Key to the Species of West Malesia based on Pistillate Material

 

Species in parentheses and italics key out in this place only as an exception. Species in red are present only in the key, not in the descriptions of the Malesian species (see website on Thai Euphorbiaceae)

 

SUM = Sumatra, MLY = Malay Peninsula, BOR = Borneo, JAW = Java, PHI = Philippines, SUL = Sulawesi, LSI = Lesser Sunda Islands, MOL = Moluccas, NWG = New Guinea, THA = Thailand.

 

1a.

Leaf apex rounded or retuse, more rarely obtuse

2

1b.

Leaf apex acute, acuminate or caudate

4

2a.

Leaves base cordate to rounded, very rarely acute. Sepals free, pubescent outside. SUM, MLY, BOR, JAW, PHI, SUL, LSI, MOL, NWG, THA

21. Antidesma ghaesembilla

2b.

Leaf base acute or obtuse, mostly cuneate. Sepals fused or free, glabrous outside

3

3a.

Sepals fused for 2/3 of their length. Leaves obovate to elliptic-oblong, (2)510(18) by (1)2.54(8) cm. Leaves: petioles 12 mm wide. Fruiting pedicels 1.53 mm long. JAW, THA

1. Antidesma acidum

3b.

Sepals free or nearly so. Leaves spathulate, (1.5)25(7) by (0.7)12.5(3.5) cm. Leaves: petioles less than 1 mm wide; fruiting pedicels 0.21 mm long. MOL, NWG

47. Antidesma spatulifolium

4a.

Midvein in dry material sharply raised adaxially (Fig. 2E), distinctly perceptible to the touch. Inflorescences simple

5

4b.

Midvein in dry material impressed to slightly raised adaxially (Fig. 2CD), not distinctly perceptible to the touch. Inflorescences simple or branched

7

5a.

Leaves 67.5 cm long. Ovaries glabrous. Fruits 56(8) by 45(6) mm. Infructescences 48cm long. THA

Antidesma japonicum var. robustius

5b.

Leaves 1345 cm long. Ovaries pubescent. Fruits 816 by 59 mm. Infructescences 750 cm long

6

6a.

Young twigs, Leaves: petioles and leaves hairy, glabrescent. Stipules usually foliaceous, more than 2 mm wide. Leaves 1545 by 518 cm. Sepals fused to halfway; disc glabrous to pilose at the margin. Inflorescences 1520 cm long, infructescences 2550 cm long. Fruits glabrous or with stellate hairs, 1216 mm long, style subterminal. MLY

38. Antidesma pachystachys

6b.

Young twigs, Leaves: petioles and leaves glabrous. Stipules linear, up to 1.5 mm wide, caducous. Leaves 1327 by 3.58 cm. Sepals fused only at the base; disc glabrous. Inflorescences c. 3 cm, infructescences up to 15 cm long. Fruits pilose, with simple hairs, 811 mm long, style terminal. MLY,THA

27. Antidesma laurifolium

7a.

Inflorescences at least partly cauline

8

7b.

Inflorescences axillary (sometimes aggregated at the end of the branch)

15

8a.

Petioles (at least of some leaves) more than 10 mm long, no wider than 2 mm in the middle, basally and distally usually slightly pulvinate and sometimes geniculate

9

8b.

Petioles shorter than 10 mm (if longer, then more than 2 mm wide), basally and distally not pulvinate or geniculate

10

9a.

Disc hairy. All leaf veins, including the very fine veinlets, in dry material clearly visible abaxially. Leaves drying yellowish brown to yellowish green. Pubescence of inflorescence whitish. Inflorescences simple, fascicled. SUM, MLY, BOR, PHI, THA

44. Antidesma puncticulatum

9b.

Disc glabrous (sometimes with hairs originating from the base of the disc). Only the coarse leaf veins in dry material visible abaxially. Leaves drying grey to reddish brown. Pubescence of inflorescence ferrugineous. Inflorescences simple or branched. SUM, MLY, BOR

11. Antidesma coriaceum

10a.

Tertiary veins close together, more than 10 between every two secondary veins (Fig. 2Aa). Infructescences 825(69) cm long, up to 13 per fascicle. Leaves: petioles 1.54 mm wide. Leaves (7)1325(50) by (2.5)48(15) cm. Stipules 820 by 14 mm

11

10b.

Tertiary veins widely spaced, less than 9 between every two secondary veins (Fig. 2Ab). Infructescences 415 cm long, up to 7 per fascicle. Leaves: petioles up to 2 mm wide. Leaves (5)814(19) by (2)35(9.5) cm. Stipules 210 by 0.51.5 mm

12

11a.

Fruits 48(10) mm long, lenticular to ellipsoid, rarely ovate and beaked, usually laterally compressed, areolate. Stigmas 46. Ovaries hairy to nearly glabrous. Infructescences 1025(69) cm long, flexible. Indumentum of leaves sparse abaxially, indumentum of inflorescence axes and calyx moderately dense. SUM, MLY, BOR, PHI, THA

29. Antidesma leucopodum

11b.

Fruits 1014 mm long, elongate-ellipsoid, more or less tetragonal, not or hardly compressed, reticulate. Stigmas 616. Ovaries densely hairy. Infructescences 813 cm long, robust. Indumentum of leaves usually dense abaxially, indumentum of inflorescence axes and calyx extremely dense. BOR

43. Antidesma polystylum

12a.

Abaxial leaf surfaces hairy all over

13

12b.

Abaxial leaf surfaces glabrous

14

13a.

Indumentum ferrugineous. Fruits 45 by c. 3 mm. Style terminal, usually wide. Inflorescences 24 cm long, infructescences 38 cm long; disc glabrous (sometimes with hairs originating from the base of the disc). MLY, THA

54. Antidesma velutinum

13b.

Indumentum whitish to ochraceous. Fruits 68 by 46 mm. Style lateral or subterminal, very distinct, thin. Inflorescences (4)78 cm long, infructescences 823 cm long; disc glabrous, or glabrous only at the sides, hairy on top. LSI, MOL, SUL

17. Antidesma elbertii

14a.

Fruits 68 by 46 mm, style subterminal to lateral, rarely terminal. Sepals free or nearly so; disc hairy all over. Stigmas (2)34, long (up to 1.5 mm) and conspicuous. SUM, MLY, THA

22. A helferi

14b.

