Flora of Thailand

Euphorbiaceae

 

43. Glochidion

 

P.C. van Welzen

 

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Genus description

Identification key

Species descriptions

 

Glochidion

 

J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., Char. Gen. Pl.: 113, t.57. 1776, nom. cons.; Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 305. 1887; Beille in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 608. 1927; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 271. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Mal. 2: 98. 1973; G.L.Webster, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 81: 46. 1994; Welzen, Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 56, fig. 6. 2000; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 81. 2000; Radcl.-Sm., Gen. Euphorbiacearum: 47. 2001; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 308. 2007; G.L.Webster in Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 11: 79. 2014Agyneia L., Mant. Pl. 2: 161. 1771.— Bradleia Banks ex Gaertn., Fruct. 2: 127. 1790.— Gynoon A.Juss., Mιm. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 335. 1823.— Glochidionopsis Blume, Bijdr.: 588. 1826.— Glochisandra Wight, Ic. 5: 26. 1852.— Zarcoa Llanos, Bot. Zeit. 15: 423. 1857.— Coccoglochidion K.Schum., Nachtr. Fl. Schutzgeb.: 292. 1905.— Hemiglochidion (Mόll.Arg.) K.Schum., Nachtr. Fl. Schutzgeb.: 289. 1905.— Tetraglochidion K.Schum., Nachtr. Fl. Schutzgeb.: 291. 1905.

 

Shrubs to small trees, monoecious. Indumentum consisting of simple hairs when present. Stipules early to late caducous, triangular to narrowly triangular. Leaves alternate, simple; petiole short, completely pulvinate; blade basally asymmetric, papery to coriaceous, base oblique to cuneate or attenuate, margin entire, flat or recurved, apex rounded to cuspidate, both sides glabrous, or especially lower surface hairy; nerves pinnate, looped and joined near the margin, veins reticulate to reticulately scalariform. Inflorescences axillary fascicles, sometimes fascicles on a peduncle (to very short racemes), usually both sexes present at same time, together or in separate fascicles. Flowers actinomorphic, sepals imbricate, usually 6 in 2 whorls, outer usually larger, when species hairy then only hairy outside; petals and disc absent. Staminate flowers: pedicel slender, apically usually slightly thickened; sepals spreading to recurving when old; stamens 3–6, united into an androphore; anthers along androphore in a single whorl, 4-locular, extrorse; connectives extending above stamens with a coarse tooth; pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers: pedicel thicker and usually more hairy than staminate flowers; sepals persistent, not spreading; ovary 3–14-locular, ovules 2 per locule, next to each other (or superposed in G. littorale), stigmas persistent, united into a cone (to free in G. sericeum), upper part often with free teeth, inside with stigmatic tissue. Fruit a rhegma, not lobed to lobed around locules or around seeds, smooth, glabrous to hairy; wall thin (to thick), column usually only a thickened, basal triangle. Seeds half-moon shaped, triangular in transverse section, remaining long attached to column, ecarunculate.

    Very speciose with 200-300 species, mainly from India to S. China, S.E. Asia, Malesia, Australia, W. Pacific. According to some authors also several in Madagascar and in South America; 22 species in Thailand. Often regarded as an offshoot of Phyllanthus. Classification: Subfamily Phyllanthoideae, tribe Phyllantheae, subtribe Flueggeinae.

 

Key to the species

 

The species differ often in small details only, therefore, very precise measurements of organs are given. Small derivations of the measures are possible, but large gaps will indicate that a wrong route was taken and one has to return to a former question.

 

1a.

Stems glabrous by eye! (if in doubt follow this lead or the one for hairy stems)

2

1b.

Stems pilose (by eye!).

13

2a.

Apex of leaves emarginate to rounded. Ovary 10–14-locular. Fruits not lobed, glabrous, with depressed sutures, wall woody. Seeds superposed.— SE, P

13. G. littorale

2b.

Apex of leaves (obtuse to) (bluntly) acute to cuspidate. Ovary 3–7-locular. Fruits lobed or not, glabrous or hairy, with indistinct sutures, wall chartaceous. Seeds next to each other (or superposed: G. lanceolarium, then leaves acuminate)

3

3a.

Inflorescences supra-axillary fascicles (fascicles not in axil but above axil of leaf) or cymes on a peduncle

4

3b.

Inflorescences axillary, fascicles sessile

5

4a.

Leaves 7–19.5 by 4–10.5 cm. Staminate sepals not falcate; stamens 6. Ovary 6-locular. Fruits not lobed, 10–11.5 by c. 6 mm.— N, SW

9. G. hongkongense

4b.

Leaves 3–9 by 1–4 cm. Staminate sepals falcate; stamens 3. Ovary 3- or 4-locular. Fruits hardly lobed, 4.5–6 by 2.5–5 mm.— E, P

10. G. hypoleucum

5a.

Stigmas wider than high. If only staminate flowers present:

   - in case leaves (somewhat ovate to) elliptic then either leaf base slightly asymmetric or when very asymmetric petiole up to 3 mm long (G. glomerulatum basally very asymmetric leaves, petiole 5–7 mm long)

   - in case leaves ovate (broadest in lower third) then either petiole up to 3 mm long or when petiole 5–5.5 mm long: staminate sepals ovate (G. sphaerogynum with 5–8 mm long petioles, obovate sepals)

6

5b.

Stigmas higher than wide

7

6a.

Leaves ovately elliptic. Staminate sepals ovate to elliptic, outer ones 2.5–3.5 mm long; pedicel 2.5–6.2 mm long. Pistillate pedicel absent to 1.4 mm in fruit; stigmas united into a low, broad cone. Fruits hairy, slightly lobed, c. 5 mm in diameter— E, P

7. G. glomerulatum

6b.

Leaves ovate, often falcate. Staminate sepals obovate, outer ones 1.7–2.2 mm long; pedicel 6–13.5 mm long. Pistillate pedicel 1.2 to 3 mm in fruit; stigmas completely flat. Fruits glabrous, lobed, 9.5–10 mm in diameter— N, NE, E

20. G. sphaerogynum

7a.

Leaves elliptic (or when somewhat ovate, widest above lower third)

8

7b.

Leaves ovate (to falcate), broadest in lower third.

11

8a.

Leaves basally (acroscopic side broader) and apically (basiscopic side broader) clearly asymmetric. Stamens 4. Stigmatic cone apically strongly broadening.---P

18. G. santisukii

8b.

Leaves mainly basally asymmetric. Stamens 3 or 4. Stigmatic cone apically not or hardly broadening

9

9a.

Leaves thick, coriaceous, margin revolute. Stamens 4(-c.10). Ovary (5–)7-locular. Fruits 12–21 mm in diameter— N, NE, E, C, SE, SW 

12. G. lanceolarium

9b.

Leaves thin, chartaceous, margin flat. Stamens 3. Ovary 3–5-locular. Fruits 6–9 mm in diameter

10

10a.

Stipules 2.5–3 mm long. Petiole 3–6.5 mm long. Leaves 1.8–6.4 cm wide. Staminate flowers 4.5–5.5 mm in diameter Ovary (3)4(5)-locular, stigmatic cone 0.7–1.2 mm long, teeth hardly distinct. Fruits not lobed to somewhat lobed around loculesN, NE, E, C, SW

3. G. assamicum

10b.

Stipules 3–4 mm long. Petioles 1.5–3 mm long. Leaves 1–3.8(–4.8) cm wide. Staminate flowers 3.5–4.2 mm in diameter Ovary 3(–5)-locular; stigmatic cone 2.2–2.6 mm long, teeth very distinct, c. 1/3rd of cone. Fruits lobed around seeds (to around locules).— N, E, SE, SW, P

17. G. rubrum

11a.

Stamens 5. Ovary 5- or 6-locular. Fruits hairy, glabrescent, perhaps not dehiscent, seemingly falling off as a whole; wall rather thick, c. 0.8 mm.— P

16. G. perakense

11b.

Stamens 3. Ovary 3–5-locular. Fruits hairy or glabrous, dehiscent, seeds falling off after pericarps have fallen; wall thin, less than 0.5 mm thick

12

12a.

Fruits 4- or 5-locular, 12–14 mm in diameter Staminate flowers 4–5.5 mm in diameter; sepals obovate, 2.9–3.2 mm long. Stigmatic cone with equal teeth, no constriction below cone, teeth blunt. Fruits glabrous.---N, SW

5. G. daltonii

12b.

Fruits 3(–5)-locular, 7.5–9 mm in diameter. Staminate flowers 3.5–4.2 mm in diameter; sepals strongly ovate to elliptic to obovate, outer ones 2.1–2.5 mm long. Stigmatic cone constricted or not below cone, teeth blunt (one tooth longer) or acute (all equal). Fruits glabrous or hairy.— N, E, SE, SW, P

17. G. rubrum

13a.

Fruits not lobed, apically thick-walled, c. 2 mm thick; sutures often slightly raised. Stamens 4–6. Ovary 6-locular

14

13b.

Fruits lobed or not, thin-walled to somewhat thick-walled, less than 1 mm thick; sutures indistinct, flat. Stamens 3, (4), 5, or 6. Ovary 3–5, (6), 7–11-locular

15

14a.

Leaf blades 3.5–12 by 1.5–4 cm. Stamens 6. Stigmatic cone c. 1 mm high, teeth obscure.— N

14. G. oblatum

14b.

Leaf blades 2.4–6.4 by 1.6–2.4 cm. Stamens 4 or 5. Stigmatic cone 1.2–2 mm high, teeth distinct, coarse.— SW, P

15. G. obscurum

15a.

Leaf blades 3.6–26.2 by 2.2–9.8 cm. Inflorescences on a pedicel (though often indistinct). Fruits not lobed. Stamens 3 (then staminate pedicel more than 15 mm long), or stamens 5 or 6 (then leaves very hairy underneath)

16

15b.

Leaf blades 2.2–16 by 1.4–8 cm. Inflorescences axillary, never on a pedicel. Fruits lobed. Stamens 3 (or 4–6: G. coccineum: leaves subglabrous underneath); staminate pedicel up to 15 mm long

18

16a.

Leaf blades 9–26.2 cm long, base strongly oblique, venation impressed above, veins reticulate. Stamens 3. Ovary 3-locular.— P

21. G. superbum

16b.

Leaf blades 3.6–19.2 cm long, base not or slightly oblique, venation slightly raised to flat above, veins with tendency to scalariform. Stamens 5 or 6. Ovary 4- or 5-locular

17

17a.

Leaves mucronate. Flowers usually in groups of 5–10.— E, SW, P

2. G. arborescens

17b.

Leaves not mucronate. Flowers usually in groups of more than 10.— N, NE

8. G. hirsutum

18a.

Leaves apically rounded to obtuse (to obtusely acuminate to acuminate), lower surface subglabrous. Stamens (4) 5 or 6. Ovary (6)7–11-locular.— N, E, SW

4. G. coccineum

18b.

