Key to the Species of the Philippines, Sulawesi, and the Moluccas

 

Key to Pistillate specimens

 

Staminate specimens

 

1a.

Inflorescences (when mature) brush-like due to long exserted stamens, glomerules indistinct, densely set at apical 3/47/8 of the rachis (click left picture). Stamens strongly exserted, c. thrice as long as the sepals. Leaf: margin subentire, marginal glands indistinct, in margin; disc-like glands distinct, along the margin (click right picture)

2

1b.

Inflorescences not brush-like, glomerules distinct, spaced at least at base of rachis, or more or less continuously set along the rachis, interrupted by distinct bracts (click left picture). Stamens not exserted or only exserted to twice the sepal length. Leaf: margin glandular-crenate to lowly undulate, marginal glands distinct, along the margin; disc-like glands distinct and scattered within the vein arches, or indistinct, occasionally along the margin (click right picture)

3

2a.

Stipules 620 by 1137 mm, often long persistent. Petiole upper pulvinus swollen, 511 by 36 mm. Leaves 1447 cm long; base cordate; nerves raised beneath,  not fading towards the margin

8. A. benthamiana

2b.

Stipules 48 by 1118 mm, present in young stages. Petiole upper pulvinus distinct, but not extremely so, 26 by 1.52.5 mm. Leaves 825 cm long; base emarginate to rounded; nerves prominent beneath, fading towards the margin

20. A. falcifera

3a.

Inflorescences floriferous to base; glomerules more or less continuously set along the rachis (click picture), bracts indistinct, shorter than glomerules

4

3b.

Inflorescences peduncled; glomerules at least at base of rachis interrupted, bracts indistinct or distinct, shorter than or as long as glomerules, or if glomerules more or less continuously set along the rachis, then bracts distinct, longer than glomerules (click picture)

6

4a.

Petioles and leaves completely glabrous. Leaf: margin subentire, lowly undulate or lowly glandular-crenate

5

4b.

Petioles and leaves sparsely hirsute. Leaf: margin often glandular-serrate (click picture)

46c. A. octandra var. malesiana

5a.

Leaf: basal glands fading. Glomerules ellipsoid, slightly interruptedly set along the rachis. Sulawesi: Sula Isl.

37. A. lucida

5b.

Leaf: basal glands distinct. Glomerules indistinct, continuously set along the rachis. Philippines

65. A. symplocifolia

6a.

Branchlets, petiole, and leaf beneath tomentose

7

6b.

Branchlets, petiole, and leaf beneath glabrous or sparsely puberulous

8

7a.

Stipules caducous. Leaves glabrous above. Inflorescences 1847 mm long, 1.52.2 mm diam., tomentose; glomerules 1.52 by 11.5 mm. Stamens 2 or 3, not to slightly exserted, 0.81 mm long

7. A. basilanensis

7b.

Stipules falcate, often rather persistent. Leaves sparsely tomentose above. Inflorescences 1459 mm long, 23 mm diam., densely (reddish) tomentose; glomerules 24 by 1.22 mm. Stamens 4, exserted, 1.21.8 mm long

35. A. leytensis

8a.

Leaf: dots absent; drying yellowish or greyish green on both sides; young leaves lowly white granular beneath, mature ones smooth

9

8b.

Leaf: dots distinct, sometimes fading; drying greyish, greenish, or brownish above, brownish beneath; young and mature leaves smooth

10

9a.

Inflorescences 11.5 mm diam.; peduncle 1.52.5 mm long, subglabrous; glomerules subglobose, spaced 0.52 mm at base

6. A. banahaensis

9b.

Inflorescences 23.5 mm diam.; peduncle 0.51.5 mm long, sparsely puberulous; glomerules ellipsoid, spaced 0.51 mm at base

22. A. frutescens

10a.

Leaf: disc-like glands scattered (mostly at base) within marginal vein arches (click picture)

11

10b.

Leaf: disc-like glands absent or occasionally few present along margin (click picture)

12

11a.

Branchlets and leaves completely glabrous. Nerves 79 pairs. Moluccas

17. A. dendroidea

11b.

Branchlets and leaves on nerves (very) sparsely puberulous beneath. Nerves 913 pairs. Central Sulawesi

35. A. leytensis

12a.

Inflorescences: 2874 mm long, sparsely puberulous; glomerules distinctly, up to 3 mm, spaced at base. Philippines

13

12b.

Inflorescences: 1126 mm long, subglabrous; glomerules not or slightly, up to 1 mm, spaced at base Moluccas: Seram

10. A. brevicaudata

13a.

Leaves 6.515 cm long; marginal glands present, but not extremely large; dots densely set

60a. A. sphaeridiophora var. sphaeridiophora

13b.

Leaves 1120 cm long; marginal glands thick, black, protruding; dots irregularly laxly set 

75. A. spec. G

 

Pistillate specimens

 

1a.