Fruits 710 by 57 mm, style terminal to slightly subterminal. Sepals fused for 2/33/4 of their length; disc glabrous (sometimes with hairs originating from the base of the disc). Stigmas 58(10), not conspicuously long. PHI

30. Antidesma macgregorii

15a.

Stipules foliaceous, more than 4 mm wide

16

15b.

Stipules not foliaceous, up to 4 mm wide

24

16a.

Leaves: petioles (at least of some leaves) more than 10 mm long, no more than 2 mm wide in the middle, basally and apically slightly pulvinate and geniculate

17

16b.

Leaves: petioles up to 10 mm long (if longer, more than 2 mm wide), not pulvinate or geniculate

18

17a.

Stipules spathulate, cordate or kidney-shaped, apex rounded to acute, base symmetrical. Leaves (6)1014(22) cm long, up to 3 times as long as wide, chartaceous to membranaceous; bracts c. 0.5 mm long. Sepals fused for 2/3 of their length. Inflorescences usually consisting of 58 branches, rarely simple. SUM, JAW, LSI

50. Antidesma tetrandrum

17b.

Stipules ovate, apex caudate, base asymmetrical. Leaves 1321 cm long, 34 times as long as wide, subcoriaceous to chartaceous; bracts 0.71 mm long. Sepals fused only at the base. Inflorescences simple or once-branched. MLY

26. Antidesma kunstleri

18a.

Indumentum, especially of young parts and inflorescences, ferrugineous. Leaves drying reddish brown

19

18b.

Indumentum whitish or absent. Leaves drying olive-green to reddish brown

22

19a.

Sepals fused for 2/33/4 of their length; disc ferrugineous-pubescent. Fruits terete or hardly compressed. Mostly rheophytic. BOR, PHI (Palawan), SUL

46a. Antidesma riparium subsp. riparium

19b.

Sepals free or nearly so; disc glabrous to ferrugineous-pubescent. Fruits laterally or dorsiventrally compressed, or terete

20

20a.

Stipules subulate to falcate, rarely elliptic with an asymmetrical base, strongly parallel-veined, coriaceous, no wider than 10 mm, at least twice as long as wide. Leaves: petioles 25 mm wide. Leaves (8)1530(60) cm long. Tertiary veins percurrent, close together (Fig. 2Aa). Inflorescences 330 cm long; flowers set densely, touching each other. Infructescences 765 cm long. Ovaries ovoid to falcate, densely appressed-pubescent; disc glabrous or hairy. Fruits laterally compressed. SUM, MLY, BOR, JAW, PHI, SUL, LSI, MOL

51. Antidesma tomentosum

20b.

Stipules cordate to elliptic, base more or less symmetrical, reticulately veined, chartaceous, up to 18 mm wide, hardly longer to several times as long as wide. Leaves: petioles c. 1 mm wide. Leaves (5)614(20) cm long. Tertiary veins weakly percurrent (Fig. 2Ab) to reticulate (Fig. 2Ac). Inflorescences 1.56 cm long, lax; flowers widely spaced, not touching each other. Infructescences 416 cm long. Ovaries globose, glabrous, rarely pilose; disc glabrous. Fruits laterally or dorsiventrally compressed

21

21a.

Leaves more than 2 cm wide, less than 5 times as long as wide. SUM, MLY,BOR, THA

36a. Antidesma neurocarpum var. neurocarpum

21b.

Leaves less than 2 cm wide, more than 5 times as long as wide. Rheophyte. BOR

36c. Antidesma neurocarpum var. linearifolium

22a.

Fruits terete, (3)46(8) mm long. Stipules, Leaves: petioles and abaxial leaf surfaces usually hairy. Sepals often glandular-fimbriate. Inflorescences simple to consisting of up to 13 branches. THA

Antidesma montanum var. wallichii

22b.

Fruits laterally compressed, 618 mm long. Stipules, Leaves: petioles and abaxial leaf surfaces usually glabrous. Sepals never glandular-fimbriate. Inflorescences simple or consisting of up to 3 branches

23

23a.

Fruits 68 by 46 mm. Inflorescences 410 cm long, infructescences 415 cm long; fruiting pedicels 0.52.5 mm long. Leaves drying greyish green to reddish brown, (5)914(19) cm long, 1.94.3 times as long as wide. Young twigs light grey. Stipules up to 5 mm wide. Disc and ovaries always hairy. SUM, MLY, THA

22. Antidesma helferi

23b.

Fruits 818 by 611 mm. Inflorescences 1030 cm long, infructescences 1050 cm long; fruiting pedicels 114 mm long. Leaves drying olive-green, (9)2030(40) cm long, 3.29.2 times as long as wide. Young twigs brown. Stipules up to 30 mm wide; disc and ovaries usually glabrous. SUM, MLY, BOR, JAW, PHI, SUL, LSI, MOL

49. Antidesma stipulare

24a.

Bracts more than 1.5 mm long, conspicuous even in very young inflorescences, less so in old infructescences. Leaves abaxially hairy

25

24b.

Bracts up to 1.5 mm long. Leaves abaxially hairy or glabrous

27

25a.

Indumentum, especially of young parts, densely hirsute, whitish to ochraceous, never ferrugineous. Leaves drying olive-green. Fruits lenticular, obliquely ellipsoid or bean-shaped, 47 by 46 mm, with a distinctly asymmetrical base and lateral styles, laterally compressed. Sepals 58. Infructescences 615 cm long. Most leaves 1218 by 46 cm, tertiary veins percurrent, close together (Fig. 2Aa); disc glabrous. SUM, MLY, BOR (Anambas & Natuna Isl.), JAW, THA

53. Antidesma velutinosum

25b.

Indumentum, especially of young parts, ferrugineous. Leaves drying reddish brown. Fruits ellipsoid or obliquely ovate (mango-shaped) (7)910(20) by 59 mm, with a symmetrical or asymmetrical base and terminal to lateral styles, not, laterally or dorsiventrally compressed. Sepals 46. Infructescences 1065 cm long. Most leaves 1530 by 512 cm, tertiary veins reticulate (Fig. 2Ac) to percurrent (Fig. 2Aa), close together or widely spaced; disc hairy or glabrous

26

26a.