Leaves (obtuse) to acute to cuspidate, lower surface subglabrous to densely pilose. Stamens 3. Ovary 3–5-locular

19

19a.

Leaves usually relatively small, blades 2.2–9(–13.7) cm long. Pistillate flowers with 2 or 6 sepals; stigma more then 2 mm long

20

19b.

Leaves usually larger, blades 4.2–16 cm long. Pistillate flowers with (3–)6 sepals; stigma less than 2 mm long

22

20a.

Indumentum sericeous. Stigmas free. Outer staminate sepals 1.9–2 mm long; androecium c. 0.7 mm long with 0.1–0.2 mm long teeth-like extensions on the connectives. Pistillate sepals 2P

19. G. sericeum

20b.

Indumentum patent, velutinous to hirsute. Stigmas only in upper third free. Outer staminate sepals 2.1–4 mm long; androecium 0.8–2 mm long with 0.2–0.5 mm long teeth-like extensions on the connectives. Pistillate sepals 2 or 6

21

21a.

Outer staminate sepals 3–4 mm long; androecium 1.2–2 mm long with 0.4–0.5 mm long teeth-like extensions on the connectives. Pistillate sepals 2.— N, SW

11. G. kerrii

21b.

Outer staminate sepals 2.1–2.5 mm long; androecium 0.8–1.3 mm long with 02.–0.3 mm long teeth-like extensions on the connectives. Pistillate sepals 6.— N, E, SE, SW, P

17. G. rubrum

22a.

Leaves underneath (sub)glabrous, not glaucous underneath. Ovary 3-locular. Fruits c. 5 mm in diameter— P

22. G. wallichianum

22b.

Leaves underneath (subglabrous, but than glaucous underneath, to) hairy. Ovary 4- or 5-locular. Fruits 5–17 mm in diameter

23

23a.

Leaves glaucous underneath (ribs of wax granules). Fruits 5–8 mm in diameter. Sexes flowering in different seasons.— N, NE, SW

1. G. acuminatum var. siamense

23b.

Leaves not glaucous underneath (wax absent). Fruits 9–17 mm in diameter. Sexes often present at the same time.— N, NE, SW, E

6. G. eriocarpum

 

1. Glochidion acuminatum Mόll.Arg. var. siamense Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 273. 1972; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 83. 2000;  Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 310, Fig. 2. 2007.

 

 

Shrubs to trees up to 6 m high, dbh up to 15 cm; flowering twigs 2–3 mm thick; usually densely velutinous all over, but some specimens subglabrous. Outer bark thinly fissured, darkish to greyish. Leaves: stipules triangular, 1.5–3.2 by 0.6–1.3 mm, caducous; petiole 2–5 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, often falcate, 4.3–13.7 by 1.6–4.4 cm, length/width ratio (1.9–)2.5–4, (sub)coriaceous, base asymmetric, oblique to cuneate (to obtuse), margin flat; apex (obtuse to) acute to gradually cuspidate, upper surface subglabrous to hairy on nerves, dull dark green, lower surface subglabrous to velutinous, glaucous grey-light greenish because of dense wax granules, venation flat to slightly impressed above, raised below, nerves 9–12 per side, veins reticulately scalariform. Inflorescences axillary, bracteate fascicles, staminate flowers 5–>20, pistillate flowers 1–3 together, flowering at different times (note 2). Flowers: sepals 6, free. Staminate flowers 3.4–4.2 mm in diameter; pedicel 4.5–5.2 mm long, velutinous, yellow-green; sepals stiff, obovate, acute, greenish to light yellow, outer ones 2–2.8 by 1–1.2 mm, inner ones 1.7–2.1 by 0.8–1.1 mm, plicate; stamens 3, androecium 0.8–1.1 mm long, yellow, anthers 0.6–0.9 mm long, connective teeth 0.2–0.3 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1.6–3.4 mm in diameter; pedicel 5–8 mm long; sepals sometimes only outer ones present (North-eastern), outer ones ovate, 1.2–1.6 by 0.8–0.9 mm, inner ones triangular, 0.7–1 by 0.3–1.1 mm; ovary 4- or 5-locular, c. 1.5 by 0.9 mm high; stigmas 0.7–1 mm long, yellow, teeth less than 0.5 mm wide. Fruits round, apically and basally flattened, depressed above, 0.5–0.8 by 0.3–0.4 cm, mainly on leafless part of branches, lobed around every seed, but more so around locules, pilose especially when young, sutures indistinct, green to shining brown; wall very thin; column 1.5–1.8 mm long, only consisting of a broadly triangular base. Seeds c. 3–3.2 by 2.4–3 by 2.3–2.6 mm.

    T h a i l a n d.— NORTHERN: Chiang Mai (Doi Chang, Doi Chiang Dao, Doi Inthanon, Doi Luang, Doi Pui, Doi Suthep, Mae Wan), Nan (Doi Phukha), Tak (Doi Pae Poe); NORTH-EASTERN: Phetchabun (Phu Miang), Loei (Phu Kradueng, Phu Luang); SOUTH-WESTERN: Kanchanaburi (Khao Ngi Yai).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— S. China (S.E. Yunnan), Thailand (Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai, KERR 675, holo in K, iso in TCD).

    E c o l o g y.— Scattered to locally common in mainly open, secondary places like pine plantations, along edges of forest, along roads, in thickets, old clearings, open grassland, also in hill evergreen forest, oak forest, and less in deciduous forest; soil: granite bedrock. Altitude: 1100–1750 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Khrai mot (ไคร้มด) (Northern).

    U s e s.— Shoots edible, tasting sweet.

    N o t e s.— 1. var. siamense differs from the typical variety (E. Himalaya, Assam, S.W. Yunnan) in having leaves which are far more velutinous. However, a specimen collected in Kanchanaburi (van Beusekom & Phengkhlai 333) is glabrous and matches the description of the typical variety. More detailed study of the G. acuminatum-G. velutinum Wright complex is needed to solve the specific delimitations.

    2. Staminate flowers seemingly appear in March (to May), the leaves then clearly show the wax granules and the dried leaves look very greyish underneath. Fruits are only present on specimens collected in September to October (pistillate flowers are hardly known, one is collected in May), the wax granules are then far less distinct and the dried leaves look brownish underneath. Perhaps this has to do with the season, in March to May it is the end of the dry season and it is very hot in Thailand, the plants may need extra protection against the heat and produce extra wax. The pistillate flowers and especially the fruits appear in the rainy season, when the protection against drought is less necessary, hence perhaps the less distinct wax granules.

    3. Several plants with pistillate flowers, especially from the North-eastern, often show fewer sepals, usually only the outer three are present, occasionally also one or two of the inner sepals.

 

2. Glochidion arborescens Blume, Bijdr.: 584. 1825; J.J.Sm., Meded. Dep. Landb. 10: 114. 1911; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1: 461. 1963; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 273. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Mal. 2: 100. 1973; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 84. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 313. 2007Phyllanthus arborescens (Blume) Mόll.Arg., Flora 48: 370. 1865.— Phyllanthus silheticus Mόll.Arg., Flora 48: 377. 1865.— Glochidion sclerophyllum Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 313. 1887.— Glochidion silheticum (Mόll.Arg.) Croizat, J. Arnold Arbor. 21: 492. 1940.

 

Trees up to 10 m high, dbh up to 20 cm; flowering twigs 2.5–3.5 mm thick; mainly densely velutinous all over. Outer bark flaking, dark brown. Leaves: stipules triangular, 2–3.2 by c. 2 mm, caducous; petiole 3–4.5 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, 4.6–19.2 by 2.7–6.7, length/width ratio 1.5–2.2(–2.8), coriaceous, base asymmetric, emarginate to rounded, margin flat, apex acute to acuminate, mucronate, upper surface dark green (to often greyish when dry), lower surface green (to brown when dry), venation flat above, raised underneath, nerves 8–11 per side, veins scalariformly reticulate. Inflorescences supra-axillary (above the axil), often on an up to 5 mm long peduncle, 5 to 10 or more flowers, pistillate ones flowering before staminate ones. Flowers: sepals 6, basally connate. Staminate flowers c. 5 mm in diameter; pedicel 8–13.2 mm long, subglabrous, light yellow; sepals stiff, ovately elliptic, 3–3.2 by 1.6–2 mm, quite thick, light yellow; stamens 6, androecium 1.4–1.8 mm long, anthers 0.8–1.1 mm long, cream to grey, connective teeth 0.3–0.5 mm long. Pistillate flowers 2.2–3.2 mm in diameter; pedicel 3.3–8 mm long, green; sepals ovate, 1–2.7 by 0.8–2.3 mm, green; ovary 4- or 5-locular, 1.8–2.5 by 1.2–1.5 mm high; stigmas united into cone, 1–1.1 mm long, yellow, upper half with free, coarse teeth. Fruits round, apically and basally flattened, 8.5–11 by 4.5–7 mm, not lobed, pilose when young, glabrous when old, sutures indistinct, red; wall very thin; column c. 3.2 mm long, basally widened, upper part in the end consisting of separate strands. Seeds 4–5 by 3.2–4 mm.

    T h a i l a n d.— EASTERN: Chaiyaphum (Tunkamang); SOUTH-WESTERN: Prachuap Khiri Khan (Bang Saphan); PENINSULAR: Chumphon, Ranong (Ban Kam Phuan; Hard Hin Dam, Kaper), Nakhon Si Thammarat (Klong Bake), Trang (Khao Chong), Songkhla (Khao Kho Hong).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— Assam, Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra (Bangka), Borneo, Java (type), and possibly Sulawesi.

    E c o l o g y.— Scattered to common in open areas in beech forest, in disturbed places, secondary growths or secondary forest with evergreen patches, edges of evergreen forest; soil: loamy, granitic bedrock. Altitude: 10–850 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Khrai ton (ไคร้ต้น) (General); man pu (มันปู) (Peninsular).

 

3. Glochidion assamicum (Mόll.Arg.) Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 319. 1887; Craib, Bull. Mis. Inf. Kew: 458. 1911; Aberdeen Univ. Stud. 57: 184. 1912; Beille in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 620. 1927; Croizat & Hara, J. Japan. Bot. 16: 320. 1940; Nath, Bot. Surv. S. Shan States: 107. 1960; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 274. 1972; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 84. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 313, Fig. 3. 2007Phyllanthus assamicus Mόll.Arg., Flora 48: 378. 1865.— Phyllanthus andersonii Mόll.Arg., Flora 55: 3. 1872.

