Flora of Thailand

Euphorbiaceae

 

7. Aporosa

 

A.M. Schot & P.C. van Welzen

 

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Genus description

Identification key

Species descriptions

 

Aporosa

 

Blume, Bijdr.: 514. 1825; Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 345. 1887; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv: 80. 1922; Gagnep. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 552. 1927; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 20: 380. 1966; Kew Bull. 26: 213. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 58. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 30. 1975; G.L.Webster, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 81: 51. 1994; Radcl.-Sm., Gen. Euphorbiacearum: 65. 2001; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 151. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 81. 2005; G.L.Webster in Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 11: 85. 2014Leiocarpus Blume, Bijdr.: 581. 1825Scepa Lindl., Nat. Syst. ed.2: 441. 1836Lepidostachys Wall. ex Lindl., Nat. Syst. ed.2: 441. 1836 Tetractinostigma Hassk., Flora 40: 533. 1857.

 

(Shrubs to) medium-sized trees, dioecious. Indumentum of simple hairs. Stipules persistent or caducous. Leaves alternate, simple; petiole reniform, pulvinate at both ends; blade symmetric, usually drying into typical colours, basally often two glands, margin entire to serrate or crenate, usually glands in margin and usually either within nerve arches or outside arches underneath, venation pinnate, nerves looped and closed near margin. Inflorescences simple, thyrsoid spikes, axillary (to ramiflorous), single to many together; staminate glomerules and pistillate flowers spirally arranged; bracts 1 per glomerule or pistillate flower. Flowers unisexual in Thailand, small, pedicelled or not; sepals 3-6; petals absent; disc absent. Staminate flowers grouped in glomerules; stamens 2-4, episepalous, not to strongly exserted; anthers with 2 thecae; pistillode absent or present. Pistillate flowers solitary; bracteoles small; 2- or 3(4)-locular; ovules 2 per locule; style absent; stigmas apically lobed to completely divided. Fruits dehiscent rhegmas, sometimes beaked and/or stiped, or with ridges along sutures. Seeds covered with a thin, fleshy, juicy, aril.

    Eighty two species and 8 possible species occur in Sri Lanka and South India (Kerala), and from North India east to South China and Indochina, throughout Malesia to the Western Solomons; 20 species in Thailand. Classification: subfam. Phyllanthoideae, tribe Antidesmae, subtribe Scepinae.

    N o t e Airy Shaw (1972) often recognised different species than Schot (ms.). Problematic in Aporosa is the A. octandra complex (this roughly coincides with Airy Shaw’s A. dioica). A. octandra is very variable in the northern half of Thailand and extremely difficult to distinguish from A. villosa, A. wallichii, and A. yunnanensis. Several new records are noted for Thailand: A. duthieana (difficult to separate from A. microstachya), A. globifera, A. nervosa, A. penangensis, and A. serrata. Airy Shaw’s A. pseudoficifolia (Myanmar and Malay Peninsula) and A. incisa (a Prunus species) are omitted from this treatment.

 

Key to the species

 

1a.

Stipules late caducous or persistent, large (4-9 by 11-18 mm), strongly bent (falcate).

2

1b.

Stipules early caducous, smaller (2-11 by 1-8 mm), usually symmetric. (If stipules absent, then follow this lead.)

3

2a.

Leaf blades 8-25 by 2.5-7 cm, venation flat or slightly raised above when dry, glabrous above, midrib and nerves sparsely puberulous beneath. 

4. A. falcifera

2b.

Leaf blades 9.5-43 by 3.5-13 cm, venation bullate (deeply sunken above), mainly hairy on midrib above, hirsute on venation beneath.

8. A. lunata

3a.

Dried leaves with bullate venation (veins sunken above, also smaller veins, lamina in between convex). 

4

3b.

Dried leaves not bullate or only midrib and nerves slightly sunken, smaller veins not, lamina flat.

7

4a.

Leaf blades 9.5-43 by 3.5-13 cm, length/width ratio 2.7-3.3; margin subentire, disc-like glands on lower surface near margin, outside nerve arches.---P. 

8. A. lunata

4b.

Leaf blades 8-25 by 4-12, length/width ratio 1.8-2.9; if from Peninsula then margin usually serr(ul)ate and disc-like glands on lower surface inside nerve arches.---N, NE, E, SW, P.

5

5a.

Leaves usually ovate, margin usually serrulate. Fruits apically slightly beaked.---SW, P. 

12. A. octandra var. malesiana

5b.

Leaves elliptic (to obovate), margin subentire (with only glands protruding) to strongly serrate. Fruits not beaked apically.---N, NE, E.

6

6a.

Petiole (1.5-)3-4 mm thick. Leaves with indistinct basal glands, margin subentire with at most protruding hairy glands, recurved. Staminate inflorescences 15-26 mm long. Fruits densely tomentose.---E. 

5. A. ficifolia

6b.

Petiole 1.5-2.5 mm thick. Leaves with distinct basal glands, margin serrate, flat. Staminate inflorescences 9-18 mm long. Fruits subhirsute.---N, NE.

15. A. serrata

7a.

Leaves drying very dark (blackish) above, becoming black with age.---(SW, SE,) P. 

8

7b.

Leaves drying yellowish, greenish or (dark) brownish above.---all over Thailand.

13

8a.

Leaves with 12-16 pairs of nerves; petiole 14-55 mm long. 

1. A. arborea

8b.

Leaves with 5-11 pairs of nerves; petiole 6-32 mm long.

9

9a.

Leaves, at least most, ovate (to elliptic), lower surface with (indistinct) disc-like glands along margin, outside marginal arches; blades either 6-12 by 2-3.5 cm (SW, P) or 7-19.5 by 2-6.5 cm (SE). 