Indumentum of all parts rather long and shaggy; sometimes, especially on fruits, with some stellate hairs. Fruits ellipsoid, not or laterally or dorsiventrally compressed. Tertiary veins reticulate (Fig. 2Ac) to weakly percurrent (Fig. 2Ab), widely spaced; disc hairy at the margin. Usually above 1000 m altitude. MLY

39. Antidesma pahangense

26b.

Indumentum of all parts rather short and velvety; without stellate hairs. Fruits obliquely ovate (mango-shaped), always laterally compressed. Tertiary veins percurrent, close together (Fig. 2Aa); disc hairy or glabrous. Indifferent to altitude. SUM, MLY, BOR, JAW, PHI, SUL, LSI, MOL

(52. Antidesma tomentosum)

27a.

Leaves: petioles (at least of some leaves) more than 10 mm long, no wider than 3 mm in the middle, basally and apically usually slightly pulvinate and sometimes geniculate

28

27b.

Leaves: petioles up to 10 mm long (if longer, more than 3 mm wide, and leaf blades more than 25 cm long, basally and distally never pulvinate or geniculate)

47

28a.

Abaxial leaf surfaces hairy all over

29

28b.

Abaxial leaf surfaces glabrous, or hairy along the major veins only

33

29a.

Disc glabrous (sometimes with hairs originating from the base of the disc). Fruits less than 3 mm or more than 7 mm long, glabrous

30

29b.

Disc hairy all over or at least at the margin. Fruits 36 mm long, pilose or glabrous

31

30a.

Fruits 1.52.5 mm long, style distinctly lateral. Inflorescences branched. Leaf indumentum abaxially not distinctly velvety to the touch. Leaves: petioles 513 by 0.81 mm. Most leaves 1013 by 3.55 cm. BOR

55. Antidesma venenosum

30b.

Fruits 810 mm long, style terminal or subterminal. Inflorescences simple. Leaf indumentum abaxially distinctly velvety to the touch. Leaves: petioles 1235 by 1.22 mm. Most leaves 1621 by 68 cm. MLY

12. Antidesma cruciforme

31a.

Fruits with lateral style and asymmetrical base, bean-shaped to obliquely lenticular. Leaves: petioles 1.53 mm wide. Stipules 12 mm wide. Leaves (8)1317(23) by (3)58(12) cm. PHI

16a. Antidesma edule var. edule

31b.

Fruits with terminal style and symmetrical base, lenticular or ellipsoid. Leaves: petioles 0.51.5 mm wide. Stipules 0.51 mm wide. Leaves (2)411(16) by (2)3 5(9) cm

32

32a.

Sepals fused to halfway. Ovaries (and to a lesser extent also the fruit) elongate-ellipsoid. Inflorescences simple. Leaves (1.3)1.82.4(4) times as long as wide. PHI, LSI

49. Antidesma subcordatum

32b.

Sepals free. Ovaries ovoid to globose, fruits lenticular, more rarely ellipsoid. Inflorescences consisting of 320 branches. Leaves (1)1.31.7(2.25) times as long as wide. SUM, MLY, BOR, JAW, PHI, SUL, LSI, MOL, NWG, THA

(21. Antidesma ghaesembilla)

33a.

Fruits with a distinctly lateral style (Fig. 3L); fruiting pedicels 0.55 mm long

34

33b.

Fruits with a terminal (Fig. 3G) to subterminal (Fig. 3J) style; fruiting pedicels 02mm long

42

34a.

Fruits 1.52.5 by 12 mm. BOR

55. Antidesma venenosum

34b.

Fruits 315 by 212 mm

35

35a.

Sepals free. SUM, MLY, BOR

14a. Antidesma cuspidatum var. cuspidatum

35b.

Sepals fused for at least half their length

36

36a.

Disc glabrous (sometimes with hairs originating from the base of the disc; Fig. 3D)

37

36b.

Disc hairy all over (Fig. 3F), or at least at the margin (Fig. 3E)

39

37a.

Leaves ovate to elliptic, base acute to obtuse. Leaves: petioles 0.51 mm wide. Young twigs first dark brown, then light grey to whitish. Inflorescences 25 cm long, simple, solitary or 2 per fascicle. Fruits 58 by 46 mm. Ovaries glabrous to sparsely pilose. SUM, MLY, THA

20. Antidesma forbesii

37b.

Leaves usually oblong, base rounded to truncate, rarely obtuse. Leaves: petioles 0.72 mm wide. Young twigs brown. Inflorescences 510 cm long, usually consisting of 58 very regular branches, solitary. Fruits 35 by 23 mm (unknown for Antidesma cuspidatum var. orthocalyx)

38

38a.

Inflorescences 56 cm long. Ovaries glabrous. Stipules (2)520 mm wide. Fruits 35 by 23 mm. SUM, JAW, LSI

50. Antidesma tetrandrum

38b.

Inflorescences 810 cm long. Ovaries pilose. Stipules and fruits unknown. SUM

14b. Antidesma cuspidatum var. orthocalyx

39a.

Exocarp in dry material loosely enfolding the endocarp, thick, neither areolate nor reticulate, without ridges or keels, brittle, minutely scaly (Fig. 5C). Fruits globose, not or hardly compressed. Infructescences consisting of 14 branches, axes robust and rigid. MOL, NWG

2. Antidesma baccatum

39b.

Exocarp in dry material closely enfolding the endocarp, thin, reticulate, areolate or wrinkled (fleshy when fresh), usually keeled at the suture, not brittle or scaly (Fig. 5D). Fruits laterally compressed. Infructescences consisting of up to 10 branches, axes less robust and rigid

40

40a.

Leaves: petioles 0.81.2(2) mm wide. Leaves chartaceous to membranaceous, without domatia, base obtuse to truncate, rarely acute. Young twigs often very light brown to whitish. Fruits 34 mm across; ovaries and fruits hairy.PHI

42. Antidesma pleuricum

40b.

Leaves: petioles 12(3) mm wide. Leaves coriaceous to subcoriaceous, sometimes with domatia, base acute to rounded. Young twigs brown. Fruit 39 mm across; ovaries and fruits glabrous to sparsely pilose

41

41a.