 

 

Shrubs to trees up to 10 m high, dbh up to 17 cm; flowering twigs 1.5–2 mm thick; mainly glabrous all over. Outer bark thin (to slightly thickened), finely vertically cracked, flaking, light brown. Leaves: stipules triangular, 2.5–3 by 1–1.2 mm, late caducous; petiole 3–6.5 mm long; blade (ovate to) elliptic, 3.9–18 by 1.8–6.4, length/width ratio 1.6–3.2, leathery, base (slightly) asymmetric, cuneate to attenuate, margin flat to recurved, apex acuminate, mucronate, upper surface dark green, lower surface green, venation flat above, raised underneath, nerves 9–11 per side, veins scalariformly reticulate. Inflorescences fascicles, up to more than 15 flowers of single or mixed sexes. Flowers greenish to yellowish; sepals 6, free. Staminate flowers 4.5–5.5 mm in diameter; pedicel 7.5–17 mm long, very slender, glabrous (to subpilose), light yellowish green; sepals elliptic to obovate, 1.7–3.6 by 0.7–1.1 mm, light yellowish greenish; stamens 3, androecium 1–1.9 mm long, anthers 0.6–1.2 mm long, light yellow, connective teeth 0.3–0.5 mm long, blackish. Pistillate flowers 1.2–1.7 mm in diameter; pedicel 0–6 mm long in fruit, light green; sepals ovate to elliptic, outer ones 0.7–1.5 by 0.3–1 mm, inner ones 0.6–1.2 by 0.2–0.4 mm; ovary (3)4(5)-locular, 0.8–1 by 0.7–1 mm high; stigmas in a cone, 0.7–1.2 mm long, teeth hardly distinct. Fruits round, apically and basally flattened, slightly depressed above, 6–8 by 4–5 mm, not lobed to somewhat lobed around locules, pilose when young, glabrescent, sutures indistinct, white, later red; wall very thin; column 1–2 by 1.3–2 mm high, a widened basal triangle. Seeds c. 4 by 3.8 by 2.1 mm.

    T h a i l a n d.— NORTHERN: Mae Hong Son (Doi Pui), Chiang Mai (Doi Chiang Dao, Mae Rim, Tin Tok), Chiang Rai (Doi Tung), Lampang (Doi Luang, Chae Son, Mae Tank), Lamphun (Doi Khun Tan), Phrae (Huai Rai), Nan (Doi Phukha), Kamphaeng Phet (Klonglarn); NORTH-EASTERN: Phetchabun (Nam Nao), EASTERN: Nakhon Ratchasima (Khao Yai); CENTRAL: Saraburi (Phu Khae); SOUTH-WESTERN: Kanchanaburi (Pa Phra Thaen), Phetchaburi (Kaeng Krachan National Park); PENINSULAR: Surat Thani (Khao Sok).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— W. & E. Himalaya (type), Assam (type), Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, S.W. China, Hainan, Taiwan.

    E c o l o g y.— Scattered to locally common, usually in wet places in gallery forest, evergreen forest, mixed evergreen/deciduous forest, secondary forest, degraded, fire-prone deciduous forest with much bamboo, in thickets, along margin of forest and along streams, in open places; soil: granite bedrock, shale bedrock. Altitude: 100–1200 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Khi mot (ขี้มด) (Lampang); khamin ton (ขมิ้นต้น), maeng mao chang (แมงเม่าช้าง) (Saraburi).

 

4. Glochidion coccineum (Buch.-Ham.) Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 32: 60. 1863; Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 308. 1887; Craib, Bull. Mis. Inf. Kew: 458. 1911; Aberdeen Univ. Stud. 57: 184. 1912; Beille in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 615. 19270; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 274. 1972; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 85. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 315. 2007 Agyneia coccinea Buch.-Ham. in Symes, Account Embassy Kingd. Ava: 479. 1800.— Phyllanthus coccineus (Buch.-Ham.) Mόll.Arg., Flora 48: 370. 1865.

 

Shrubs (to small trees), up to 8 m high, dbh up to 6 cm; flowering twigs 1.5–2 mm thick; mainly velutinous all over except for leaves. Bark smooth, brownish. Leaves: stipules triangular, 1.4–3.5 by 0.8–1.5 mm, (late) caducous; petiole 2.5–3.5 mm long; blade elliptic (to obovate), 3.5–15 by 1.4–4.5 cm, length/width ratio 2–3.3, coriaceous, base at most slightly asymmetric, cuneate (to rounded), margin flat, apex rounded to obtuse (to obtusely acuminate to acuminate), (mucronate), upper surface dark green, glabrous except for basal part of midrib, lower surface green, subhirsute to midrib only, nerves 9–11 per side, veins reticulate to somewhat scalariform. Inflorescences fascicles, both sexes often mixed but then one sex with 1 or 2 flowers, staminate flowers up to 6 together, pistillate ones up to 8 together. Flowers yellow, scented; sepals 6(7), basally connate. Staminate flowers 4.5–5.3 mm in diameter; pedicel 7–9 mm long, subglabrous; sepals stiff, obovate, outer ones 3.5–3.7 by 1.2–1.6 mm, inner ones 2.7–3.3 by 1.2–1.3 mm; stamens (4)5 or 6, androecium 1.1–1.3 mm long, anthers 0.8–1 mm long, connective teeth 0.2–0.3 mm long. Pistillate flowers 2.1–2.3 mm in diameter; pedicel 1 to up to 8.5 mm long in fruit; sepals ovate, brown in fruit, outer ones 1.4–1.8 by 1–1.6 mm; inner ones 1–2 by 0.7–1.2 mm; ovary (6)7–11-locular, 1.2–1.5 by 0.8–1 mm high; stigmatic cone c. 0.7 mm long, teeth hardly visible. Fruits ± round, apically and basally flattened, depressed in centre above, lobed around locules, 1.4–2.1 by 0.7–0.8 cm, subpilose, glabrescent, cream-whitish, sutures indistinct; wall very thin; column not seen. Seeds 4.5–7 by 4.5–5.5 by 3.2–4.5 mm.

    T h a i l a n d.— NORTHERN: Chiang Mai (Doi Inthanon, Doi Suthep, Mae Fang, Mae Keng), Chiang Rai (Ban Doi, Ban Mai Pattana), Lamphun (Mae Li), Tak, Nakhon Sawan; SOUTH-WESTERN: Kanchanaburi (Pompi, Sai Yok, Sangkhla Buri, Tham Pha); EASTERN: Si Sa Ket (Kanthararom).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— Myanmar (type?), Thailand.

    E c o l o g y.— Scattered to locally common, in dry to moist places, in dry dipterocarp forest, (dry) mixed deciduous forest, evergreen forest, secondary forest, open marshes, along paths, rivers, rice fields; soil: sand, limestone, granite bedrock. Altitude: 160–600 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Cha na (จานา) (Khon Kaen); ta na (ตานา) (Nakhon Ratchasima); chumset lek (ชุมเส็ดเล็ก) (Chai Nat); ka nam (กาน้ำ), ma yom pa (มะยมป่า) (Kanchanaburi); tai-yung-sa (ใต้หยุ่งซะ) (Karen Kanchanaburi).

    N o t e s.— 1. In Kanchanaburi (South-western) the leaves are usually more acuminate than in the North.

    2. The name Glochidion multiloculare from India is often applied to this species, however, G. multiloculare Voigt has a very different type of stigma: much broader than long (hardly any stigmatic cone), like G. glomerulatum or G. sphaerogynum in Thailand.

 

5. Glochidion daltonii (Mόll.Arg.) Kurz, Fl. Burm. 2: 344. 1877; Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 308. 1887; Craib, Bull. Mis. Inf. Kew: 458. 1911; Aberdeen Univ. Stud. 57: 184. 1912; Beille in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 626. 1927; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 274. 1972; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 85. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 316.— Phyllanthus daltonii Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 310. 1866.

 

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Shrubs to trees up to 5 m high; flowering twigs 1.2–2 mm thick; mainly glabrous all over. Leaves: stipules triangular, 2–3 by c. 1.4 mm, late caducous, stiff, very acute; petiole 2–3 mm long; blade ovate, 3.2–11.2 by 1.8–3.4 cm, length/width ratio 1.8–3.3, coriaceous, base asymmetric, cuneate to attenuate, margin flat to revolute; apex gradually acuminate to cuspidate, mucronate, upper surface usually greyish when dry, lower surface brownish when dry, venation flat above, raised below, nerves c. 10 per side, veins reticulately scalariform. Inflorescences fascicles, with up to more than 10 flowers per axil, sexes often separate, when together one sex with only a few flowers. Flowers green to white; sepals 6, free. Staminate flowers 4–5.5 mm in diameter; pedicel 8–9 mm long; sepals obovate, outer ones 2.9–3.2 by 1–1.4 mm, inner ones 2.2–2.4 by 0.9–1 mm; stamens 3, androecium 1.2–1.4 mm long, anthers c. 0.9 mm long, yellow, connective teeth 0.2–0.4 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1.5–1.6 mm in diameter; pedicel 0.4–4 mm long in fruit; sepals: outer ones triangular to ovate, 1.2–2 by 0.5–1.1 mm, inner ones more elliptic, 1.1–2 by 0.4–0.8 mm; ovary 4- or 5-locular, 0.8–1 by 0.5–1 mm high, densely to somewhat hairy; stigmas in a cone, widening apically, 1.8–4.1 mm long, teeth 0.6–0.8 mm long, blunt. Fruits round, apically and basally flattened, depressed above, 12–14 by 5–10 mm, lobed around every seed, glabrous, sutures indistinct; wall very thin; column c. 2.2 by 2–2.2 mm high, c. square in longitudinal view. Seeds c. 5.3 by 3.5 by 2.5 mm.

    T h a i l a n d.— NORTHERN: Mae Hong Son (Mae Sariang), Chiang Mai (Mae Kang, Mae Pong, Mae Taeng); SOUTH-WESTERN: Uthai Thani (Huai Kha Khaeng), Kanchanaburi (Thung Yai Naresuan).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— E. Himalaya, Assam (type), Myanmar, Thailand, S. China, Indochina.

    E c o l o g y.— Locally common, in disturbed lower montane forest, in old clearings in evergreen forest, in mixed deciduous forest, dry dipterocarp forest, open Quercus-dipterocarp forest, , growing along streams. Altitude: 500–2000 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Mueat lueat (เหมือดเลือด) (Loei); khrai (ไคร้) (Central); tana dong (ตานาดง) (Chaiyaphum); se-phle-sa (เสเพล้ซ่า) (Karen-Kanchanaburi).

 

6. Glochidion eriocarpum Champ., Hook. J. Bot. Kew Garden Misc. 6: 6. 1854; Benth., Fl. Hongk.: 314. 1861; Croizat, J. Arnold Arbor. 21: 493. 1940; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 274. 1972; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 86. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 317, Fig. 4; 2007Phyllanthus eriocarpus (Champ.) Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 32: 67. 1863.— ?Glochidion anamiticum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl.: 601. 1891.— Glochidion esquirolii Lιvl., Fedde Rep. Sp. Nov. 12: 186. 1913.— ?Glochidion annamense Beille in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 627. 1927.