10

9b.

Leaves elliptic, lower surface without disc-like glands; blades 7-27.5 by 2-14.5 cm.—P.

11

10a.

Leaf blades 7-19.5 cm long, coriaceous, disc-like glands on lower surface more than 1 mm from margin (microscope!). Staminate inflorescences 25-50 mm long. Pistillate inflorescences up to 18 mm long. Fruiting pedicel 1-4 mm long.—SE.

3. A. duthieana

10b.

Leaf blades 6-12 cm long, papery, disc-like glands on lower surface along margin, never more than 1 mm from margin (microscope). Staminate inflorescences 6-14 mm long. Pistillate inflorescences 2-5 mm long. Fruiting pedicel up to 1(-1.5) mm long.—SW, P. 

9. A. microstachya

11a.

Leaf blades basally with indistinct glands at petiole attachment. Peduncle of staminate inflorescences absent to up to 2 mm long, glomerules (groups of flowers) spaced at c. 0.1 mm from each other. Fruits and ovaries inside with (sparsely) hairy column and septae. 

11. A. nigricans

11b.

Leaf blades basally without glands at petiole attachment. Peduncle of staminate inflorescences 0.5-4 mm long; glomerules basally spaced at 1-3 mm from each other to apically touching. Fruits and ovaries inside glabrous.

12

12a.

Leaves drying blackish brown above, coriaceous; angle between nerves and midrib less sharp, one but lowest nerve under 40-55° with midrib. Staminate bracts 1.2-1.5 mm long; flowers (including stamens) 2-3 mm long; anthers 0.3-0.4 mm long. Fruits 2- or 3(4)-locular, ellipsoid to globose, 10-22 by 9-13 mm.

10. A. nervosa

12b.

Leaves drying greyish (to blackish brown) above, papery; angle between nerves and midrib sharper, one but lowest nerve under 28-40° with midrib. Staminate bracts 0.8-1 mm long; flowers (including stamens) 0.5-1 mm long; anthers 0.2-0.3 mm long. Fruits 2-locular, ellipsoid, 10-15 by 6-10 mm.

13. A. penangensis

13a.

Petiole and leaves completely glabrous (read second lead careful!). 

14

13b.

Petioles and leaves at least with some hairs, mainly on midrib on lower surface (2 hairs or more are sufficient to follow this lead!, use hand lens or microscope, check especially young leaves).

20

14a.

Leaf base at petiole attachment with basal glands on upper surface; lower surface with disc-like glands within nerve arches.

15

14b.

Leaf base at petiole attachment without basal glands on upper surface; lower surface without or with disc-like glands submarginally, outside nerve arches.

19

15a.

Most leaves per branch ovate (broadest in lower third), blade 5.5-17 by 1.5-5.5 cm. Fruits drying light brownish. 

16

15b.

Most leaves per branch elliptic (broadest in or near middle), sometimes ovate (A. aurea, resembling A. planchoniana, but leaves more yellow, blade larger: 6-25 by 2-9.5 cm, also with conspicuous black basal glands). Fruits drying dark brown to black.

17

16a.

Leaves drying greenish brown to greenish yellow, blade 5.5-13 by 1.5-3.5 cm; basal glands at insertion on upper surface black. Rachis of staminate inflorescences 1.2-1.8 mm thick; bracts 0.3-0.7 mm high. Pistillate bracts 0.5-0.8 mm long. Fruits shortly stiped and beaked, 7-11 by 5-7 mm.

14. A. planchoniana

16b.

Leaves drying light greenish brownish, blade 7.5-17 by 2-5.5 cm; basal glands at insertion on upper surface brown. Rachis of staminate inflorescences 1.8-2.5 mm thick; bracts 1-1.2 mm long. Pistillate bracts 0.8-1.2 mm long. Fruits not stiped, but shortly beaked, 10-13 by 7-9 mm. 

Do not confuse this species with A. octandra var. yunnanensis. The two are part of the octandra complex, but A. yunnanensis is glabrous, while A. octandra var. yunnanensis is densely hairy.

20. A. yunnanensis

17a.

Leaves drying yellow to light greenish, equal on both sides; basal glands at insertion on upper surface very distinct, black. Staminate inflorescences 10-19 mm long. Pistillate inflorescences 2-4 mm long; flowers 1.8-2.5 mm long; sepals 4 or 5; stigmas 0.4-0.5 mm long. Fruits globose, 8-11 by 8-11 mm.

2. A. aurea

17b.

Leaves bright to yellowish green to dark brownish above, (somewhat) lighter or greenish (or brownish) below; basal glands at insertion on upper surface indistinct to distinct, brownish. Staminate inflorescences 16-46 mm long. Pistillate inflorescences 3-11 mm long; flowers 3-5 mm long; sepals 3 or 4; stigmas 0.8-3 mm long. Fruits ovoid to ellipsoid, 9-13 by 6-10 mm.

18

18a.

(Exception!, mostly with some hairs on leaves) Leaves drying dark brown above, somewhat lighter beneath, blade 5-23.5 by 2-8 cm. Ovaries and fruits with some hairs.

12. A. octandra var. octandra

18b.

Leaves drying bright to yellowish green (to reddish green) above, greenish (or brownish) beneath, blade 9-17.5 by 3.5-6.5 cm. Ovaries and fruits completely glabrous. 

19. A. wallichii

19a.

Leaves chartaceous, blade 11-33 by 3.5-13 cm, nerve pairs 8-14. Staminate inflorescences with glomerules touching; individual glomerules indistinct. Ovaries and fruits 3-locular, stigmas resembling 6-rayed disc. 

