brown; pistillate flowers 5-5.5 mm in diameter, reddish to brown; pedicel up to 2 mm long. Sepals ovate-triangular, up to 1.7-2 by 0.8-1.5 mm, glabrous to pilose at base, rarely also at the apex. Petals variable in shape, 0.8-1.6 by 0.6-1 mm, base spathulate, apex roundish or lobulate with gnawed margin. Stamens: staminal column 1-1.3 by 0.2-0.4 mm; free part of filaments 0.8-1 mm long, white; anthers ovoid, 0.5-0.7 by 0.3-0.4 mm, reddish to purplish. Ovary globose, 0.7-1.6 mm in diameter; styles 2, only basally united, together with stigmas up to 1 mm long, stigmas shortly bifid. Fruits 1-3 per glomerule, depressed-globose, sometimes apically bluntly pointed, sometimes bilobate, 5-8 by 5-9 mm in diameter, 2-locular, dark to bluish black; endocarps 2, semispherical, c. 5 by 6 by 5 mm, brown. Seeds semigloboid, with ventral furrow, c. 4.5 by 5 by 3 mm, reddish brown.

    T h a i l a n d NORTHERN: Mae Hong Son, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Lampang, Lamphun, Phrae, Sukhothai, Phitsanulok; NORTH-EASTERN: Phetchabun, Loei, Nong Bua Lum Phu, Udon Thani, Sakon Nakhon; EASTERN: Chaiyaphum, Nakhon Ratchasima; CENTRAL: Lop Buri, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya; SOUTH-WESTERN: Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi; PENINSULAR: Narathiwat.

    D i s t r i b u t i o n India (type?), Sikkim, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Indochina, S. China, Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra.

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    E c o l o g y Common in dry evergreen and deciduous forest and open land; soil: sandy-loamy, granite, basalt derived sand. Altitude: 50-600(-1400) m. Resistant to fire in regularly burnt grass savannah. Leaves turning pinkish brown before falling. Fruits are eaten by pigeons in India.

    V e r n a c u l a r Teng nam (นา) (General); pao nam (นา) (Lampang); rang-nam (ังนา) (Northern); hang nam (ฮังนา) (Nakhon Phanom, Loei); cha-li-luek-puak (าลีล) (Khmer-Surin); rang thon (ัง) (Nakhon Ratchasima); wo-bo () (Karen-Kanchanaburi).

    U s e s In India all kinds of uses, the dull red wood is used for construction, railway ties, fuel, rafters, posts, floor-boards, cart-shafts, wheels, agricultural implements, tool-handles, and shelves. The bark, which contains tannin (16-40 %), shows to be of pharmaceutical use because of its antiviral, hypoglycaemic, hypersensitive properties. The leaves are used as fodder and is said to free cattle of intestinal worms. The fruit is edible but very astringent.

 

9. Bridelia stipularis (L.) Blume, Bijdr.: 597. 1826; Baill., Ιtude Euphorb.: 584. 1858; Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2: 499. 1866; Kurz, Fl. Myanmar 2: 369. 1877; Craib, Kew Bull.: 457. 1911; Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.viii: 55. 1915; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 230. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 74. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 65. 1975; Kew Bull. 36: 274. 1981; Kew Bull. 37: 11. 1982; PROSEA 3: 1333. 1992; S.Dressler, Blumea 41: 293, fig. 1, map 5. 1996; S.Dressler & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 65, Fig. 3. 2000; in Chayamarit & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 149, fig. 32. 2005 Clutia stipularis L., Mant. Pl.: 127. 1767 Bridelia scandens (Roxb.) Willd., Sp. Pl. 4: 979. 1806 Bridelia dasycalyx Kurz, J. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 42, ii: 241. 1874.