Bracts 0.40.8 by 0.30.6 mm. Infructescences 417 cm long, consisting of 210 branches, rarely simple. Domatia in the axils between the midvein and secondary veins abaxially (Fig. 2B) usually present. Occasionally cultivated. BOR, PHI, SUL, MOL, NWG

18. Antidesma excavatum

41b.

Bracts 11.5 by 0.71 mm. Infructescences 4 cm long, simple. Domatia absent. PHI

16b. Antidesma edule var. apoense

42a.

Sepals free, pubescent or hispid outside. Indumentum of inflorescence axes usually ferrugineous

43

42b.

Sepals fused for 1/2 of their length or more (fruiting calyx splits irregularly in Antidesma curranii), glabrous to pilose outside. Indumentum of inflorescence axes usually whitish

44

43a.

Ovaries and fruits glabrous. Fruits (3)48(13) by 46 mm. Leaves: petioles 12 mm wide. Stigmas 410. Infructescences consisting of 110 branches. Leaves (6)1015(21) cm long, coriaceous, drying grey to reddish brown adaxially, reddish brown abaxially. SUM, MLY, BOR

11. Antidesma coriaceum

43b.

Ovaries and fruits hairy. Fruits 34(5) by 2.53(3.5) mm. Leaves: petioles 0.71 mm wide. Stigmas 24. Infructescences consisting of (1)1020 branches. Leaves (2)46(16) cm long, chartaceous to coriaceous, drying olive-green. SUM, MLY, BOR, JAW, PHI, SUL, LSI, MOL, NWG, THA

(21. Antidesma ghaesembilla)

44a.

Fruits 45 by 34 mm; calyx in flower fused to halfway, splitting irregularly in fruit, 11.5 mm long, much longer than the disc. Inflorescences simple or consisting of up to 6 branches, solitary. PH

13. Antidesma curranii

44b.

Fruits 24 by 13 mm; calyx in flower fused for (1/2)2/34/5 of its length, not split in fruit, 0.51 mm long, extending to about the same length as the disc. Inflorescences consisting of 220 branches, often 23per fascicle

45

45a.

Calyx bowl-shaped, 0.50.7 by c. 1 mm. Fruits distinctly laterally compressed, 34 by c. 3 mm; fruiting pedicels 12 mm long. Leaves membranaceous to subchartaceous, usually with domatia in the axils between the midvein and secondary veins abaxially (Fig. 2B), base acute to obtuse, more rarely rounded. Young twigs brown. SUL, LSI, MOL

7. Antidesma celebicum

45b.

Calyx urceolate to cupular, 0.51 by 0.71 mm. Fruits not or slightly compressed, 23(4) by 12.5 mm; fruiting pedicels 0.22 mm long. Leaves chartaceous to subcoriaceous, without domatia, base often obtuse to rounded. Young twigs light brown to whitish

46

46a.

Disc ferrugineous-pubescent, hairs as long as to slightly longer than the disc itself. Fruits with terminal style, 23(4) by 12 mm; fruiting pedicels 0.20.5(1.5) mm long. PHI

31. Antidesma microcarpum

46b.

Disc sparsely whitish-pilose, hairs much shorter than the disc. Fruits with subterminal style, 3.5 by 22.5 mm; fruiting pedicels 12 mm long. PHI

6. Antidesma catanduanense

47a.

Disc glabrous (sometimes with hairs originating from the base of the disc; Fig. 3D)

48

47b.

Disc hairy all over (Fig. 3F), or at least at the margin (Fig. 3E)

77

48a.

Fruits 1.52.5 mm long, glabrous, style lateral. Sepals fused for c. 2/3 of their length. BOR

55. Antidesma venenosum

48b.

Fruits more than 3 mm long, glabrous or hairy, style terminal to lateral. Sepals free or fused

49

49a.

Sepals fused for more than half of their length

50

49b.

Sepals free to fused for up to half of their length (if fused to the middle, then both leads are correct)

60

50a.

Fruits roughly bean-shaped, with a lateral style and an asymmetrical base, 58 by 46 mm. Leaves chartaceous to submembranaceous. SUM, MLY,THA

20. Antidesma forbesii

50b.

Fruits ellipsoid, with a terminal to slightly subterminal (sometimes lateral in Antidesma stipulare) style and a symmetrical base, 318 by 411 mm. Leaves chartaceous to coriaceous

51

51a.

Fruits (3)46(8) by 34(6) mm, laterally compressed or terete. Leaves with or without domatia, pilose at least along the major veins

52

51b.

Fruits 518 by 411 mm, laterally compressed. Leaves without domatia, completely glabrous or pubescent

55

52a.

Inflorescences 23 cm long, infructescences 25(8) cm long. Leaves with domatia between the midvein and secondary veins abaxially. Calyx urceolate, lobed for up to 1/3 of its length. JAW, THA

1. Antidesma acidum

52b.

Inflorescences 310 cm long, infructescences 620 cm long. Leaf domatia present or absent; calyx urceolate or cupular, lobed for 1/4 to almost all of its length

53

53a.

Calyx urceolate, lobed for 1/41/2 of its length, margin never glandular-fimbriate. Leaves often with domatia, ochraceous-pilose at least along the veins abaxially, higher venation finely tessellated (Fig. 9D). Fruits without or with inconspicuous white pustules when dry. THA

Antidesma sootepense

53b.

Calyx cupular, lobed for c. 1/2 of its length, margin often glandular-fimbriate. Leaves without domatia, usually glabrous except along the major veins, higher venation not conspicuously tessellated (Fig. 9A). Fruits usually with conspicuous white pustules when dry

54

54a.

Plant rheophytic, leaves 410 times as long as wide. SUM, MLY, BOR, THA

(33c. Antidesma montanum var. salicinum)

54b.

Plant not rheophytic, leaves (2)2.53.5(6.6) times as long as wide. SUM, MLY,BOR, JAW,PHI, SUL, LSI, MOL, THA

(33c. Antidesma montanum var. montanum)

55a.

Midvein sharply keeled abaxially (Fig. 2F). Fruits 1015 by 711 mm, thinly appressed-puberulent. Leaves coriaceous. BOR

3. Antidesma brachybotrys

55b.

Midvein rounded abaxially (Fig. 2CE). Fruits 518 by 411 mm, glabrous or hairy.Leaves coriaceous

56

56a.