16. A. stellifera

19b.

Leaves papery, blade 6-17 by 2.5-7 cm, nerve pairs 6-9. Staminate inflorescences with glomerules widely spaced from each other, all well visible. Ovaries and fruits 2-locular, stigmas not resembling 6-rayed disc.

17. A. symplocoides

20a.

Lower surface of leaves with only very few hairs on midrib (and nerves); feeling glabrous. 

21

20b.

Lower surface of leaves (densely) hairy on complete venation (hairy to the touch).

22

21a.

Leaves drying greyish green to yellowish green, without basal glands at insertion on upper surface. Staminate inflorescences 5--22 mm long; flowers 0.3-0.7 mm long; sepals 0.2-0.4 mm long. Ovaries and fruits 3-locular; fruits fleshy with stigmas often sunken.

6. A. frutescens

21b.

Leaves drying grey-brown or green-brown (to yellowish green) above, greenish or brownish beneath, basal glands present at insertion on upper surface. Staminate inflorescences 16-46 mm long; flowers 0.7-1 mm long; sepals 0.7-1 mm long. Ovaries and fruits mainly 2-locular; fruits not fleshy, stigmas not sunken.

12. A. octandra var. octandra

22a.

Leaves drying light greenish; basal glands absent at insertion of leaf on upper surface. Staminate inflorescences 7-16 mm long. Ovaries and fruits 3-locular.

7. A. globifera

22b.

Leaves drying grey-brown or green-brown (to yellowish green or bluish green) above, greenish or reddish brownish beneath, basal glands present at insertion on upper surface. Staminate inflorescences 10-57 mm long. Ovaries and fruits 2-locular, exceptionally a few 3-locular.

23

23a.

Leaf base slightly cordate to truncate (to rounded), index 1.4-2.4, relatively broad, margin subentire.---N, NE, E, SW, SE.

A. villosa is almost inseparable from A. octandra var. yunnanensis, only the leaf base is different: broad based leaves shoul be identified as A. villosa.

18. A. villosa

23b.

Leaf base (rounded to) cuneate, index 1.5-2.9, relatively narrower; margin subentire to serrulate or crenulate.---N, E, SW, SE, P.

24

24a.

Leaves thinnish, easily crumbling when dry, margin rather distinctly serrulate.---SW, P.

12. A. octandra var. malesiana

24b.

Leaves thickish, not crumbling when dry, margin crenulate to at most slightly serrulate.---N, E, SE.

12. A. octandra var. yunnanensis

 

1. Aporosa arborea (Blume) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 470. 1866; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 214. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 61. 1973; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 322, fig. 3.8a, 3.11b, 4.1c; map 10.52. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 84, plate 16a, b. 2005 Leiocarpus arboreus Blume, Bijdr.: 582. 1825 Leiocarpus arborescens Hassk., Hort. Bogor. Descr.: 59. 1858Aporosa arborescens (Hassk.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 470. 1866 Daphniphyllum kingii Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 354. 1887 Baccaurea forbesii Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv: 56. 1922.

 

 

Shrubs to trees, up to 25 m high; young branches sparsely puberulous. Stipules caducous. Leaves: petiole reniform, 14-51 mm long, pulvini distinct; blade elliptic to obovate, 13.5-35 by 4.5-15 cm, length/width ratio 2.3-3, papery, drying bluish or greenish, blackening above, greyish-brown beneath, base rounded to acute, basal glands absent, margin slightly undulate, marginal glands small, apex acuminate to cuspidate, midrib at base sparsely puberulous above, midrib and nerves sparsely puberulous beneath, disc-like glands often few present along the margin; venation slightly sunken above, raised beneath, nerves 12-16 pairs. Inflorescences below the leaves to ramiflorous. Staminate inflorescences 1-6 together, 16-55 by 0.5-1 mm, (sparsely) tomentose; peduncle 0.5-4 mm long; bracts triangular, 0.3-0.5 mm long; glomerules with up to 20 densely set flowers, spaced at 0-4 mm at base of rachis to touching at apex. Staminate flowers 0.4-0.8 mm long, yellow; pedicel minute; sepals 4 or 5, obovate, 0.5-0.8 mm long; stamens 2, slightly exserted, 0.3-0.4 mm long; anthers c. 0.2 mm long; pistillode minute. Pistillate inflorescences 1-6 together, 12-36 mm long, (sparsely) tomentose; flowers up to 11, laxly set along rachis; bracts triangular, 0.3-0.5 mm long. Pistillate flowers 2-5 mm long; pedicel 1.5-3 mm long; sepals 5, ovate, patent to slightly reflexed, 0.6-1 mm long; ovary globose, 3(4)-locular, sparsely puberulous; stigmas slightly raised, 0.7-1.5 mm long, bifid to c. halfway. Fruits ellipsoid to globose, not stiped, young ones slightly beaked, 13-17 by 10-13 mm, yellow, drying (dark) brown, glabrous, slightly fleshy; septae and column glabrous. Seeds 9-11 by 5.5-7.5 by 2-4 mm; aril red.

    T h a i l a n dPENINSULAR: Pattani (To Mo), Yala (Khao Pi Sat), Narathiwat (Khao Sam Sip, Waeng).

 

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nThailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, West Java (type), Borneo.

    E c o l o g yPrimary or secondary evergreen forest; lowland, undulating country; on hillsides, ridge tops, and river sides; soil: granitic sand, brown. Altitude: 20-1000 m.

    V e r n a c u l a rPlueak khao (ลื) (Pattani).

    U s e sWood is used for furniture.