 

 

Shrubs to trees, up to 8 m high, dbh up to 10 cm, deciduous?; flowering twigs 2.5–3 mm thick, slightly drooping, light green; brown velutinous all over. Bark thickened, roughly fissured vertically, dark brown. Leaves: stipules triangular, 1.5–3.5 by 1–1.5 mm, late caducous; petiole 2–5 mm long; blade somewhat ovate to somewhat obovate, 5.5–13.1 by 2.6–6.7 cm, length/width ratio 1.7–2.4, chartaceous, base slightly to distinctly asymmetric, cuneate, margin flat, apex bluntly acute to acuminate, upper surface dull dark green, hairy, glabrescent, lower surface dull light green, very hairy, soft to the touch, venation flat above, raised beneath, nerves c. 10 per side, veins somewhat scalariform. Inflorescences fascicles, both sexes often mixed but then one sex with 1 or 2 flowers, both sexes up to many flowers per inflorescence. Flowers greenish yellow to yellow to whitish to pale brown, scented; sepals 6, free. Staminate flowers 4–5 mm in diameter; pedicel 6–9 mm long, pilose, yellow-green; sepals elliptic to obovate, outer ones 2–3.3 by 0.7–1.2 mm, inner ones 2–3.1 by 0.8–1.1 mm; stamens 3, androecium 1–1.3 mm long, anthers 0.6–1 mm long, light yellowish to grey-greenish, connective teeth 0.2–0.3 mm long, light yellow. Pistillate flowers 2.2–3 mm in diameter; pedicel 1.1 to up to 8.5 mm long in fruit; sepals triangular, outer ones 1.1–1.8 by 0.7–0.9 mm; inner ones 1–1.5 by 0.5–0.9 mm; ovary 4- or 5-locular, 1.3–2 by 0.8–1 mm high, densely pilose; stigmas in a cone, 1.1–1.8 mm long, teeth hardly visible to short. Fruits ± round, apically and basally flattened, somewhat depressed in centre above, lobed around seeds, though somewhat more around locules, 9–12 by c. 4 mm, subpilose, glabrescent, green, lobes not deep, sutures indistinct; wall very thin; column 2.2–3 by 1–1.5 mm high, only flattened basal triangle left. Seeds 4–5 by 3.3–5 by 2.7–3.2 mm, orange-red.

    T h a i l a n d.— NORTHERN: Chiang Mai (Bo Luang, Doi Inthanon, Doi Maun, Doi Sahng Liang, Doi Suthep, Hod, Omkoi), Chiang Rai (Doi Luang, Mae Suai), Lampang (Doi Khun Tan), Lamphun (Doi Khun Tan), Phrae (Ban Huai Kaet, Mae Krai), Nan; NORTH-EASTERN: Phetchabun (Nam Nao), Loei (Chulaphorn Dam, Nam Nao, Sala Chomwio), Nakhon Phanom (Phu Phan), Khon Kaen (Phu Khiao); SOUTH-WESTERN: Kanchanaburi (Huai Bankau, Sri Sawat).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— Thailand, Indochina, S. China (Hong Kong: type), Taiwan; perhaps also present in Sumatra, Java, and the Philippines.

    E c o l o g y.— Rare to common in savannah, deciduous (dipterocarp-oak) forest, hill evergreen forest, Pinus forest, open (fire-damaged) clearings, disturbed forest, along streams, roads and in swampy places; soil: limestone, granite bedrock. Altitude: 350–1700 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Khrai mot (ไคร้มด) (Chiang Mai); chana (จานา) (Prachuap Khiri Khan); cha non (ชะหนอน) (Ranong).

 

7. Glochidion glomerulatum (Miq.) Boerl., Handl. 3, 1: 276. 1900; Ridl., Fl. Mal. Pen. 3: 209. 1924; Back. & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1: 463. 1963; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 275. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Mal. 2: 100. 1973; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 86. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 319, Fig. 5j, k. 2007Agyneia ? glomerulata Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste bijv.: 447. 1860.— Phyllanthus glomerulatus (Miq.) Mόll.Arg., Flora 23: 376. 1865.— Phyllanthus nanogynus Mόll.Arg., Flora 23: 376.1865.— Glochidion nanogynum (Mόll.Arg.) Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 318. 1887; Ridl., Fl. Mal. Pen. 3: 214. 1924; Beille in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 619. 1927.

 

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Shrubs to treelets up to 8 m high, dbh up to 6 cm; branches drooping, flowering twigs c. 2 mm thick; mainly glabrous all over. Leaves: stipules deltoid, c. 2.3 by 1.5 mm, acute, stiff, caducous; petiole 5–7 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, 6.1–13 by 2.3–4.7 cm, length/width ratio 1.4–2.8, papery to subcoriaceous, base strongly asymmetric, long attenuate along whole petiole, margin flat, apex acuminate, mucronate, both surfaces glabrous, venation flat above, slightly raised underneath, indistinct, nerves 9–11 per side, veins reticulate. Inflorescences fascicles with either 3–10 pistillate flowers or a mixture of a few staminate and many more pistillate flowers. Flowers pale green; sepals 6, free. Staminate flowers c. 4.2 mm in diameter, pedicel 2.5–6.2 mm long, glabrous to hirsute; sepals ovate to elliptic, outer ones 2.5–3.5 by 0.9–1 mm, inner ones 2.5–3.3 by 0.7–0.9 mm; stamens 3, androecium 1.2–1.6 mm long, anthers 0.9–1.2 mm long, light yellow to grey, connective teeth 0.2–0.3 mm long. Pistillate flowers 2.5–4 mm in diameter; pedicel absent to up to 1.4 mm in fruit; sepals ovate to elliptic, outer ones 0.9–1.2 by 1–1.1 mm, inner ones 1.3–1.5 by c. 0.8 mm; ovary 6-locular, 1.4–3.7 by 1–2 mm high, densely pilose; stigmas in a cone 1.3–1.8 by 0.6–0.8 mm high. Fruits slightly lobed, circular, flattened, c. 5 by 3.2 mm high, red to brown, sutures indistinct, always hairy, glabrescent; wall thin; column c. 1.1 by 0.7 mm, only basal triangle left. Seeds 2.5–2.6 by 1.5–2 by c. 2 mm, brown.

    T h a i l a n d.— NORTHERN: Chiang Mai (Bo Luang); EASTERN: Nakhon Ratchasima (Khao Yai); PENINSULAR: Nakhon Si Thammarat (Chawng), Narathiwat (Sirinthon, To Daeng).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— Indochina, Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra (type), Java, N. & E. Borneo.

    E c o l o g y.— In evergreen forest, disturbed dry dipterocarp forest, edge of peat swamp forest, in scrub jungle, along streams. Altitude: sea level up to 1000 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Ka thin (กะทิน) (Yala); rot nam (รอดน้ำ) (Surat Thani).

 

8. Glochidion hirsutum (Roxb.) Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calc.: 153. 1845; Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 32: 61. 1863; Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 311. 1887; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 275. 1972; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 87. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 319. 2007Bradleia hirsuta Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3: 699. 1832.— Glochidion dasyphyllum K.Koch, Hort. Dendr.: 85. 1853.— Glochidion arnottianum Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 32: 60. 1863.— Phyllanthus arnottianus (Mόll.Arg.) Mόll.Arg., Flora 48: 370. 1865Phyllanthus hirsutus (Roxb.) Mόll.Arg., Flora 48: 371. 1865.— ? Glochidion hongkongense Mόll.Arg. var. puberulum Chakrab. & M.Gangop., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 13: 712, fig. 2. 1989.

 

Shrubs to trees up to 5 m high; flowering twigs 3–4 mm thick; mainly densely velutinous all over. Leaves: stipules long to linear triangular, 2.5–6 by 0.6–1.1 mm, caducous; petiole 1.6–5 mm long; blade (ovate to) elliptic, 3.6–17.3 by 2.2–9 cm, length/width ratio 1.6–2.1, coriaceous, base asymmetric, (emarginate to) very shortly attenuate, margin flat, apex acute, upper surface shiny glabrous to glabrescent, nerves (7–)9–12 per side, veins scalariformly reticulate. Inflorescences supra-axillary fascicles, usually on an up to 10 mm long peduncle, up to 10 or more flowers, both sexes often together. Flowers yellow, sepals 6, basally connate. Staminate flowers 4–5.3 mm in diameter; pedicel 7–11 mm long, subglabrous; sepals stiff, ovately elliptic, outer ones 3–3.5 by 2–2.3 mm; inner ones 2.8–3.3 by c. 1.2 mm; stamens 5 or 6, androecium 1.4–1.6 mm long, anthers 1–1.1 mm long, connective teeth c. 0.3 mm long. Pistillate flowers c. 3.5 mm in diameter; pedicel 5–10.2 mm long; sepals ovate, outer ones 2.4–3.3 by 2–2.7 mm; inner ones 1.7–3.1 by 1.5–2.5 mm; ovary 4- or 5-locular, 1.2–3 by 1.3–2 mm high; stigmas in a cone, c. 1 mm long, upper half with free, coarse teeth. Fruits round, apically and basally flattened, c. 1.1 by 0.6 cm, not lobed, pilose when young, glabrous when old, sutures indistinct; wall very thin; column not seen. Seeds not seen.

    T h a i l a n d.— NORTHERN: Mae Hong Son (Khun Yuam, Mae Sariang), Chiang Mai (Ban Watchan, Doi Inthanon, Doi Lohm, Doi Suthep, Mon Nang Ket), Chiang Rai (Mae Luoi), Lampang (Chae Son, Mae Li); NORTH-EASTERN: Phetchabun (Nam Nao), Loei (Phu Luang), Sakon Nakhon (Phu Pan).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— E. Himalaya to Thailand, Hainan, Hong Kong (type), and Taiwan.

    E c o l o g y.— Locally common to sometimes forming thickets, in low-lying or swampy ground in deciduous forest. Altitude: 480–1150 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Tan khao (ตานเข้า) (Loei); phak khi mot (ผักขี้มด) (Phrae); khrai pa pin (ไคร้ป่าปิ้น) (Phitsanulok); chum set (ชุมเส็ด) (Trat).

 

9. Glochidion hongkongense Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 32: 60. 1863; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 276. 1972; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 87. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 320, Fig. 5L. 2007Phyllanthus hongkongense (Mόll.Arg.) Mόll.Arg., Flora 48: 371. 1865.