 

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Scrambling shrub to tree up to 8 m high; branchlets tomentose, glabrescent. Stipules (narrowly) triangular to ovate, 3-10 by 2-4 mm, whitish to reddish brown pilose, late caducous. Leaves: petiole 3-9 mm long, tomentose; blade (ovate to) elliptic (to obovate), 3-17 by 1.3-11 cm, length/width ratio 1.2-2.6, chartaceous, pilose to villose above, tomentose beneath, base (slightly emarginate to) obtuse to rounded (to acute), margin subentire to somewhat crenate, apex (rounded to) acute; venation prominent beneath, nerves 9-13(-15) pairs, joining marginal vein, tertiary veins scalariform. Inflorescences: glomerules often along leafless branches and spike-like or along branches with small leaves, with (1-)3-6 (sub)sessile flowers. Staminate flowers cream to greenish or yellowish, 6-10 mm in diameter, pistillate flowers reddish green, up to 12(-14 in fruit) mm in diameter; pedicel stout, c. 1 mm long. Sepals (acuminately) triangular, 4-5 by 2-3 mm, at least (partly) abaxially hairy. Petals variable in shape, (1.5-)2-3 by (1-)1.5-2.5 mm, base cuneate to spathulate, apex roundish to lobulate. Stamens: staminal column c. 2 by 0.5 mm; free part of filaments c. 1.5 mm long; anthers ellipsoid, c. 1 by 0.5 mm, purple. Ovary ovoid to globose, 1.5-2 mm in diameter; styles 2, only basally united, together with stigmas 1.5-3 mm long, stigmas bifid for c. 1 mm. Fruits 1-5 per glomerule, ellipsoid to subglobose or ovoid, apically blunt to acute, often bilobate, 7-12 by 6-11 mm in diameter, 2-locular, dull dark reddish to black; endocarps 2, brown. Seeds semi-ovoid, dorsally keeled, ventrally sulcate, 6-7 by 3-5.5 by 2-3.5 mm, reddish brown.

    T h a i l a n d.- NORTHERN: Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Lamphun, Lampang, Phrae, Nakhon Sawan; NORTH-EASTERN: Phetchabun, Loei, Sakon Nakhon, Mukdahan; EASTERN: Chaiyaphum, Nakhon Ratchasima; CENTRAL: Saraburi, Bangkok; SOUTH-WESTERN: Uthai Thani, Kanchanaburi, Phetchaburi, Prachuap Khiri Khan; SOUTH-EASTERN: Prachin Buri, Chon Buri, Chachoengsao, Rayong, Chanthaburi, Trat; PENINSULAR: Chumphon.

    D i s t r i b u t i o n Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, S.E. Asia mainland, Malay Peninsula to Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Borneo, and the Philippines (unknown from Mindanao).

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    E c o l o g y Primary and secondary forest, often near wet places (rivers, swamps, seashore, mangrove); soil usually sandy, but also limestone or loam. Altitude: sea level up to 400(-1100) m.

    V e r n a c u l a r Hatsa ai khruea () (Northern); ai nai (น่า), ai nai khai yai (น่า์ญ่) (Southwestern); hatsa khun phi (), maka khruea (มะ) (Central); ai nuai (น่) (Chumphon); sa ai (ะำไ) (Narathiwat, Songkhla); sa ai khruea (ะำไ) (Yala).

    U s e s The plant is said to be poisonous. The twigs are used in basketry (India). The bark is used as medicine against intestinal worms and for tanning; a decoction is used for cough, fever, and asthma and shows hyposensitive hypoglycaemic action (also on animals). An infusion of the leaves is used for colic in Java and for jaundice in India. The fruits are edible, produce a sticky fluid when wounded and a black dye. The seeds possess hemaglutinating properties and yield a fatty oil.

 

10. Bridelia tomentosa Blume, Bijdr.: 597. 1826; Baill., Ιtude Euphorb.: 584. 1858; Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2: 501. 1866; Kurz, Fl. Myanmar 2: 367. 1877; Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 271. 1887; Craib, Kew Bull.: 457. 1911; Jabl. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.viii: 58, fig. 11A. 1915; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 231: 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 74. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 65. 1975; S.Dressler, Blumea 41: 297, fig. 2, map 6; S.Dressler & Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. 28: 67. 2000; in Chayamarit & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 151, plate V: 4. 2005 Bridelia lancifolia Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. Carey, 3: 737. 1832 Bridelia loureirii Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beechey Voy.: 211. 1837 Bridelia rhamnoides Griff., Not. Pl. As. 4: 480. 1854  Bridelia tomentosa Blume var. lancifolia (Roxb.) Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2: 502. 1866.