Flowers and fruits (sub)sessile, densely set along the whole rachis (click left picture) or at apical part only (click right picture)

2

1b.

Flowers and fruits distinctly pedicelled, (rather) laxly set along the rachis or singly apically (click picture)

6

2a.

Flowers and fruits 3-locular; stigmas 22.5 mm long, curving downwards to the sides of the ovary, slightly rough (click left picture); septae and column glabrous. Leaf: disc-like glands along the margin (click right picture). Stipules falcate, (shortly) persistent

3

2b.

Flowers and fruits 2-locular; stigmas 0.51.2 mm long, straight, papillate to laciniate; septae and column sparsely hairy. Leaf: disc-like glands scattered within marginal vein arches (click right picture). Stipules (narrowly) ovate, early caducous

4

3a.

Stipules 620 by 1137 mm, often long persistent. Petiole: upper pulvinus swollen, 511 by 36 mm. Leaves 1447 cm long; base cordate; nerves beneath raised, not fading towards the margin

8. A. benthamiana

3b.

Stipules 48 by 1118 mm, present in young stages. Petiole: upper pulvinus distinct, 26 by 1.52.5 mm. Leaves 825 cm long; base emarginate to rounded; nerves beneath prominent, fading towards the margin 

20. A. falcifera

4a.

Branchlets sparsely puberulous to glabrous. Petiole and leaf glabrous. Leaf: margin subentire, lowly undulate or lowly glandular-crenate. Ovary and fruit sparsely sericeous to glabrous

5

4b.

Branchlets, petiole, and leaf sparsely hirsute. Leaf: margin often glandular-serrate (click picture). Ovary and fruit sparsely sericeous

46c. A. octandra var. malesiana

5a.

Leaf: basal glands fading. Ovary and fruit sparsely sericeous (?glabrous). Moluccas

37(c). A. lucida (?var. pubescens)

5b.

Leaf: basal glands distinct. Ovary and fruit glabrous. Philippines

65. A. symplocifolia

6a.

Flowers and fruits singly set at apical end of rachis (click picture); stigmas 0.51 mm long, broad, connate to top of ovary

7

6b.

Flowers and fruits (rather) laxly arranged throughout the rachis (click picture); stigmas 0.82.5 mm long, narrow, free

8

7a.

Ovary glabrous; stigmas prominent, papillate to laciniate. Young fruits ovoid, 1216 by 1216 mm, mature fruits globose, 2327 by 2328 mm, punctulate; stigmas prominent, irregularly sculptured and ridged on sutures; pericarp 0.51.5 mm thick when immature to 46 mm thick when mature

6. A. banahaensis

7b.

Ovary glabrescent; stigmas flat, lowly papillate. Young and mature fruits globose, 915 by 1015 mm, smooth, stigmas sunken; pericarp 0.52.5 mm thick

22. A. frutescens

8a.

Branchlets, petiole, and leaf beneath tomentose

9

8b.

Branchlets, petiole, and leaf beneath glabrous or sparsely puberulous

10

9a.

Stipules caducous. Leaves glabrous above. Flowers 2-locular; stigmas 22.5 mm long, perpendicular, curving towards the ovary sides (click picture)

7. A. basilanensis

9b.

Stipules falcate, often rather persistent. Leaves sparsely tomentose above. Flowers 3- (seldom 2-)locular; stigmas 11.5 mm long, perpendicular, slightly recurved (click picture)

35. A. leytensis

10a.

Ovary ovoid. Fruit ovoid to globose

11

10b.

Ovary narrowly ovoid. Fruit fusiform. (Sometimes?/usually?) hermaphrodite

10. A. brevicaudata

11a.

Leaf: disc-like glands scattered (mostly at base) within marginal vein arches (click picture)

12

11b.

Leaf: disc-like glands absent or occasionally few present along margin (click picture)

13

12a.

Branchlets and leaves completely glabrous. Nerves 79 pairs. Stigmas 12.5 mm long, tetrafid, tree-like (click picture). Fruits ovoid to globose, 913 mm long, distinctly beaked. Moluccas

17. A. dendroidea

12b.

Branchlets and leaves on nerves (very) sparsely puberulous beneath. Nerves 913 pairs. Stigmas 11.5 mm long, bifid, not tree-like. Fruits ovoid, 1217 mm long, slightly beaked. Central Sulawesi

35. A. leytensis

13a.

Inflorescences 716 mm long. Flowers 2- or 3-locular, singly set per bract; petal-like structures absent; stigmas sessile, 0.81.2 mm long. Fruits not beaked, pericarp 0.30.5 mm thick

60a. A. sphaeridiophora var. sphaeridiophora

13b.

Inflorescences 2458 mm long. Flowers 3-locular, sometimes 2 per bract; petal-like structure sometimes distinct; stigmas raised, 2.53 mm long. Fruits unknown 

75. A. spec. G