Leaves drying dark reddish brown or purplish grey to greyish brown, usually elliptic. Young twigs and old Leaves: petioles whitish. Stigmas 510. Inflorescences 24 cm long, infructescences 314 cm long. Fruiting pedicels 01.5 mm long. PHI

30. Antidesma macgregorii

56b.

Leaves drying olive-green to yellowish brown, usually oblong. Young twigs brown. Stigmas 35(6). Inflorescences (4)835 cm long, infructescences 1075 cm long; fruiting pedicels 014 mm long

57

57a.

Sepals fused for 2/33/4 of their length; calyx in flower and fruit cupular, 11.5 mm long, with long ferrugineous hairs at the base inside. Fruits 511 by 47 mm. Stipules early-caducous, 46 mm long. Leaves (5)1018(32) cm long

58

57b.

Sepals fused for c. 1/2 of their length; calyx in flower and fruit bowl-shaped to cupular, up to 1 mm long, indumentum short or absent, whitish to ochraceous. Fruits 818 by 611 mm. Stipules usually persistent, 560 mm long. Leaves (9)2030(60) cm long

59

58a.

Abaxial leaf surfaces glabrous except sometimes along the midvein. Ovaries glabrous. Often cultivated. SUM, MLY, BOR, JAW, PHI, SUL, LSI, MOL, NWG, THA

5a. Antidesma bunius var. bunius

58b.

Abaxial leaf surfaces pubescent all over. Ovaries sparsely pilose. THA

Antidesma bunius var. pubescens

59a.

Fruiting pedicels 01(3) mm long. Fruits ovate to ellipsoid or lenticular, often apiculate, with a terminal to subterminal style. Ovaries hairy. Leaves usually drying yellowish brown. SUM, MLY, BOR, THA

40. Antidesma pendulum

59b.

Fruiting pedicels 114 mm long. Fruits obliquely ovate (mango-shaped), with a lateral to subterminal style. Ovaries glabrous, very rarely hairy. Leaves drying olive-green. SUM, MLY, BOR, JAW, PHI, SUL, LSI, MOL

48. Antidesma stipulare

60a.

Indumentum, especially of young parts and inflorescences, ferrugineous to ochraceous

61

60b.

Indumentum whitish or absent

67

61a.

Fruits 45 by 3 mm; fruiting pedicels c. 1 mm long; calyx urceolate, sepals fused for c. 1/2 of their length. Ovaries almost cylindrical. Leaves ferrugineous-pubescent all over abaxially, distinctly velvety to the touch. Leaves up to 18 cm long. MLY, THA

54. Antidesma velutinum

61b.

Fruits 520 by 39 mm; fruiting pedicels 123 mm long; calyx cupular, sepals free to fused for c. 1/2 of their length, calyx not urceolate. Ovaries falcate, ovoid or globose. Leaves abaxially pubescent to glabrous. Leaves up to 60 cm long

62

62a.

Fruits obliquely ovate (mango-shaped) to falcate (sometimes elongate-ellipsoid in rheophytes), always laterally compressed, hairy (old fruits sometimes almost glabrous). Ovaries ovoid to falcate, densely appressed-pubescent. Inflorescences 330 cm long, infructescences 765 cm long. Leaves: petioles (1)25 mm wide. Leaves (8)1530(60) cm long. Tertiary veins percurrent, close together (Fig. 2Aa)

63

62b.

Fruits ellipsoid, globose, lenticular, ovate or obovate, compressed or terete, glabrous or hairy. Ovaries globose to lenticular, glabrous or spreading-hirsute. Inflorescences 1.58 cm long, infructescences 324 cm long. Leaves: petioles 12 mm wide. Leaves (3)614(20) cm long. Tertiary veins weakly percurrent (Fig. 2Ab) to reticulate (Fig. 2Ac), widely spaced

64

63a.

Plant rheophytic, leaves more than 6 times as long as wide. Leaves: petioles 13 mm wide. Inflorescences 35(20) cm long, infructescences 720 cm long. Fruits 79 by 36 mm. BOR

51b. Antidesma tomentosum var. stenocarpum

63b.

Plant not rheophytic, leaves less than 6 times as long as wide. Leaves: petioles 25 mm wide. Inflorescences (5)1030 cm long, infructescences 1030 (65) cm long. Fruits (7)920 by 59 mm. SUM, MLY, BOR, JAW,PHI, SUL, LSI, MOL, THA

51a. Antidesma tomentosum var. tomentosum

64a.

Leaves: petioles 12 mm wide. Leaves membranaceous to chartaceous, spreading-hirsute all over abaxially, drying olive-green to reddish green. Fruits ellipsoid to lenticular, laterally compressed, usually conspicuously beaked, pilose, rarely nearly glabrous, usually conspicuously and coarsely white-pustulate. Inflorescences (4)78 cm long. Ovaries spreading-hirsute; calyx 1 by 1.52 mm. LSI, MOL, SUL

17. Antidesma elbertii

64b.

Leaves: petioles c. 1 mm wide. Leaves chartaceous to coriaceous, glabrous or pilose only along the major veins (rarely all over) abaxially, drying dark reddish brown. Fruits ellipsoid, globose, ovoid or obovoid, laterally or dorsiventrally compressed, or terete, not beaked, glabrous, rarely thinly puberulent, rarely white-pustulate. Inflorescences 1.56 cm long. Ovaries glabrous, rarely pilose; calyx 0.30.8 by 0.8 mm

65

65a.

Stipules 0.51mm wide. SUM, MLY,BOR

36b. Antidesma neurocarpum var. hosei

65b.

Stipules 1.518 mm wide

66

66a.

Plant rheophytic, leaves more than 5 times as long as wide. Infructescences 35 cm long. BOR

36c. Antidesma neurocarpum var. linearifolium

66b.

Plant not rheophytic, leaves less than 5 times as long as wide. Infructescences 69 cm long. SUM, MLY, BOR, THA

36a. Antidesma neurocarpum var. neurocarpum

67a.

Young twigs light brown to whitish. Leaves drying reddish brown to grey, often with conspicuous dense intersecondary and perpendicular tertiary veins near the midvein

68

67b.

Young twigs brown. Leaves drying olive-green, without conspicuous perpendicular intersecondary and tertiary veins near the midvein

69

68a.