 

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Scrambling to erect shrub to tree up to 13 m high; branchlets glabrous to tomentose, lenticels scattered; old branches sometimes thorny. Stipules narrowly triangular to ovate, 2-4(-5) by c. 1 mm, apex sometimes aristate, glabrous to tomentose, early caducous. Leaves: petiole 2-5.5 mm long, glabrous to tomentose; blade elliptic to obovate, 2.5-14 by 1-6 cm, length/width ratio (1.7-)2-3.7, papery to thinly chartaceous, pilose to villose above, tomentose beneath (Thailand), base obtuse (to acute), margin entire to somewhat crenate, apex (bluntly) acute (to acuminate); venation (weakly) prominent on both sides, nerves 7-12(-15) pairs, joining marginal vein, tertiary veins irregularly scalariform. Inflorescences: glomerules with up to 10(-20) sessile flowers. Flowers green; staminate ones 2-3 mm in diameter, pistillate ones 3-4 mm in diameter; pedicel 0(-1) mm long. Sepals triangular, 0.8-1.5 by 0.5-1.2 mm, glabrous. Petals variable in shape, up to 1 by 0.8 mm, base cuneate to spathulate, apex roundish, notched or lobulate. Stamens: staminal column c. 0.7 mm long; free part of filaments up to 0.5 mm long; anthers shortly ellipsoid, 0.4-0.5 by 0.3-0.4 mm. Ovary globose, c. 1 mm in diameter; styles 2, completely free, together with stigmas 0.5 mm long, stigmas bifid. Fruits up to 7 per glomerule, (sub)globose, sometimes depressed and laterally compressed, emarginate at apex, slightly bilobate, 4.5-6.5 mm in diameter, 2-locular, blackish; endocarps 2, c. 4 by 5 by 2.5 mm, brown. Seeds semigloboid to broadly semi-tear-shaped, with deep lateral furrow, 3-3.5 by c. 4 by 2-2.5 mm, brown.

    T h a i l a n d NORTHERN: Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Lampang, Phrae, Phitsanulok, Nakhon Sawan; NORTH-EASTERN: Loei, Nakhon Phanom, Khon Kaen; EASTERN: Chaiyaphum, Nakhon Ratchasima, Surin, Ubon Ratchathani; CENTRAL: Saraburi, Nonthaburi; SOUTH-EASTERN: Sa Kaeo, Chon Buri, Chanthaburi; SOUTH-WESTERN: Kanchanaburi, Prachuap Khiri Khan; PENINSULAR: Ranong, Surat Thani, Phangnga, Phuket, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Trang, Songkhla, Yala, Narathiwat.

    D i s t r i b u t i o n From E. India, E. Nepal and Sikkim to S. China and Taiwan, throughout S.E. Asia and Malesia (Borneo only S.E. corner; type: Java) up to N. Australia.

Bridtome-map.gif (70139 bytes)

    E c o l o g y Deciduous to evergreen forest, primary to secondary vegetation; soil: sandy or loamy, limestone, granite bedrock. Altitude: sea level up to 1000 m. Common on waste land and in secondary forest. Flowers visited by butterflies.

    V e r n a c u l a r Krabue (), si fan krabue (ีฟันระ) (Phitsanulok); lo-ko (ล่โก) (Suai-Surin); sa lao (ล่า) (Nakhon Ratchasima); la-ai (ละำไ) (Southwestern); sam phan ta (พัน) (Ratchaburi); ma kae () (Chon Buri); men true () (Southeastern);  ka-ai (ะำไ), kue fung (), ma fang  (มะฟาง) (Peninsular); ai (), khon non  () (Nakhon Si Thammarat); kue nung () (Malay-Narathiwat).

    U s e s.— Timber tree, wood suitable for baskets, carts, wheels, and tool handles. The bark produces tannin and is, therefore, used for tanning, and colouring wood black. The bark, though astringent, and the leaves (as infusion) are used against colic in Java. The fruits are eaten and the seeds are used by children as bullets in bamboo guns. Well known in village medicine and folk tales.