 

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Shrubs to trees up to 9 m high, dbh up to 28 cm; flowering twigs 1.5–4 mm thick; mainly glabrous all over. Bark thin, smooth to shallowly vertically cracked or flaking, brown to grey-brown. Leaves: stipules (long) triangular, c. 4 by 0.5–2 mm, late caducous; petiole 6–10.5 mm long; blade slightly ovate, 7–19.5 by 4–10.5 cm, length/width ratio 1.9–2.5, coriaceous, base slightly asymmetric, shortly attenuate, margin recurved, apex (obtuse to) acuminate, mucronate or not, upper surface dark green, lower surface (light) green, nerves flat above, raised below, 10 or 11 per side, veins scalariform. Inflorescences supra-axillary fascicles, usually on an up to 5 mm long peduncle, sexes usually separated, staminate flowers 7 to many, pistillate flowers 4–7 per node. Flowers pendulous, yellowish to greenish, sepals 6, free. Staminate flowers 4–5.3 mm in diameter; pedicel 9–12 mm long, yellow-greenish; sepals ovate, light yellowish, outer ones 2.4–3.2 by 1.9–2.7 mm, midrib basally sulcate; inner ones 2.1–2.6 by 1.5–2.1 mm; stamens 6, androecium 1.4–1.9 mm long, anthers 1–1.4 mm long, light yellow, connective teeth 0.3–0.5 mm long, brown. Pistillate flowers 2.8–5 mm in diameter; pedicel 5–10.2 mm long, green; sepals ovate, sharply acute, green, outer ones 1.8–2.6 by 1.5–2.3 mm; inner ones 1.5–2.1 by 1–2.1 mm; ovary 6-locular, 1–2.2 by 2–2.2 mm high, green; stigmas ± free, 0.7–0.8 mm long. Fruits subglobose, flattened, 10–11.5 by c. 6 mm, not lobed, glabrous, red, sutures indistinct; wall very thin; column c. 5 by 2 mm, apically somewhat broadened. Seeds c. 3.8 by 3 mm, only seen unripe.

    T h a i l a n d.— NORTHERN: Chiang Mai (Doi Saket, Doi Suthep), Phitsanulok (Phu Hin Rong Kla); SOUTH-WESTERN: Phetchaburi (Kaeng Krachan). The label of Vanpruk 794 gives Trang (Peninsular) as the collecting locality, this must be incorrect.

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— Thailand, Indochina, S. China (Hong Kong: type), Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    E c o l o g y.— Not common, in more open, sometimes somewhat disturbed, wet areas (along streams) in primary evergreen forest or deciduous dipterocarp-oak forest; soil: granite bedrock. Altitude: 400–1100 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Khrai mot (ไคร้มด) (Northern).

    U s e s.— Leaves are edible, astringent

 

10. Glochidion hypoleucum (Miq.) Boerl., Handl. 3, 1: 275. 1900; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23: 8. 1969; Kew Bull. 26: 276. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Mal. 2: 101. 1973; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 87. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 321. 2007Anisonema hypoleucum Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste bijv.: 449. 1860.— Glochidion glaucifolium Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 32: 65. 1863Phyllanthus laevigatus Mόll.Arg., Flora 48: 374. 1865.— Phyllanthus kollmannianus Mόll.Arg., Flora 48: 378. 1865.— Glochidion laevigatum (Mόll.Arg.) Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 319. 1887.— Glochidion breynioides C.B.Robinson, Philipp. J. Sci. 4, Bot.: 95. 1909.— Glochidion kollmannianum (Mόll.Arg.) J.J.Sm., Meded. Dep. Landb. 10: 166. 1911.— Glochidion hollandianum J.J.Sm., Nova Guinea 12: 544, t. 228A. 1917.

 

Shrubs to trees up to 12 m high; flowering twigs 1–1.5 mm thick; glabrous all over. Wood pink. Leaves: stipules triangular, 0.8–1.2 by 0.1–1 mm, rather stiff, caducous; petiole 2.5–4.5 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, 3.2–9 by 1.1–3.7 cm, length/width ratio 1.8–2.9, papery, base asymmetric to oblique, cuneate, margin flat; apex bluntly acute to acuminate, mucronate, venation flat above, raised below, nerves 9–11 per side, veins reticulate. Inflorescences usually stalked fascicles or cymes, stalk up to 3 mm long, single or mixed sexes per inflorescence, up to 10 flowers. Flowers white to yellow, slightly fragrant; sepals 6, free. Staminate flowers 4–4.5 mm in diameter; pedicel 4–5 mm long; sepals 6, elliptic, falcate, very acute, outer ones 2–3.5 by c. 1 mm, inner ones 2.2–3 by 0.7–0.8 mm; stamens 3, androecium c. 1 mm long, anthers c. 0.6 mm long, connective teeth 0.3–0.4 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1.6–3 mm in diameter; pedicel 1.3–3 mm long in fruit; sepals ovate, outer ones 0.9–2.3 by 0.6–1.2 mm, inner ones 0.9–1.8 by 0.5–1.1 mm; ovary 3- or 4-locular, 0.8–1 by c. 1 mm high; stigmas into a 0.5–0.7 mm long cone, teeth not free. Fruits flattened to cylindrical, 4.8–5.8 by 2.5–5 mm, hardly lobed, glabrous, green, sutures indistinct; wall very thin; column long, slender, c. 3 by 1.2 mm. Seeds not seen.

    T h a i l a n d.— EASTERN: Nakhon Ratchasima (Khao Khiao); PENINSULAR: Nakhon Si Thammarat (Khra Rom, Thung Song), Songkhla (Kha Ko Hong).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, S. China, throughout Malesia (Sumatra: type).

    E c o l o g y.— Scattered in evergreen forest and along roads. Altitude: 50–600 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Somset (สมเส็ด) (Peninsular).

 

11. Glochidion kerrii Craib, Bull. Mis. Inf. Kew: 458. 1911; Aberdeen Univ. Stud. 57: 184. 1912; Beille in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 627. 1927; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 277. 1972; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 88. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 321. 2007 Glochidion dasystylum Kurz var. kerrii (Craib) Chakrab. & M.Gangop., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 13: 710. 1989.

 

Shrubs to trees up to 7 m high, dbh up to 7 cm; flowering twigs 1–1.5 mm thick, light green; mainly densely velutinous all over. Outer bark thin, smooth, slightly flaking, (light brown to) grey. Leaves: stipules narrowly triangular, 1.8–3.3 by 0.2–0.6 mm, caducous; petiole 1–2 mm long; blade ovate, 2.2–9 by 1.4–4.5 cm, length/width ratio 1.6–2.9, papery to subcoriaceous, base slightly asymmetric, rounded to cuneate, margin flat; apex acuminate, mucronate, upper surface subpilose on nerves, (dark) green, lower surface velutinous, light green, venation flat above, raised below, nerves 7–9 per side, veins reticulately scalariform. Inflorescences fascicles, staminate flowers 1-c. 5, pistillate flowers 1–3 together, flowering more or less at same time. Staminate flowers 4.5–5.5 mm in diameter; pedicel 6.8–15 mm long, pilose, pale light green; sepals 6, free, stiff, elliptic, light yellow with light green midrib, outer ones 3–4 by 0.8–1.1 mm, inner ones 3–3.5 by 0.8–1.1 mm; stamens 3, androecium 1.2–2 mm long, anthers 0.8–1.5 mm long, yellow, connective teeth 0.4–0.5 mm long. Pistillate flowers c. 2.5 mm in diameter; pedicel 2.7–11.5 mm long in fruit, light green, as slender as staminate pedicel; sepals 2, ovate, 0.8–1.2 by 0.3–0.8 mm; ovary 3- or 4-locular, c. 2.5 by 2 mm high; stigmas in a very slender style, 2.2–3.1 mm long, upper 0.8 mm free teeth, light green. Fruits round, apically and basally flattened, 7–8 by 3.5–4 mm, lobed around every locule, pilose especially when young, sutures indistinct, light green via white becoming maroonish; wall very thin; column 1.5–2 mm long, only consisting of a broadly triangular base. Seeds 3.2–3.3 by 2.2–2.8 by 3–3.1 mm, yellow turning red.

    T h a i l a n d.— NORTHERN: Mae Hong Son (Mae Surin Waterfall), Chiang Mai (Ban Pha Mon, Ban Ta Fang, Doi Chang, Doi Chiang Dao, Doi Pacho, Doi Suthep, Samueng), Mae Hong Son (Pai), Lampang (Chae Son), Lamphun (Doi Khun Tan); SOUTH-WESTERN: Kanchanaburi (Huai Mae Kaset).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— E. Myanmar, N. and W. Thailand (Doi Suthep, Chiang Mai, KERR 1070, holo in K).

    E c o l o g y.— Locally common understorey plant in deciduous (oak) forest, primary mixed evergreen forest, secondary forest, also in open areas along trails, forest edges, streams and in tea plantations; soil: granite (or limestone) bedrock. Altitude: 550–1300(–1800) m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Khrai (ไคร้) (Northern).

 

12. Glochidion lanceolarium (Roxb.) Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calc.: 153. 1845; Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 32: 60. 1863; Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 308. 1887; Hosseus, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 28: 405. 1911; Beille in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 611. 1927; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 277. 1972; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 88. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 322, Plate XVII: 2. 2007.— Bradleia lanceolaria Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3: 697. 1832Glochisandra acuminata Wight, Icon. 5: 28, t. 1905. 1852.— Glochidion macrophyllum Benth., Fl. Hongk.: 315. 1861.— Phyllanthus lanceolarius (Roxb.) Mόll.Arg., Flora 48: 371. 1865.

 

 

Shrubs to trees up to 7 m high, dbh up to 8 cm; flowering twigs 2–4 mm thick; mainly glabrous all over. Wood wine red except for cambial zone. Leaves: stipules triangular, 2.2–2.5 by 1–1.5 mm, late caducous, stiff, very acute; petiole 2–3 mm long; blade elliptic, 3.9–14.8 by 2.1–6.2 cm, length/width ratio 1.4–2.4(–4.7), coriaceous, base slightly asymmetric, attenuate, margin revolute; apex bluntly acuminate, usually mucronate, venation flat to slightly raised above, nerves raised below, nerves 6-c. 10 per side, veins indistinct, reticulate. Inflorescences fascicles, with up to more than 20 staminate flowers or c. 5 fruits. Flowers yellow; sepals 6, free. Staminate flowers 4.5–6 mm in diameter; pedicel 7.2–9.5 mm long; sepals stiff, thickened, ovate to obovate, outer ones 3.2–3.8 by 2–2.3 mm, inner ones 2.6–3.8 by 1.4–2.1 mm; stamens 4(-c. 10), androecium 1.5–1.7 mm long, anthers 0.9–1.2 mm long, yellow, connective teeth 0.3(–0.6) mm long. Pistillate flowers c. 4.5 mm in diameter; pedicel up to 5 mm long in fruit; sepals ovate, outer ones 2.8–3 by 1.9–2.3 mm, inner ones 1.9–3 by 1.3–2 mm; ovary (5–)7-locular, c. 3.5 by 2.4 mm high, densely hairy; stigmas in a non-widening cone, 0.8–1 mm long, teeth hardly distinct. Fruits round, apically and basally flattened, slightly depressed above, 12–21 by 7.5–9 mm, lobed around every locule, hairy, glabrescent, red, sutures indistinct; wall very thin; column c. 5.5 by 1.5 mm, slender, not thickened. Seeds c. 3.7 by 2.8 by 2.7 mm, superposed to next to each other, orange.