Fruiting pedicels 01 mm long. Higher order veins in dry material distinctly prominent on both leaf surfaces. Stipules caducous, subulate. Leaves drying reddish brown. Fruits ellipsoid, distinctly laterally compressed, with a subterminal to terminal style. Usually at 4001400 m altitude. SUM, JAW

32. Antidesma minus

68b.

Fruiting pedicels 118 mm long. Higher order veins in dry material much less prominent adaxially. Stipules usually persistent, elliptic, linear or subulate, often falcate. Leaves drying reddish brown to greyish. Fruits ellipsoid, globose, ovate or obovate, dorsiventrally or laterally compressed, or terete, with a subterminal to lateral style. Indifferent to altitude. SUM, MLY, BOR

36b. Antidesma neurocarpum var. hosei

69a.

Fruits 818 by 611 mm, reticulate, laterally compressed. Sepals never glandular-fimbriate. Flowers 45-merous. Inflorescences simple, 835 cm long, infructescences 1075 cm long. Stipules 560 by 0.530 mm. Leaves (9)2050 by (1.5)59(14) cm, midvein flat to slightly raised, rarely slightly impressed adaxially. Stipules, Leaves: petioles and inflorescence axes usually glabrous

70

69b.

Fruits 38 by 2.56 mm, areolate, not or laterally, or slightly dorsiventrally compressed. Sepals often glandular-fimbriate. Flowers 35(7)-merous. Inflorescences simple or branched, 210 cm long, infructescences 2.520 cm long. Stipules 1.57(13) by 0.51.5(3) mm. Leaves 1.515(30) by 0.46(12) cm, midvein impressed adaxially. Stipules, Leaves: petioles and inflorescence axes usually hairy

71

70a.

Fruiting pedicels 01(3) mm long. Fruits ovate to ellipsoid or lenticular, often apiculate, with a terminal to subterminal style. Ovaries hairy. Leaves usually drying yellowish brown. SUM, MLY, BOR, THA

40. Antidesma pendulum

70b.

Fruiting pedicels 114 mm long. Fruits obliquely ovate (mango-shaped), with a lateral to subterminal style. Ovaries glabrous, very rarely hairy. Leaves drying olive-green. SUM, MLY, BOR, JAW, PHI, SUL, LSI, MOL

48. Antidesma stipulare

71a.

Plant rheophytic, leaves 410 times as long as wide or narrower than 2 cm. Fruits terete

72

71b.

Plant not rheophytic, leaves (1.2)2.53.5(6.6) times as long as wide. Fruits compressed or terete

73

72a.

Most leaves 511 by 12 cm. Leaf apex acuminate. SUM, MLY, BOR, THA

33c. Antidesma montanum var. salicinum

72b.

Most leaves 36 by 0.41.2 cm. Leaf apex acute, sometimes with a rounded apiculum. THA

Antidesma montanum var. microphyllum

73a.

Fruits not or hardly laterally compressed, with a terminal style

74

73b.

Fruits laterally compressed, with a lateral to terminal style

75

74a.

Calyx urceolate, lobed for 1/41/2 of its length, margin never glandular-fimbriate. Leaves often with domatia, ochraceous-pilose at least along the veins abaxially, higher venation finely tessellated (Fig. 9D). Fruits without or with inconspicuous white pustules when dry. THA

Antidesma sootepense

74b.

Calyx cupular, lobed for about half of its length, margin often glandular-fimbriate. Leaves without domatia, usually glabrous except along the major veins, higher venation not conspicuously tessellated (Fig. 9A). Fruits usually with conspicuous white pustules when dry. SUM, MLY, BOR, JAW,PHI, SUL, LSI, MOL, THA

33a. Antidesma montanum var. montanum

75a.

Abaxial leaf surfaces spreading-hirsute all over; calyx hirsute outside. Fruits pilose to nearly glabrous, with a lateral style, usually with conspicuous white pustules when dry. Infructescences (4)824 cm long. LSI, MOL, SUL

17. Antidesma elbertii

75b.

Abaxial leaf surfaces glabrous, or pilose only along the major veins. Calyx glabrous outside. Fruits glabrous, with a subterminal to terminal style and only occasionally with rather fine white pustules when dry.Infructescences 49cm long

76

76a.

Leaves chartaceous to subcoriaceous, often conspicuously shiny, narrowly elliptic-oblong to ovate or obovate, most leaves 610 by 23.5 cm. Leaves: petioles 0.51 mm wide. Leaves: petioles, inflorescences and pedicels slender; fruiting pedicels (2)36 mm long. Sepals free. MLY,PHI, THA

24a. Antidesma japonicum var. japonicum

76b.

Leaves membranaceous to chartaceous, not conspicuously shiny, oblong, more rarely elliptic or obovate, most leaves 1015 by 35 cm. Leaves: petioles 12 mm wide. Leaves: petioles, inflorescences and pedicels not particularly slender; fruiting pedicels 13 mm long. Sepals free to fused for up to half of their length. JAW,LSI, SUL

23. Antidesma heterophyllum

77a.

Sepals fused for more than half of their length

78

77b.

Sepals free to fused for up to half of their length

95

78a.

Infructescences up to 10 cm long, simple or branched

79

78b.

Infructescences more than 10 cm long, always simple

90

79a.

Style in flower and fruit distinctly lateral (Fig. 3L)

80

79b.

Style in flower and fruit terminal (Fig. 3G) to subterminal (Fig. 3J)

83

80a.

Fruits beaked, longer than wide (including the beak). Leaves membranaceous to chartaceous. Midvein usually slightly raised, rarely flat, never impressed adaxially. Infructescences 710 cm long. SUM, MLY, THA

28. Antidesma leucocladon

80b.

Fruits not beaked, as long as wide or wider than long. Leaves chartaceous to coriaceous. Midvein impressed, flat or rarely slightly raised adaxially. Infructescences 27(10) cm long

81

81a.

Exocarp in dry material loosely enfolding the endocarp, thick, neither areolate nor reticulate, without ridges or keels, brittle, minutely scaly. Fruits 512 mm across, globose, not compressed. MOL, NWG

2. Antidesma baccatum

81b.

Exocarp in dry material closely enfolding the endocarp, thin, reticulate, areolate or wrinkled (fleshy when fresh), not brittle or scaly. Fruits 39 mm across, laterally compressed

82

82a.