 

2. Aporosa aurea Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 351. 1887, nomen cons.; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 214. 1971; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 59. 1973; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 240, fig. 3.6c, 4.6d; map 10.14. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 86. 2005Excoecaria ? integrifolia Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3: 757. 1832, nomen rej.

 

Aporaure-Fruit-Photo1.jpg (56837 bytes)

 

Shrubs to trees, up to 24 m high, mainly glabrous, branches whitish to greyish. Stipules triangular, 4-5 by 2-3 mm, caducous. Leaves: petiole 7-38 mm long, reniform, pulvini distinct; blade (ovate to) elliptic, 6-25 by 2-9.5 cm, length/width ratio 2.6-3, chartaceous, drying above and beneath yellow to light greenish, base rounded to acute, basal glands distinct, blackish, margin subentire, marginal glands rare, apex acuminate to cuspidate, disc-like glands few, within marginal arches; venation distinct on both sides, nerves 8-12 pairs. Inflorescences axillary. Staminate inflorescences 2-7 together, 10-19 by 1.5-2 mm, hairy; peduncle absent; bracts triangular, 0.6-1 mm long; glomerules indistinct, with 8-10 densely set flowers, continuously spaced along rachis. Staminate flowers 0.7-1 mm long, scented, sessile; sepals 4, obovate, 1-1.5 mm long, free, light yellow; stamens 2, 0.5-0.8 mm long, not exserted, light yellow; anthers 0.2-0.3 mm long; pistillode absent. Pistillate inflorescences 1-3 together, 2-4 mm long, tomentose, flowers up to 5, densely set along rachis; bracts triangular, 0.6-1 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1.8-2.5 mm long; pedicel minute, sericeous; sepals 4 or 5, ovate to elliptic, patent, 0.7-1.2 mm long; ovary 2-locular, glabrous; stigmas 0.4-0.5 mm long, bifid to near base. Fruits globose, not stiped, not beaked, 8-11 by 8-11 mm, maroon-red, drying brownish to black, glabrous, not fleshy; septae and column sericeous. Seeds 6-8 by 7-8 by 3-4.5 mm, orange.

    T h a i l a n dCENTRAL: Nakhon Nayok; PENINSULAR: Chumphon, Ranong, Surat Thani, Phangnga, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phatthalung, Trang, Satun, Songkhla, Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat.

 

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nThailand, Malay Peninsula (type), and North Sumatra.

    E c o l o g yPrimary evergreen, mixed deciduous, secondary and disturbed forest, often along water or forest margins; soil: limestone, granite, sandstone, sand. Altitude: 0-500 m.

    V e r n a c u l a rKraduk khang (ะำดูกค่าง) (Nakhon Si Thammarat, Yala); kluai khao (ล้) (Trang); khi non (ี้), nam phueng lang kao (น้้งลัง) (Peninsular); ya-ding (าด) (Malay-Peninsular).

    U s e sWood may be used for furniture.

 

3. Aporosa duthieana King ex Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv: 99. 1922; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 329, map 10.56. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 87. 2005.

 

Trees, up to 20 m high, very sparsely puberulous. Stipules not seen, caducous. Leaves: petiole 7-25 mm long, reniform, glabrescent, pulvini distinct; blade ovate to elliptic, 7-19.5 by 2-6.5 cm, length/width ratio 2.6-3.5, coriaceous, drying blackish above, brownish beneath, base obtuse to cuneate, basal glands absent, margin lowly undulate to irregularly crenulate, marginal glands few, black, apex acuminate, upper surface glabrous, lower surface very sparsely puberulous on midrib and nerves at most, with very small disc glands along margin, more than 1 mm from margin; venation prominent on both sides, nerves 5-7 pairs. Inflorescences axillary. Staminate inflorescences 1-4 together, 25-50 by 3-4 mm, sparsely puberulous; peduncle 0-10 mm long; bracts triangular, c. 0.6 mm long; glomerules with up to 15 (or more?) densely set flowers, basally spaced up to 5(--11) mm to apically continuous along rachis. Staminate flowers 2.2-3.8 mm long, sessile, yellow; sepals 4(5), elliptic, 0.9-1.3 mm long; stamens 2-4, long exserted, 2.2-3.8 mm long; anthers c. 0.5 mm long; pistillode absent. Pistillate inflorescences up to 18 mm long, single, tomentose; flowers up to 9, rather densely arranged at apical end; bracts triangular, 0.5-0.8 mm long; pedicel small, tomentose. Pistillate flowers not seen; fruiting pedicels 1-4 mm long; sepals 3 or 4, ovate, patent, 0.8-1.2 mm long; ovary 2-locular, sparsely puberulous; stigmas 2-2.5 mm long, bifid to c. halfway. Fruits ellipsoid, not stiped, slightly beaked, 10-12 by 7-8 mm, drying brown to black, sparsely puberulous at base, glabrescent, not fleshy; septae and column glabrous. Seeds c. 8 by 5-5.5 by 4 mm.

    T h a i l a n dSOUTH-EASTERN: Chanthaburi (Khao Soi Dao, Pon Nam Ron).

 

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nMyanmar (type), Indochina, Thailand.

    E c o l o g yEvergreen forest. Altitude: 800-1000 m.

    V e r n a c u l a rMueat dut (หมดดูด) (General)

    N o t eResembles A. microstachya very closely, but differs in the thicker leaves and the glands at the lower leaf surface, which are set more than 1 mm from the margin (leaves thin, with glands touching the margin in A. microstachya). The staminate inflorescences are also very distinct, with long exserted stamens and basally well-spaced glomerules in A. duthieana. An overlapping, but distinctive character is the length of the fruiting pedicel (up to 4 mm in A. duthieana, up to 1(-1.5) mm in A. microstachya). Antidesma duthieana is a very rare species in Thailand, up to now only known from two specimens.