    T h a i l a n d.— NORTH-EASTERN: Phetchabun (Nam Nao); EASTERN: Chaiyaphum (Tunkamang); CENTRAL: Saraburi (Sam Lan); SOUTH-EASTERN: Chanthaburi (Makham), Ubon Ratchatani (Dong Phahuan); SOUTH-WESTERN: Kanchanaburi (Soi Yok); PENINSULAR: Narathiwat (Waeng).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— N.W. Himalaya to Assam (type), Thailand, Indochina, and S.E. China.

    E c o l o g y.— Locally common, in evergreen forest with bamboo thickets, in dry Pinus-Lithocarpus-dipterocarp forest, open hardwood scrub, on plain in open space. Altitude: 75–800 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Daeng nam (แดงน้ำ) (Saraburi).

    N o t e.— Chitr 60, one of the few specimens from the South-eastern, is exceptional in having much narrower leaves (length/width ratio 4.7) and 5- or 6-locular fruits instead of 7-locular ones.

 

13. Glochidion littorale Blume, Bijdr.: 585. 1825; Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 308. 1887 Merr., En. Philipp. 2: 399. 1923; Ridl., Fl. Mal. Pen. 3: 207. 1924; Beille in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 610. 1927; Back. & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1: 461. 1963; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 278. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Mal. 2: 101. 1973; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 89. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 323, Fig. 5: G-I. 2007.

 

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Shrubs up to 6 m high; flowering twigs 1.5–2 mm thick; glabrous. Leaves: stipules triangular, 1.3–1.8 by 0.7–2 mm, caducous; petiole 3–4 mm long; blade elliptic to obovate, 2.2–9.2 by 1.9–5 cm, length/width ratio 1.2–1.8, coriaceous, base (rounded to) shortly attenuate, slightly asymmetric, margin flat, apex emarginate to rounded, often drying greenish above, brown underneath; venation slightly raised above, raised below, nerves 7 or 8 per side, sometimes yellow, veins coarsely reticulate. Inflorescences fascicles of up to 5 flowers, two or three of which pistillate. Flowers: sepals 6, basally united, margins usually hyaline. Staminate flowers 4.5–5.5 mm in diameter; pedicel 5.5–6 mm long, light green; calyx light green, tube 0.8–1 mm long, lobes elliptic to obovate, outer 3.6–4.2 by 1.8–1.9 mm, inner 3.2–3.4 by 1.5–1.6, usually folded, apically somewhat hooded; stamens 5 or 6, androecium c. 1.4 mm long, stamens c. 1.1 mm long, connective teeth 0.2–0.3 mm long. Pistillate flowers 3–3.5 mm in diameter; pedicel 2–6.5 mm in fruit; calyx outer lobes triangular to elliptic, 1.3–2.3 by 1.4–2 mm, inner lobes elliptic 1.3–2.7 by 0.6–2.7 mm; ovary 10–14-locular, c. 2.7 by 2.3 mm high, longitudinally ribbed; ovules superposed; stigmas in a cone, c. 2 mm long, 11–14-dentate. Fruits round, apically flattened and depressed in centre, basally sometimes also flattened, 1.4–1.8 by 0.8–1.3 cm high, not lobed, sutures depressed, pinkish-whitish to dark pink; wall woody, up to 1 mm thick; column c. 12 mm long, spindle-shaped. Seeds c. 6 by 4.5 mm (a single ovule developing per locule) to 2.5–3.5 by c. 4.5 mm (both ovules developing), red.

    T h a i l a n d.— SOUTH-EASTERN: Chanthaburi (Klung), Trat (Ban Saphan, Ko Chong); PENINSULAR: Songkhla (Ko Tam Haeng, Ko Yo), Narathiwat (Waeng).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— India, Sri Lanka, S.E. Asia (including Thailand), W. Malesia (Java: type).

    E c o l o g y.— Mainly from littoral, brackish, open sand shores, but also in evergreen or logged over forest. Altitude: sea level up to 5 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Nok non thale (นกนอนทะเล) (Narathiwat); man pu (มันปู) (Peninsular).

 

14. Glochidion oblatum Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 312. 1887; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 278. 1972; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 89. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 324. 2007.

 

Shrubs to small trees, up to 4 m high; flowering twigs 1.5–2 mm thick; brown (sparingly) velutinous all over. Leaves: stipules narrowly triangular, 1–4.2 by 0.3–1 mm, late caducous; petiole 3–4.2 mm long; blade ovately elliptic to elliptic, 3.5–12 by 1.5–4 cm, length/width ratio 2.5–3.6, chartaceous, base asymmetric, cuneate, margin recurved, apex bluntly acute to acuminate and mucronate, upper surface glabrous to hairy, especially on midrib, glabrescent, lower surface glabrous to hairy, venation flat above, raised beneath, nerves 9–12 per side, veins somewhat scalariform. Inflorescences fascicles, up to 5 flowers, mixed staminate and pistillate. Flowers: sepals 6, free. Staminate flowers c. 5 mm in diameter, glabrous; pedicel c. 10 mm long; sepals obovate, outer ones c. 3 by 1.6 mm, inner ones c. 2.9 by 1.3 mm; stamens 6, androecium c. 1.2 mm long, anthers c. 0.7 mm long, connective teeth 0.3–0.4 mm long. Pistillate flowers c. 2.5 mm in diameter, hairy; pedicel 0.6(–5 in fruit) mm long; sepals ovate, outer ones 1.1–2 by 0.5–1.2 mm, inner ones 0.9–1.6 by 0.5–0.7 mm; ovary 4–6-locular, 0.6–1 by 0.6–1 mm high, densely pilose; stigmas in a cone, c. 1 mm long, teeth obscure. Fruits 1.2–1.3 by c. 0.9 cm high, apparently round, not lobed, apically and basally flattened, rather thick-walled, yellow, white hairy; column c. 6 mm long, base thickened. Seeds not seen, red.

    T h a i l a n d.— NORTHERN: Phrae (Mae Krai).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— E. Himalaya (type), Assam, Myanmar, Thailand.

    E c o l o g y.— In mountain thicket or grassland clearing in evergreen forest. Altitude: 500–1300 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Khrai taek (ไคร้แตก) (Northern).

    N o t e.— So far, only one specimen, Larsen, Smitinand & Warncke 2997, represents this species in Thailand. It differs from Indian material mainly in the longer stipules and perhaps the fruits which dehisce more easily. The thicker fruit wall and larger fruits, characters used by Airy Shaw (1972) in his key as typical for this species, were not observed.

 

15. Glochidion obscurum (Roxb. ex Willd.) Blume, Bijdr.: 585. 1825; Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 317. 1887; J.J.Sm., Meded. Dep. Landb. 10: 122. 1911 (see for full synonymy); Ridl., Fl. Mal. Pen. 3: 207. 1924; Beille in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 623. 1927; Henderson, J. Malay Br. Roy. As. Soc. 17: 70. 1939; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1: 461. 1963; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 279. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Mal. 2: 99, 101. 1973; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 90. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 324. 2007Phyllanthus obscurus Roxb. ex Willd., Sp. Pl. 4: 581. 1804; Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 287. 1866.— Glochidion roxburghianum Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 32: 61. 1863.

 

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Shrubs to treelets up to 5 m high, dbh up to 15 cm; flowering twigs up to 3 mm thick, green; mainly densely pilose all over. Outer bark roughened, vertically cracked and flaking, grey to brown. Leaves: stipules triangular, c. 1.2 by 1.5 mm, caducous; petiole 2.5–3.5 mm long; blade elliptic, 2.4–6.4 by 1.6–2.4 cm, length/width ratio 1.4–2.7, subcoriaceous, base strongly oblique, margin flat, apex obtuse to acuminately obtuse (to acute), less hairy on upper surface than underneath, lower surface grey-green; venation very slightly raised above, raised below, nerves 10 or 11 per side, veins reticulate. Inflorescences fascicles of mainly c. 3 flowers, one of which pistillate. Flowers pale yellow; sepals 6, free. Staminate flowers c. 4 mm in diameter; pedicel up to 7.2 mm long, green; sepals light green, stiff, elliptic to obovate, outer ones 2.3–2.5 by 1.1–1.3 mm, inner ones 2–2.3 by 0.6–0.9 mm; stamens 4 or 5, androecium c. 1 mm long, anthers c. 0.6 mm long, light green, connective teeth c. 0.2 mm long. Pistillate flowers 3.5–4 mm in diameter; pedicel 1.1–19 mm in fruit; sepals triangular, light green, outer ones 1.2–1.3 by 0.9–1 mm, inner ones 1–1.6 by 0.4–0.7 mm; ovary 6-locular, 2.2–2.3 by 1.4–2 mm high, light green; stigmas in a long cone, 1.2–2 mm long, apically coarsely toothed. Fruits subglobose, 12–14 by 10–12 mm high, not lobed, sutures slightly raised, dehiscing tardily, yellowish green (unripe?); wall thick, thickening apically up to c. 2 mm; column c. 7 mm long, base thickened, rest of axes seemingly consisting of loose fibres. Seeds c. 5 by 3.8–4 mm, red.

    T h a i l a n d.— SOUTH-WESTERN: Phetchaburi (Kaeng Krachan National Park); PENINSULAR: Ranong (Bang Hin, Ngaw Waterfall); Phuket (Kamala Beach), Satun (Ban Tahng Yahng), Yala (Ban Ramong).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— Indochina, Thailand, and throughout Malesia (Malay Peninsula: type) except for the Philippines.

    E c o l o g y.— Scattered in secondary growths, mainly open thickets (up to light forest), usually along streams, along paths. Altitude: 10–1500 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Khram (ครำ) (Satun); ma rua (มะรัว) (Nakhon Si Thammarat); ruat (รวด) (Phangnga).

 

16. Glochidion perakense Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 317. 1887; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 279. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Mal. 2: 101. 1973; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 90. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 325. 2007?Phyllanthus ferdinandi Mόll.Arg. var. ?supra-axillaris Benth., Fl. Austral. 6: 96. 1873.— Glochidion zeylanicum (Gaertn.) A.Juss. var. malayanum J.J.Sm., Meded. Dep. Landb. 10: 118. 1911.— Glochidion glaberrinum Ridl., Bull. Misc. Inf. Kew: 363. 1923, nom. illig., later homonym.— ?Glochidion lanceilimbum Merr.; Philipp. J. Sci., Bot. 26: 462. 1925.— ?Glochidion supra-axillare (Benth.) Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 22: 872. 1927.