Bracts 0.40.8 by 0.30.6 mm. Infructescences 417 cm long, consisting of 210 branches, rarely simple. Domatia in the axils between the midvein and secondary veins abaxially (Fig. 2B) usually present. Occasionally cultivated. BOR, PHI, SUL, MOL, NWG

18. Antidesma excavatum

82b.

Bracts 11.5 by 0.71 mm. Infructescences c. 4 cm long, simple. Domatia absent. PHI

16b. Antidesma edule var. apoense

83a.

Fruits 1011 mm long, beaked. Leaves membranaceous to chartaceous. Midvein usually slightly raised, rarely flat, never impressed adaxially. Infructescences 710 cm long. SUM, MLY, THA

28. Antidesma leucocladon

83b.

Fruits up to 8 mm long, not beaked. Leaves chartaceous to subcoriaceous. Midvein impressed to flat adaxially. Infructescences 29 cm long

84

84a.

Fruits pilose; calyx pubescent outside. Leaf base cordate to rounded. Sepals 5 0r 6. PHI, LSI

49. Antidesma subcordatum

84b.

Fruits glabrous; calyx glabrous outside. Leaf base acute to obtuse, rarely rounded. Sepals 4 or 5

85

85a.

Calyx urceolate, lobed for no more than 1/3 of its length. Leaves sometimes with domatia in the axils between the midvein and secondary veins abaxially (Fig. 2B)

86

85b.

Calyx cupular, usually lobed for more than 1/3 of its length. Leaf domatia absent

87

86a.

Fruiting pedicels 1.53 mm long. Leaves obovate to elliptic-oblong, margins basally straight to convex, abaxial leaf surfaces pilose to pubescent at least around the domatia, very rarely completely glabrous. Stipules usually persistent, 37 by 12 mm. Ovaries and fruits laterally compressed or not. JAW, THA

1. Antidesma acidum

86b.

Fruiting pedicels 0.51.3 mm long. Leaves elliptic to ovate, margins often basally concave, abaxial leaf surfaces glabrous except for sometimes some short hairs along the major veins. Stipules early-caducous, c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm. Ovaries and fruits laterally compressed. PHI

15. Antidesma digitaliforme

87a.

Fruits laterally compressed. Infructescences 38 cm long; disc indumentum ferrugineous; fruiting pedicels 02 mm long

88

87b.

Fruits terete. Infructescences 620 cm long; disc indumentum whitish. Fruiting pedicels 14 mm long

89

88a.

Leaves: petioles 315 mm long. Leaves drying olive-green; calyx in fruit 11.5 by 1.52 mm; fruiting pedicels 0.52 mm long. PHI

13. Antidesma curranii

88b.

Leaves: petioles 13 mm long. Leaves drying reddish brown; calyx in fruit c. 0.4 by 1 mm; fruiting pedicels 00.4 mm long. SUL

4. Antidesma brevipes

89a.

Plant rheophytic, leaves 410 times as long as wide. SUM, MLY, BOR, THA

(33a. Antidesma montanum var. salicinum)

89b.

Plant not rheophytic, leaves (2)2.53.5(6.6) times as long as wide. SUM, MLY,BOR, JAW,PHI, SUL, LSI, MOL, THA

(33a. Antidesma montanum var. montanum)

90a.

Fruits 818 by 611 mm, always laterally compressed. Indumentum absent or whitish, never ferrugineous. Leaves drying olive-green to yellowish brown. Young twigs brown

91

90b.

Fruits 38 by 2.57 mm, not or hardly compressed. Indumentum ferrugineous or whitish. Leaves drying reddish brown or olive-green. Young twigs whitish grey to brown

93

91a.

Sepals fused for c. 3/4 of their length, apex acute; disc hirsute. Infructescences 1428 cm long. BOR (Sabah)

34. Antidesma montis-silam

91b.

Sepals fused for c. 1/2 of their length, apex obtuse to rounded; disc sparsely pilose. Infructescences 1075 cm long

92

92a.

Fruiting pedicels 01(3) mm long. Fruits ovate to ellipsoid or lenticular, often apiculate, with a terminal to subterminal style. Ovaries hairy. Inflorescences and infructescences robust. Leaves usually drying yellowish brown. SUM, MLY, BOR, THA

40. Antidesma pendulum

92b.

Fruiting pedicels 114 mm long. Fruits obliquely ovate (mango-shaped), with a lateral to subterminal style. Ovaries glabrous, very rarely hairy. Inflorescences and infructescences rather slender. Leaves drying olive-green. SUM, MLY, BOR, JAW, PHI, SUL, LSI, MOL

(48. Antidesma stipulare)

93a.

Infructescences 1845 cm long. Style lateral to subterminal, rarely terminal; calyx lobed for no more than 1/3 of its length, margin entire. Indumentum ferrugineous to ochraceous, rarely absent. Leaves drying reddish brown, tertiary veins usually perpendicular (at right angle to the midvein). Young twigs first dark brown, then light grey to whitish, or whitish from the beginning. Mostly rheophytic. BOR, PHI (Palawan), SUL

46a. Antidesma riparium subsp. riparium

93b.

Infructescences 620 cm long. Style terminal, rarely subterminal; calyx usually lobed for more than 1/3 of its length, margin often glandular-fimbriate. Indumentum absent or whitish, never ferrugineous. Leaves drying olive-green, tertiary veins oblique in relation to the midvein. Young twigs brown

94

94a.

Plant rheophytic, leaves 410 times as long as wide. SUM, MLY, BOR, THA

(33a. Antidesma montanum var. salicinum)

94b.

Plant not rheophytic, leaves (2)2.53.5(6.6) times as long as wide.SUM, MLY,BOR, JAW,PHI, SUL, LSI, MOL, THA

(33a. Antidesma montanum var. montanum)

95a.

Indumentum, especially of young parts and inflorescences, ferrugineous to ochraceous

96

95b.

Indumentum whitish or absent

100

96a.

Fruits 620 by 48 mm, with a lateral to subterminal style. Leaves: petioles 15 mm wide. Infructescences (4)765 cm long. Leaves (5)930(55) cm long, drying reddish brown to olive-green

97

96b.