 

4. Aporosa falcifera Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 352. 1887; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 215. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 60. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 30. 1975; Schot, Blumea 40: 450. 1995; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 279, fig. 3.5c, 3.6h; map 10.36. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 87, fig. 16c, d. 2005  Aporosa hosei Merr., Philip. J. Sci. Bot. 11: 63. 1916.

 

 

Trees, up to 30 m high, (sparsely) puberulous when young, branches grey. Stipules falcate, 4-9 by 11-18 mm, beneath black disc-like glands present along margin, late caducous. Leaves: petiole terete, 9-17 mm long, pulvini distinct; blade elliptic, 8-25 by 2.5-7 cm, length/width ratio 3.2-3.4, coriaceous, drying bluish-green above, golden brownish underneath, base narrowly cordate to rounded, basal glands absent, margin subentire, marginal glands indistinct, apex acuminate, glabrous above, midrib and nerves sparsely puberulous beneath, disc-like glands outside nerve arches; venation (somewhat) raised on both sides, nerves 10-14 pairs. Inflorescences axillary. Staminate inflorescences 2-5 clustered together, 8-16 mm long, 2-3 mm in diameter, puberulous; peduncle 1-4 by 0.5-1 mm; bracts ovate, 0.7-0.9 mm long; glomerules indistinct, ellipsoid, consisting of 9-13 densely set flowers, spaced continuously along apical part of the rachis; pedicel minute. Staminate flowers 1-2 mm long; sepals 4 or 5, obovate, 0.3-0.6 mm long, connate to halfway; stamens 2(3), strongly exserted, 1-1.8 mm long; anthers 0.1-0.2 mm long; pistillode present. Pistillate inflorescences 2 or 3 together, 7-15 mm long, puberulous, flowers up to 11, densely set at apical 3/4th of rachis; bracts triangular, 0.2-0.3 mm long. Pistillate flowers 2-2.5 mm long; pedicel c. 1 mm long, sericeous; sepals 4 or 5, ovate, patent, 0.5-0.7 mm long; ovary 3-locular subglabrous; stigmas sessile, 2-2.5 mm long. Fruits ovoid, not stiped, not beaked, 9-15 by 6-12 mm, drying dark to greyish brown, sparsely hairy, glabrescent, not fleshy; septae and column glabrous. Seeds 5-6 by 3-4 by 2-3 mm.

    T h a i l a n dPENINSULAR: Ranong (Kraburi), Phangnga (Nam Tok Lam Pee).

 

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nThailand, Malay Peninsula (type), Sumatra, Borneo, North Sulawesi.

    E c o l o g yPrimary forest; low undulating land; on ridges, slopes, and along river banks; soil: sandy loam, rich, dark or greyish. Altitude: 5-1300 m.

    V e r n a c u l a rNam phueng daeng (น้้งดง) (Trang).

 

5. Aporosa ficifolia Baill., Adansonia 11: 177. 1873-1876; Gagnep. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 558. 1927; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 215. 1972; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 245, fig. 3.7i; map 10.17. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 88, fig. 16e. 2005.

 

 

(Small) trees, up to 10 m high, mainly hirsute. Stipules ovate, 7-11 by 4-8 mm, caducous. Leaves: petiole 4-24 by (1.5-)3-4 mm, terete, pulvini indistinct; blades elliptic (to obovate), 8-25 by 4.5-12 cm, length/width ratio 1.8-2.1, coriaceous, drying (greenish) brown, base rounded to acute, basal glands indistinct, hairy; margin subentire with at most protruding hairy glands, recurved, apex acute to acuminate, hairy on midrib and nerves above, densely hirsute on venation underneath, disc-like glands very few, indistinct within marginal arches; venation bullate, nerves 8-10 pairs. Inflorescences axillary. Staminate inflorescences 1 or 2 together, 15-26 mm long, hirsute, light yellow; peduncle absent; bracts triangular, 2-2.5 mm long; glomerules inconspicuous, with 6 or 7 densely set flowers, continuously set along rachis. Staminate flowers 1.5-2 mm long, scented; pedicel 0.3-1 mm long; sepals 4 or 5, obovate, 1.2-1.8 mm long, almost free; stamens 2 or 3, 1-1.5 mm long, slightly exserted; anthers 0.3-0.4 mm long; pistillode minute. Pistillate inflorescences 1 or 2 together, 4-7 mm long, hirsute, flowers up to 5, densely set along rachis; bracts triangular, 1.5-1.8 mm long. Pistillate flowers 3.5-4 mm long, sessile; sepals 4 or 5, ovate, patent, 1.5-2.2 mm long; ovary 2-locular, tomentose; stigmas 1-1.5 mm long, bifid to c. halfway. Fruits globose, not stiped, not beaked, 11-13 by 10-12 mm, yellow-green to brown outside, whitish inside, drying dark brown, tomentose; septae and column hairy. Seeds c. 7.5 by 4 by 3 mm.

    T h a i l a n dEASTERN: Surin (Kap Choeng), Si Sa Ket (Chong Bat Lak, Kantharalak), Ubon Ratchathani (Dong Thawang, Phu Jong Na-Yoi, Warin Chamrap).

 

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nThailand, Cambodia, Vietnam (type).

    E c o l o g yEvergreen, mixed, or dry deciduous forest; soil: sand. Altitude: 200-350 m.

    V e r n a c u l a rMueat khon (หม) (Chaiyaphum).