 

Shrubs up to 5 m high; flowering twigs c. 1.5 mm thick; mainly glabrous. Leaves: stipules triangular, c. 2.2 by 1.6 mm, acute, stiff, late caducous; petiole 5–5.5 mm long, red; blade ovate, falcate, 4.1–15 by 2.1–4.3 cm, length/width ratio 2–3.6, subcoriaceous, base asymmetric, attenuate, margin flat, apex gradually obtusely acuminate, not mucronate, upper surface glossy green, glabrous, lower surface (sub)glabrous, venation flat above, slightly raised underneath, indistinct, nerves 11 or 12 per side, veins reticulate to somewhat scalariform. Inflorescences fascicles, only pistillate flowers seen, 3–8 together, one inflorescence with a single old staminate flower also. Flowers green to yellow; sepals 6, free. Staminate flower one seen, c. 3.5 mm in diameter, pedicel c. 5.5 mm long; sepals elliptic, spreading, outer ones c. 3.2 by 1.1 mm, inner ones too damaged to measure; stamens 5, androecium c. 1.2 mm long, anthers c. 0.8 mm long, connective teeth c. 0.2 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1.5–2.5 mm in diameter; pedicel 2.5–4 mm in fruit; sepals triangular, outer ones 1–1.6 by 0.8–1.1 mm, inner ones 0.8–1.7 by 0.3–1 mm; ovary 5- or 6-locular, 1.2–2.5 by 1.2–2 mm high, densely pilose; stigmas in a 1.5–3.5 mm long cone, pilose except for the upper glabrous 0.6–0.9 mm long free teeth. Fruits not lobed to lobed around locules, circular, flattened, 5–9 by 3.5–5 mm high, sutures indistinct, always hairy, glabrescent, perhaps not dehiscent, seemingly falling off as a whole; wall rather thick, c. 0.8 mm; column not seen. Seeds not seen.

    T h a i l a n d.— PENINSULAR: Phuket (Ban Bo Han, Ko Yao Yai), Satun (Thalae Ban), Narathiwat (Bala-Hala, Pa Wai).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— From Peninsular Thailand throughout Malesia (Malay Peninsula: type) to the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomon Islands.

    E c o l o g y.— Common in scrub, also in thickets in open areas in evergreen forest. Altitude: sea level up to 50 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Chumset (ชุมเส็ด), phung mu (พุงหมู) (Chumphon); man pu (มันปู), man pu yai (มันปูใหญ่) (Nakhon Si Thamarat); somset (สมเส็ด) (Narathiwat).

 

17. Glochidion rubrum Blume, Bijdr.: 586. 1825; J.J.Sm., Meded. Dep. Landb. 10: 149. 1911 (see for full synonymy); Beille in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 621. 1927; Back. & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1: 464. 1963; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 279. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Mal. 2: 101. 1973; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 90. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 326, Fig. 5: A-F, Plate XVII: 3. 2007Phyllanthus diversifolius Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind., Eerste bijv.: 448. 1861.— Phyllanthus penangensis Mόll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 310. 1866.— Glochidion leiostylum Kurz, Fl. Burm. 2: 345. 1877.— Glochidion coronatum Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 326. 1887.— Glochidion diversifolium (Miq.) Merr., Philipp. Bur. For. Bull. 1: 29. 1903.— Glochidion rubrum Blume f. longistylis J.J.Sm., Meded. Dep. Landb. 10: 152. 1911.— Glochidion thorelii Beille in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 622. 1927.— Glochidion penangense (Mόll.Arg.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23: 6. 1969.

 

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Shrubs to treelets up to 5(–15) m high, dbh up to 6 cm; flowering twigs 1–2 mm thick; glabrous to hirsute all over. Leaves red when young; stipules deltoid, 3–4 by 0.8–2.2 mm, acuminate, very stiff, late caducous; petiole 1.5–3 mm long; blade (ovate to) elliptic, 2.4–9.6(–13.7) by 1–3.8(–4.8) cm, length/width ratio 1.4–2.8, chartaceous, base symmetric to asymmetric, attenuate to cuneate, margin flat, apex bluntly acuminate to sharply cuspidate, mucronate or not, upper surface (sub)glabrous, (dark) green, lower surface glabrous to hirsute, pale light green, venation flat above, slightly raised underneath, indistinct, nerves 8–10 per side, veins scalariformly reticulate. Inflorescences fascicles with a few staminate and/or pistillate flowers, usually less than 5 (to up to c. 10), staminate flowers occasionally in short (< 1 cm) racemes. Flowers greenish to (yellowish) whitish; sepals 6, free. Staminate flowers 3.5–4.2 mm in diameter, pedicel 3.5–12 mm long, glabrous to hirsute; sepals elliptic to obovate, outer ones 2.1–2.5 by 0.9–1.2 mm, inner ones 2.1–2.2 by 0.8–1 mm; stamens 3, androecium 0.8–1.3 mm long, anthers 0.6–0.9 mm long, light yellow to grey, connective teeth 0.2–0.3 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1.5–1.7(–3) mm in diameter; pedicel absent to up to 4 mm in fruit; sepals triangular (to elliptic), outer ones 0.8–1.6 by 0.4–0.9 mm, inner ones 1–1.7 by 0.3–0.8 mm; ovary 3(–5)-locular, 0.9–1.5 by 0.5–1 mm high; stigmas 2.2–2.6 mm long, united except for upper third, free parts acute, sometimes constriction beneath stigmas. Fruits lobed around seeds (to around locules), circular, flattened, (slightly) depressed above in centre, 7.5–9 by 4–5 mm high, red, sutures indistinct, always hairy, glabrescent; wall thin; column 2.5–3 by 1.5–2 mm, only narrow basal triangle left. Seeds 3.8–4 by 3.3–3.8 by c. 2.5 mm, orange to red.

    T h a i l a n d.— NORTHERN: Mae Hong Son, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Tak; EASTERN: Nakhon Ratchasima, Si Sa Ket, Ubon Ratchathani; SOUTH-EASTERN: Trat; SOUTH-WESTERN: Kanchanaburi; PENINSULAR: Ranong, Surat Thani, Phangnga, Krabi, Phuket, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phatthalung, Trang, Songkhla, Satun, Narathiwat.

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina, throughout Malesia (Java: type) up to the Moluccas and Lesser Sunda Islands.

    E c o l o g y.— Rare to locally common in evergreen forest, secondary forest, deciduous forest, open Melaleuca forest, open thickets; along roads, streams, forest edges, peat swamp edges, ridges; soil: may be silty, rocky, clay shale, sandy podsolic, limestone. Altitude: sea level up to 500(–2175) m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Tana (ตานา) (Nong khai); kradum phi (กระดุมผี) (Rayong); ma ruat (มะรวด) (Surat Thani); khatna (ขัดนะ) (Trang); nok non (นกนอน) (Narathiwat); kue-nong (กือนอง) (Malay-Peninsular).

    N o t e.— The former G. leiostylum has a somewhat different appearance, because it mainly flowers along the leafless parts of axes (leaves fallen off), but there is no other distinguishing character.

 

18. Glochidion santisukii Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 35: 385. 1980; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 91. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 328. 2007Glochidion cataractarum Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 32: 76. 1977, non Mόll.Arg. 1863.

 

Trees up to 12 m high; flowering twigs c. 1.5 mm thick; mainly glabrous all over. Leaves: stipules triangular, somewhat falcate, c. 1.7 by 1 mm, late caducous; petiole 2.2–3 mm long; blade elliptic, 3.5–7.7 by 2.1–2.8 cm, length/width ratio 1.7–2.8, papery, base very asymmetric, cuneate, margin flat; apex shortly acuminate, not mucronate, asymmetric, basiscopic side broader, upper surface darker brown than lower surface when dry, venation flat above, slightly raised below, nerves 9 or 10 per side, veins reticulate. Inflorescences axillary fascicles with a tendency to be on a pedicel, sexes separate, up to 3 flowers together. Flowers pale green; sepals 6, free. Staminate flowers in bud, c. 2.2 mm in diameter; pedicel c. 3 mm long; sepals obovate, outer ones c. 2 by 1 mm, inner ones c. 1.4 by 0.8 mm; stamens 4, androecium c. 1.2 mm long, anthers c. 0.9 mm long, connective teeth c. 0.2 mm long. Pistillate flowers still very young, c. 3 mm in diameter; pedicel c. 0.6 mm long; sepals elliptic, outer ones 1.2–1.3 by c. 0.8 mm, inner ones 0.9–1.1 by 0.6–0.8 mm; ovary 5-locular, c. 1 by 0.7 mm high; stigmas in a long, very widening cone, c. 1.6 mm long, teeth free, c. 0.6 mm long. Fruits and seeds not seen.

    T h a i l a n d.— PENINSULAR: Nakhon Si Thammarat (Khao Luang).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— Endemic to Peninsular Thailand (type: Khao Luang, Nakhon Si Thammarat, GEESINK & SANTISUK 5464, holo in AAU, iso in BKF, L).

    E c o l o g y.— Disturbed evergreen forest along waterfalls. Altitude: 400–500 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Khrai yai (ไคร้ใหญ่) (Peninsular).

 

19. Glochidion sericeum (Blume) Zoll. & Moritzi, Nat. Geneesk. Arch. Neerl. Indiλ 2: 585. 1845; Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 326. 1887; Ridl., Fl. Mal. Pen. 3: 215. 1924; Back. & Bakh.f., Tree Fl. Java 2: 462. 1963; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Mal. 2: 101. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 32: 77. 1977; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 91. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 328. 2007Glochidionopsis sericea Blume, Bijdr.: 588. 1825.

 

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Shrubs to treelets up to 5 m high; flowering twigs c. 2 mm thick; mainly sericeous all over. Leaves: stipules triangular to ovate, 1–1.9 by c. 1 mm, late caducous; petiole 2.5–3 mm long; blade ovately elliptic, 1.2–9 by 0.8–3.4 cm, length/width ratio 1.5–2.5, papery, base often somewhat oblique, very slightly emarginate to truncate, margin, flat, apex bluntly acute to bluntly acuminate, upper surface subsericeous, lower surface sericeous, venation flat above, raised underneath, nerves c. 10 per side, veins scalariformly reticulate. Inflorescences fascicles with a few staminate and pistillate flowers (up to c. 5). Flowers whitish. Staminate flowers 3.3–3.5 mm in diameter, pedicel 3–3.5(–5.5) mm long, hairy; sepals 6, free, elliptic, outer ones 1.9–2 by c. 0.8 mm, inner ones 1.5–1.8 by c. 0.7 mm; stamens 3, androecium c. 0.7 mm long, c. 0.5 mm long, connective teeth 0.1–0.2 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1.2–5 mm in diameter; pedicel absent when young to up to 7 mm in fruit; sepals 2, ovate, smaller one 1.8–2.4 by 1.2–1.6 mm, larger one 2.1–2.6 by 1.6–1.9 mm; ovary 3-locular, 1–3 by 0.4–2 mm high; stigmas free except sometimes for small basal part, 2–2.5 mm long, very slender, line-like, apically very shortly split. Fruits round, flattened, depressed above in centre, somewhat lobed around locules, sutures indistinct, green with white velvety hairs, valves opening basally; wall very thin; column 1.2–2.3 by 1–2 mm, only basal triangle left. Seeds c. 3 by 3 by 2 mm, bright red.