Fruits 35 by 3.54 mm, with a terminal to slightly sublateral style. Leaves: petioles 0.71.2 mm wide. Infructescences 37 cm long. Leaves (2)410(16) cm long, drying olive-green

99

97a.

Indumentum pale yellow to ochraceous. Ovaries globose to lenticular, spreading-hirsute, with a thin, conspicuous style. Fruits 68 by 46 mm, ellipsoid to lenticular, with a lateral style, often conspicuously beaked; fruiting pedicels 13 mm long. Infructescences (4)824 cm long. Leaves 513(20) cm long, drying greyish, reddish or olive-green. Stipules 37 by 0.51.2 mm, not falcate, coriaceous or strongly veined. Leaves: petioles 12 mm wide. LSI, MOL, SUL

17. Antidesma elbertii

97b.

Indumentum ferrugineous to ochraceous. Ovaries ovoid, slightly falcate, appressed-pubescent, with an inconspicuous style. Fruits (7)920 by 59 mm, obliquely ovate (mango-shaped), with a lateral to subterminal style; fruiting pedicels 023 mm long. Infructescences 765 cm long. Leaves (8)1560 cm long, drying reddish brown. Stipules (3)635 by 110 mm, often falcate, coriaceous, strongly veined. Leaves: petioles (1)25 mm wide

98

98a.

Plant rheophytic, leaves more than 6 times as long as wide. Leaves: petioles 13 mm wide. Inflorescences 35(20) cm long, infructescences 720 cm long. Fruits 79 by 36 mm. BOR

51b. Antidesma tomentosum var. stenocarpum

98b.

Plant not rheophytic, leaves less than 6 times as long as wide. Leaves: petioles 25 mm wide. Inflorescences (5)1030 cm long, infructescences 1030 (65) cm long. Fruits (7)920 by 59 mm. SUM, MLY, BOR, JAW, PHI, SUL, LSI, MOL, THA

51a. Antidesma tomentosum var. tomentosum

99a.

Sepals free, pubescent outside, c. 0.7 mm long. Fruits pilose. Inflorescences consisting of (1)1020 branches. Leaves pubescent at least along the major veins abaxially. Common. SUM, MLY, BOR, JAW, PHI, SUL, LSI, MOL, NWG, THA

(21. Antidesma ghaesembilla)

99b.

Sepals fused for 1/2 of their length or more (splitting irregularly in fruit), glabrous outside, 11.5 mm long. Fruits glabrous. Inflorescences simple or once-branched, more rarely consisting of up to 6 branches. Leaves glabrous or nearly so. Rare. PHI

13. Antidesma curranii

100a.

Fruits dorsiventrally compressed, 78 by 45 mm, pilose; disc, ovaries and abaxial leaf surfaces (at least along the veins) densely hirsute. MLY,THA

37. Antidesma orthogyne

100b.

Fruits laterally compressed or terete, 318 by 2.511 mm, glabrous or hairy; disc, ovaries and leaves glabrous or hairy

101

101a.

Fruits 818 by 611 mm, laterally compressed. Inflorescences 835 cm long, infructescences 1075 cm long, simple. Leaves and inflorescence axes glabrous

102

101b.

Fruits 38 by 2.56 mm, laterally compressed or terete. Inflorescences 210 cm long, infructescences 320 cm long, simple or branched. Leaves and inflorescence axes glabrous or hairy

103

102a.

Fruiting pedicels 01(3) mm long. Fruits ovate to ellipsoid or lenticular, often apiculate, with a terminal to subterminal style. Ovaries hairy. Leaves usually drying yellowish brown. SUM, MLY, BOR, THA

40. Antidesma pendulum

102b.

Fruiting pedicels 114 mm long. Fruits obliquely ovate (mango-shaped), with a lateral to subterminal style. Ovaries glabrous, very rarely hairy. Leaves drying olive-green. SUM, MLY, BOR, JAW, PHI, SUL, LSI, MOL

(48. Antidesma stipulare)

103a.

Fruits terete, with a terminal style. Sepals often glandular-fimbriate. Leaves membranaceous to chartaceous, only larger leaves sometimes coriaceous

104

103b.

Fruits laterally compressed, with a terminal to lateral style. Sepals never glandular-fimbriate. Leaves chartaceous to coriaceous

106

104a.

Plant rheophytic, leaves 410 times as long as wide or narrower than 2 cm

105

104b.

Plant not rheophytic, leaves (1.2)2.53.5(6.6) times as long as wide. SUM, MLY,BOR, JAW,PHI, SUL, LSI, MOL, THA

(33a. Antidesma montanum var. montanum)

105a.

Most leaves 511 by 12 cm. Leaf apex acuminate. SUM, MLY, BOR, THA

(33a. Antidesma montanum var. salicinum)

105b.

Most leaves 36 by 0.41.2 cm. Leaf apex acute, sometimes with a rounded apiculum. THA

(Antidesma montanum var. microphyllum)

106a.

Fruits 68 by 46 mm, with a lateral to subterminal, rarely terminal style. Leaves drying greyish, reddish or olive-green. Infructescences 424 cm long

107

106b.

Fruits 35 by 2.54 mm, with a terminal to slightly subterminal style. Leaves drying olive-green. Infructescences 37 cm long

108

107a.

Stipules, Leaves: petioles and leaves glabrous. Young twigs light grey. Leaves chartaceous to coriaceous. SUM, MLY, THA

22. Antidesma helferi

107b.

Stipules, Leaves: petioles and abaxial leaf surfaces hirsute. Young twigs brown. Leaves membranaceous to chartaceous. LSI, MOL, SUL

17. Antidesma elbertii

108a.

Sepals free, pubescent outside, c. 0.7 mm long. Fruits pilose. Inflorescences consisting of (1)1020 branches. Leaves pubescent at least along the major veins abaxially. SUM, MLY, BOR, JAW, PHI, SUL, LSI, MOL, NWG, THA

(21. Antidesma ghaesembilla)

108b.

Sepals fused for 1/2 of their length or more (splits irregularly in fruiting stage), glabrous outside, 11.5 mm long. Fruits glabrous. Inflorescences simple or once-branched, more rarely consisting of up to 6 branches, sometimes fascicles of 2 inflorescences. Leaves glabrous or nearly so. PHI

13. Antidesma curranii