    N o t e A. serrata has often been confused with A. ficifolia (and A. ficifolia with A. pseudoficifolia; n.b. the latter does not occur in Thailand). A. ficifolia and A. serrata both have bullate leaves, but A. serrata has serrate, flat leaf margins, a thinner petiole, distinct basal leaf glands, shorter staminate inflorescences, and less hairy fruits than A. ficifolia (with recurved, subentire leaf margins, where at most the glands are protruding and the basal leaf glands are at most indistinct).

 

6. Aporosa frutescens Blume, Bijdr.: 514. 1825; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 216 (excl. A. banahaensis). 1971; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 59, 60. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 216. 1975; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 220, fig. 3.5i, 3.6v, 3.7c, 3.8p, 3.11l, 4.6c, 4.7a; map 10.4. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 88, fig. 17. 2005 Leiocarpus fruticosa Blume, Bijdr.: 582. 1825Aporosa fruticosa (Blume) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 475. 1866.

 

 

Shrubs to trees, up to 27 m high; young branches sparsely hirsute. Stipules ovate, oblique, 5-7 by 1.5-2 mm, late caducous. Leaves: petiole terete to reniform, 4-14 mm long, lower pulvinus mainly indistinct, upper distinct; blades ovate to elliptic, 6.5-20 by 1.5-7.5 cm, length/width ratio 2.7-4.3, papery, drying greyish green to yellowish green, base cuneate to slightly attenuate, basal glands absent, margin somewhat undulate to crenulate, marginal glands small, apex acuminate to cuspidate, hirsute on midrib and nerves, very sparsely puberulous beneath, disc-like glands few, along margin; venation (slightly) raised on both sides, nerves 8-10 pairs. Inflorescences axillary. Staminate inflorescences 1-4 together, 5-22 by 2-3.5 mm, (sparsely) puberulous; peduncle 0.5-1.5 mm long; bracts triangular, 0.4-0.7 mm long; glomerules with 7-10 densely set flowers, spaced 0.5-1 mm at base, apically slightly massed in a cylindric head. Staminate flowers 0.3-0.7 mm long, sessile; sepals (3) 4, obovate, 0.2-0.4 mm long; stamens 2 (or 3), 0.3-0.6 mm long, slightly exserted; anthers 0.1-0.2 mm long; pistillode absent. Pistillate inflorescences 1-3 together, 2-7 mm long, (sparsely) puberulous; flowers single, apically at rachis; bracts triangular, 0.5-0.8 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1.5-3 mm long; pedicel 1.5--2 mm long; sepals 5 (or 6), ovate, subequal, reflexed, 1.2-1.5 mm long; ovary 3-locular, sparsely puberulous to subglabrous; stigmas sessile, 0.5-1 mm long, apically lowly lobed. Fruits juicy, globose, often with sunken stigmas, not stiped, not beaked, 9-15 by 10-15 mm, yellow to red or dark purple, drying light or brownish yellow, sparsely puberulous to glabrous, fleshy; septae and column glabrous. Seeds 8-11 by 6-9 by 3-5 mm.

    T h a i l a n dSOUTH-EASTERN: Chanthaburi (Khao Sabap); PENINSULAR: Surat Thani (Surat Thani), Krabi (Khao Pra-Bang Kram), Nakhon Si Thammarat (Yong Waterfalls), Trang (Khao Chong), Pattani (To Mo), Narathiwat (Nikom Waeng, Sungai Padi).

 

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nMyanmar, Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java (type), Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, and the Moluccas.

    E c o l o g yPrimary, secondary, disturbed, logged over forest and kerangas; on hilltops, hillsides, hill ridges, along river banks, roads, lakes, and forest margins; in dry, swampy, or shaded areas; soil: a granitic or yellow-red loamy sand, red clay, blackish stony or a silty clay brown laterite. Altitude: 0-1500 m. Fruits apparently eaten by squirrels.

    V e r n a c u l a rKhruen (ืน) (Trat); mai phlong (้พล), som mao (า่) (Peninsular).

 

7. Aporosa globifera Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 347. 1887; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 59. 1973; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 248, fig. 4.3b; map 10.19. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 90. 2005 Aporusa lophodonta Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 33: 25. 1978).

 

Small trees, up to 12 m high; young branches tomentose. Stipules ovate, slightly oblique, 3.5-5 by 1.5-2 mm, caducous. Leaves: petiole terete, 6-16 mm long, pulvini indistinct; blades elliptic, 7-19.5 by 2-7.5 cm, length/width ratio 2.6-3.5, papery, drying light greenish, base obtuse to acute, basal glands absent, margin subentire to crenulate, marginal glands many, hairy; apex acuminate, upper surface hirsute on midrib, lower surface sparsely hirsute, disc-like glands few to regular, within marginal arches; venation flat (to slightly) raised, especially below, nerves 8-11 pairs. Inflorescences axillary. Staminate inflorescences 2-6 together, 7-16 by 1.5-2 mm, tomentose; peduncle absent; bracts triangular, 0.5-0.8 mm long; glomerules with 3-5 laxly set flowers, set rather continuously along rachis. Staminate flowers 0.5-0.8 mm long, sessile; sepals 4, obovate, 0.5-0.9 mm long; stamens 2, slightly exserted, 0.4-0.7 mm long; anthers 0.1-0.2 mm long; pistillode absent. Pistillate inflorescences 1 or 2 together, 3-4 mm long., densely tomentose, flowers up to 3, densely set along rachis; bracts triangular, 0.3-0.5 mm long. Pistillate flowers not seen, sessile; sepals in fruit 5, ovate, patent, 0.5-0.8 mm long; ovary 3-locular, sericeous; stigmas 3, slightly raised, 0.8-1 mm long, bifid to c. halfway. Infructescences c. 4 mm long. Fruits globose to broadly ovoid, not stiped, not beaked, 11-14 by 13-16 mm, drying (dark) reddish brown, sparsely hairy, wall 1-2 mm thick, not fleshy; septae and column subpilose. Seeds 8-9 by 6-7 by 3-5 mm.