    T h a i l a n d.— PENINSULAR: Ranong (Kam Phuan), Nakhon Si Thammarat (Yong Waterfall), Yala (Ayer Kuwing); Narathiwat (Nikom Waeng).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— Peninsular Thailand, Sumatra, W. Java (type), Borneo, Philippines (Palawan).

    E c o l o g y.— scattered by trail in evergreen forest. evergreen forest, Tropical rain forest on granitic rock. 50–200 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Khrai tai (ไคร้ใต้) (Peninsular).

 

20. Glochidion sphaerogynum (Mόll.Arg.) Kurz, Fl. Burm. 2: 346. 1877; Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 317. 1887; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 280. 1972; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 91. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 329. 2007Phyllanthus sphaerogynus Mόll.Arg., Flora 48: 375. 1865.

 

Shrubs to tree up to 15 m high, dbh up to 20 cm; flowering twigs 1.5–4 mm thick; mainly glabrous. Outer bark longitudinally grooved to vertically flaking in thick strips, brown (to grey to black); inner bark pink to purplish red, c. 2 cm thick. Leaves wine red with light green nerves when young; stipules deltoid, 1.2–1.7 by 1.2–1.3 mm, very stiff and thick, caducous; petiole 5–8 mm long; blade ovate, often falcate, 5.3–17 by 1.8–4.7 cm, length/width ratio 2.4–3.9, chartaceous to coriaceous, base asymmetric, attenuate, margin flat to slightly revolute, apex long, gradually acute, often mucronate, upper surface (dark) green, lower surface usually with indistinct wax granules, (light) green, venation flat to slightly raised above, slightly raised underneath, indistinct, nerves 9–11 per side, veins scalariformly reticulate. Inflorescences fascicles with many staminate or pistillate flowers, up to 17 per node, pistillate flowers occasionally with a few staminate ones. Flowers yellowish; sepals 6, glabrous, thick, stiff. Staminate flowers c. 3.2 mm in diameter, pedicel 6–13.5 mm long, light greenish-orangish; sepals obovate, apex rounded, outer ones even clawed, remaining more or less closed, orangish, outer ones 1.7–2.2 by 1.6–2.2 mm; inner ones c. 1.8 by 1.1–1.8 mm; stamens 3, androecium 1–1.1 mm long, anthers c.0.8 mm long, cream, connective teeth c. 0.2 mm long. Pistillate flowers 2–3.4 mm in diameter; pedicel 1.2–3 mm in fruit, green to tan-green; sepals ovate, margin lighter in colour, membranous, outer ones 0.5–1.7 by 0.8–1.2 mm; inner ones 0.7–1.5 by 0.5–1.2 mm; ovary 5-locular, very flat and round, c. 2.7 by 1 mm; stigmas forming flat, 1 mm broad circle, each stigma triangular in surface view, flat and in middle depressed. Fruits lobed around seeds, circular in transverse section, flattened, depressed above in centre with a very broad and flat persistent stigma, 9.5–10 by 3.5–4.2 mm high, red, sutures indistinct, always glabrous; wall thin; column 2.2–2.5 by 1.8–2.2 mm, only basal triangle left. Seeds 4–4.2 by 3.2–3.5 by 2.1–2.5 mm, orange to red.

    T h a i l a n d.— NORTHERN: Chiang Mai (Ban Kong Hae, Bo Luang, Doi Chiang Dao, Doi Inthanon, Doi Suthep, Hot, Huai Bohng, Mae Taeng, Mae Kang, Mon Nang Ket), Chiang Rai (Doi Tung, Khun Chae), Lampang (Chae Son), Phrae, Uttaradit; NORTH-EASTERN: Loei (Phu Kradueng); EASTERN: Chaiyaphum (Phu Khiao), Nakhon Ratchasima (Khao Yai).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— E. Himalaya, Assam (type), Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina.

    E c o l o g y.— Common to scattered in deciduous (dipterocarp-oak) forest, evergreen forest, secondary forest, old clearings, on steep ridges, and along the road; soil: granite bedrock. Altitude: 500–1200 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.—  Man pla (มันปลา) (Chiang Mai).

    U s e s.— Bark and wood used medicinally: dried, chopped into pieces, heated, applied as skin paints over affected spots; also dried and crushed and used in decoctions.

 

21. Glochidion superbum Baill., Ιtude Euphorb.: 638. 1848; Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 32: 64. 1863; Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 323. 1887; Ridl., Fl. Mal. Pen. 3: 208. 1924; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1: 462. 1963; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 280 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Mal. 2: 99, 100. 1973; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 92. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 330. 2007Phyllanthus superbus (Baill.) Mόll.Arg., Flora 48: 375. 1865.

 

Treelets up to 8 m high, dbh up to 15 cm; flowering twigs up to 5 mm thick; mainly densely pilose all over. Leaves: stipules linear, 6–10 by c. 0.3 mm, caducous; petiole 2.5–7 mm long; blade ovate, 9–26.2 by 5–9.8 cm, length/width ratio 1.8–2.2, coriaceous, base strongly oblique (to almost symmetric), cordate, margin recurved, apex acuminate, less hairy on upper surface than underneath, upper surface dull dark green, lower surface pale light green; venation depressed above, raised below, nerves 13–15 per side, veins reticulate. Inflorescences supra-axillary, fascicles on an up to 7 mm long peduncle, latter often inconspicuous, more than 10 pistillate flowers, latter flowering before staminate flowers. Flowers whitish yellow, sepals 6, fee. Staminate flowers 3.8–5.3 mm in diameter; pedicel 15.5–20.5 mm long, subglabrous, light yellowish; sepals stiff, ovate, keeled and thickened in middle, outer ones 2.7–4.3 by 1–1.6 mm, inner ones 2.3–3.7 by 0.8–1.1; stamens 3, androecium 1.2–1.8 mm long, anthers 0.8–1.1 mm long, connective teeth 0.2–0.5 mm long. Pistillate flowers not seen in young stage; pedicel 5–12 mm long in fruit, light yellowish; sepals triangular, plicate and thickened in middle, light yellowish, outer ones 2–3.1 by 0.7–1.2 mm, inner ones 1.7–2.2 by 0.5–0.8 mm; ovary 3-locular; stigmas in a cone, 0.7–1.1 mm long, apically coarsely 3-toothed. Fruits ± globose, apically somewhat flattened, 6–7.5 by 5–5.5 mm, not lobed, sutures indistinct, white or green turning red to purple; wall very thin; column 2.9–3.2 mm long, slender. Seeds 3–4.5 by 2.8–3 mm, orange.

    T h a i l a n d.— PENINSULAR: Ranong (Khao Phota Luang Kaei, Klong Na Ka, Muang Len, Ngao Waterfall), Phangnga (Takua Pa), Songkhla (Ko Hong).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— Peninsular Thailand, Malay Peninsula (type), Sumatra, Bangka, W. Java, Borneo.

    E c o l o g y.— In primary (mixed lowland), secondary, evergreen, and swampy forest on flat to hilly terrain, in (old) clearings, among bamboo, along streams, paths, and edges of forest, in rubber estates, secondary scrub and logged forest; soil: yellow sandy loam, sandy clay, sand, red clay, granitic sand; bedrock tertiary sandstone, shale. Altitude: 10–1000 m. Flowering and fruiting whole year through.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Mok man (มอกมัน) (Peninsular).

 

22. Glochidion wallichianum Mόll.Arg., Linnaea 32: 67. 1863; Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 315. 1887; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 280. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Mal. 2: 99, 101. 1973; Welzen in Welzen et al., Thai For. Bull. (Bot.) 28: 92. 2000; Welzen in Welzen & Chayam., Fl. Thailand 8, 2: 330. 2007Phyllanthus wallichianus (Mόll.Arg.) Mόll.Arg., Flora 48: 387. 1865.— Glochidion desmocarpum Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 318. 1887) 318.— Glochidion curtisii Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 327. 1887.

 

Trees up to 15 m high, dbh up to 30 cm; flowering twigs 1.5–2 mm thick; most parts hirsute. Leaves: stipules deltoid, c. 1.2 by 1.2 mm, rounded, very stiff, caducous; petiole 3–4 mm long; blade ovate to elliptic, often somewhat falcate, 4.2–16 by 2.3–5 cm, length/width ratio 1.8–3.2, papery, base (slightly) asymmetric, cuneate, margin flat, apex acute to (obtusely) acuminate, upper surface glabrous (except basal part midrib subglabrous), dark green, lower surface glabrous (to subglabrous), light green, venation flat above, slightly raised underneath, indistinct, nerves 10 or 11 per side, veins scalariform. Inflorescences fascicles with either up to 7 staminate flowers (and a few pistillate ones) or up to 15 pistillate flowers. Flowers greenish to white; sepals 6, free. Staminate flowers 3.3–3.6 mm in diameter, pedicel c. 2.3 mm long, hirsute; sepals elliptic to obovate, outer ones 1.7–2.4 by c. 0.8 mm, inner ones 1.4–2.2 by c. 0.7 mm, apically somewhat hooded; stamens 3, androecium 1–1.2 mm long, anthers 0.7–0.8 mm long, connective teeth 0.2–0.3 mm long. Pistillate flowers c. 2.2 mm in diameter; pedicel 0.4 to up to 4 mm in fruit; sepals ovate, outer ones 1–1.1 by 0.4–0.7 mm, inner ones 0.7–0.9 by 0.3–0.5 mm; ovary 3-locular, c. 0.8 by 0.6 mm high; stigmas 1–1.4 mm long, clavate, united except for upper fourth, free parts blunt. Fruits lobed around seeds, circular, flattened, depressed above in centre, c. 5 by 2.5 mm high, red, sutures indistinct, always hairy, glabrescent; wall thin; column c. 0.8 by 1 mm, only basal triangle left. Seeds 2.2–2.4 by 2–2.2 by 1.8–2 mm.

    T h a i l a n d.— PENINSULAR: Phangnga (Nai Chong), Nakhon Si Thammarat (Khao Kao, Yong Waterfall), Trang (Khao Chong), Songkhla (Ton Nga Chang), Narathiwat (Waeng).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— Thailand, Malay Peninsula (type), Sumatra, Bangka, Borneo.

    E c o l o g y.— Scattered to locally common in sunny to shaded places in disturbed and primary evergreen forest, along trails and streams; soil: limestone. Altitude: 75–450 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r.— Man pu (มันปู) (Trang); man pu bai lek (มันปูใบเล็ก), prue ngong (ปรืององ) (Peninsular).

    N o t e.— Maxwell 84-536 is somewhat exceptional in having very short stigmas.