    T h a i l a n dPENINSULAR: Phangnga (Khao Nongnong).

 

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nThailand, Malay Peninsula (type), Sumatra.

    E c o l o g yPrimary or disturbed forest, swampy or shady areas. Altitude: 5-360 m.

    V e r n a c u l a rMueat klom (หม) (Peninsular).

 

8. Aporosa lunata (Miq.) Kurz, J. As. Soc. Beng. 42.2, 4: 239. 1873; Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 352. 1887; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 216. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 59. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 38. 1975; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 281, fig. 3.6k, 10.5; map 10.37. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 90, fig. 18. 2005Antidesma lunatum Miq., Suppl.: 467. 1860.

 

 

Trees, up to 27 m high; branches green, tomentose. Stipules falcate, 6-9 by 11-15 mm, mainly persistent. Leaves: petiole reniform, 6-20 mm long, pulvini distinct; blade elliptic to obovate, 9.5-43 by 3.5-13 cm, length/width ratio 2.7-3.3, coriaceous, drying bright green to reddish brown above, (light) golden brown beneath, base obtuse to emarginate, basal glands absent, margin subentire, marginal glands black, indistinct, apex acuminate, mainly hairy on midrib above, hirsute on venation beneath, disc-like glands many, outside marginal nerve arches; venation bullate, nerves 10-14 pairs. Inflorescences axillary. Staminate inflorescences 3-6 together, 15-33 mm long, puberulous; peduncle 1.5-4 mm long; bracts not seen; glomerules indistinct, with more than 10 flowers, spaced continuously along rachis. Staminate flowers 1.5-2.5 mm long; pedicel minute; sepals 4 or 5, obovate, 0.5-1 mm long, connate to halfway; stamens 2 or 3, strongly exserted, 1.2-2 mm long; anthers 0.1-0.2 mm long; pistillode present. Pistillate inflorescences 2-5 together, 7-27(-45) mm long, 1-1.2 mm in diameter, puberulous, flowers up to 15, densely arranged at apical 7/8th of rachis; bracts triangular, 0.4-0.5 mm long. Pistillate flowers 2-3 mm long; pedicel 1-1.5 mm long, densely sericeous; sepals 5 or 6, elliptic, patent, c. 1 mm long; staminodes 0 (2 or 3); ovary 3(4)-locular, tomentose; stigmas sessile, 2-3 mm long, bifid to c. halfway. Fruits ovoid, sometimes slightly flask-shaped, not stiped, not beaked, 10-16 by 9-14 mm, sparsely hairy, glabrescent, red, not fleshy; septae and column glabrous. Seeds 8-9 by 7-8 by 3-4 mm.

    T h a i l a n dPENINSULAR: Phangnga (Kao Bangta), Krabi (Ko Pu), Trang (Khao Sung).

 

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nThailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra (type), Java, Borneo.

    E c o l o g yPrimary and secondary lowland evergreen forest; on hillsides, ridges, and along river banks; in flat, hilly, and moist land; soil: sandstone, sandy and clay rich, granitic rock, or granodioirite derived. Altitude: low to 1300 m.

    V e r n a c u l a rMueat siao (หมี้) (Peninsular).

 

9. Aporosa microstachya (Tul.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 474. 1866.; Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 349. 1887; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23: 2. 1969, excl. A. maingayi; Kew Bull. 26: 217. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 61. 1973; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 340, map 10.63. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 92. 2005Scepa microstachya Tul., Annal. Sci. Nat. Ser. 3, 15: 256. 1851Aporosa tulasneana Baill., Étud. Gén. Euph.: 645. 1858, nomen.

 

Shrubs to trees, up to 11 m tall, (sparsely) tomentose. Stipules ovate, 3-4 by 1-1.5 mm, caducous. Leaves: petiole 6-8 mm long, reniform, tomentose, pulvini rather distinct; blade ovate (to elliptic), 6-12 by 2-3.5 cm, length/width ratio 3-3.4, papery, drying bluish, greyish green above, blackening, brownish below, base cuneate, basal glands absent, margin lowly undulate to crenulate, marginal glands regular, small, blackish grey; apex cuspidate to caudate, lower surface puberulous, glabrescent, disc-like glands few, at margin; venation prominent on both sides, nerves 5-7 pairs. Inflorescences axillary. Staminate inflorescences 2-5 together, 6-14 mm long, sparsely puberulous; peduncle 0-0.5 mm long; bracts inconspicuous; glomerules mostly indistinct, 7-10 densely set flowers, continuously spaced along rachis. Staminate flowers 0.4-0.6 mm long, sessile, red to purple; sepals 4, obovate, 0.3-0.5 mm long, puberulous; stamens 2, slightly exserted, 0.4-0.6 mm long; anthers 0.1-0.2 mm long; pistillode absent. Pistillate inflorescences 1-3 together, 2-5 mm long, puberulous; flowers up to 5, often densely set along rachis (to laxly at base); bracts triangular, 0.4-0.6 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1.5-2.5 mm long, (sub)sessile; sepals 4, ovate, patent, 0.5-0.7 mm long; ovary 2-locular, puberulous; stigmas 1.5-2.5 mm long, bifid to near base. Fruits (narrowly) ovoid, not stiped, slightly beaked, 9-12 by 5-6.5 mm, green tinged red to yellow to brown, drying dark brown to black, sparsely hairy, not fleshy; septae and column glabrous. Seeds 6-7.5 by 4.5-5 by 2.5-3.5 mm.

    T h a i l a n dSOUTH-WESTERN: Kanchanaburi; PENINSULAR: Ranong, Surat Thani, Phangnga, Krabi, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Trang, Satun, Pattani.

 

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nMyanmar (type), Thailand, Malay Peninsula.

    E c o l o g yDisturbed or primary evergreen forest; soil: shale, granitic or limestone bedrock. Altitude: 10-480 m.

    V e r n a c u l a rKrim khao (ริม) (Ranong); a-noh-pha-ko (นาพา) (Malay-Pattani); tan dam (านด) (Peninsular).

    N o t eSee note under A. duthieana.

 

10. Aporosa nervosa Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 350. 1887; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23: 4. 1969; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 61. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 39. 1975; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 342, fig. 3.6m, 3.7a, 3.11a, 4.2a; map 10.64. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 92, fig. 19. 2005 Aporosa sphaeridiophora Merr. var. pubescens J.J.Sm., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. ser. 3, 6: 109. 1924.

 

 

Trees, up to 30 m high; young branches (sparsely) puberulous. Stipules narrowly ovate, 7-10 by 3-5 mm, caducous. Leaves: petiole terete, 8-21 mm long, sparsely puberulous, pulvini distinct; blade elliptic, 8.5-21 by 2.5-8 cm, length/width ratio 2.6-3.4, coriaceous, drying greenish grey to greenish blue above, greyish brown beneath, base obtuse to attenuate, basal glands absent, margin slightly undulate to crenulate, marginal glands regular, large, apex acuminate to cuspidate, midrib basally very sparsely puberulous above, sparsely hirsute beneath, disc-like glands absent; venation especially raised beneath, nerves 6-9 pairs. Inflorescences axillary. Staminate inflorescences 1-3 together, 14-57 by 1.5-2 mm, puberulous; peduncle 2-4 mm long; bracts triangular, 1.2-1.5 mm long; glomerules with 6-10 flowers, spaced at 2-3 mm at base to touching at apex. Staminate flowers 2-3 mm long; pedicel minute; sepals 4, obovate, ridged, 1.2-1.5 mm long; stamens 3 or 4, exserted, 2-3 mm long; anthers 0.3-0.4 mm long; pistillode absent. Pistillate inflorescences 1 or 2 together, 5-9 mm long, (sparsely) puberulous, flowers up to 9, rather densely set along rachis but more densely so apically; bracts triangular, 0.7-0.9 mm long. Pistillate flowers 2-3 mm long; pedicel 0.8-1 mm long; sepals 4, ovate, patent, 0.8-1.2 mm long; ovary 2- or 3(4)-locular, (sparsely) puberulous; stigmas sessile, 0.8-1.2 mm long, bifid to near base. Fruits ellipsoid to globose, not stiped, not beaked, 10-22 by 9-13 mm, sparsely hairy, not fleshy; septae and column glabrous. Seeds 7-9 by 5-6 by 2-3 mm.

    T h a i l a n dPENINSULAR: Nakhon Si Thammarat (Yong Waterfalls), Songkhla (Boriphat Waterfalls).

 

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nThailand, Malay Peninsula (type), Sumatra, Java, Borneo.

    E c o l o g yPrimary and secondary mixed dipterocarp forest; lowland, high, or alluvial forest; flat or undulating land, on hillsides, ridge tops, near swamps, and river banks; soil: clay or sandy loam or granitic sand, black or red. Altitude: 20-800 m.

    V e r n a c u l a rMueat khaeng (หม) (Peninsular).

 

11. Aporosa nigricans Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 347. 1887; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 217. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 61. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 39. 1975; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 258, map 10.24. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 94. 2005.

 

Shrubs to trees, up to 18 m high; young branches sparsely puberulous. Stipules not seen, caducous. Leaves: petiole reniform, 9-32 mm long, sparsely puberulous, pulvini distinct; blade elliptic, 12.5-27.5 by 4.5-14.5 cm, length/width ratio 1.9-2.8, papery, drying brownish or greenish above, darker beneath, blackening, base rounded to acute, basal glands small, indistinct, margin somewhat undulate to crenate or serrate, marginal glands distinct, apex acuminate to cuspidate, glabrous above, sparsely hirsute beneath, disc-like glands absent; venation ± flat above, raised beneath, nerves 8-11 pairs. Inflorescences axillary. Staminate inflorescences 1-6 together, 8-28 by 1.8-2.5 mm, tomentose; peduncle 0-2 mm long; bracts triangular, 0.6-1 mm long; glomerules with 13-20 densely set flowers, spaced at c. 0.1 mm along rachis. Staminate flowers 0.4-0.6 mm long; pedicel 0.2-0.3 mm long; sepals (3)4(5), obovate, 0.5-0.8 mm long; stamens 2, not to slightly exserted, 0.3-0.6 mm long; anthers 0.1-0.2 mm long; pistillode minute. Pistillate inflorescences 1-3 together, 2-9 mm long, tomentose; flowers up to 9, densely arranged along the rachis; bracts triangular, 0.8-1.6 mm long. Pistillate flowers 3-4.5 mm long; pedicel 0.3-1 mm long; sepals (3) 4, ovate, patent, 1.2-2 mm long; staminode occasionally 1; ovary 2-locular, densely tomentose; stigmas sessile to slightly raised, 0.5-1.5 mm long, (almost) completely divided. Fruits ovoid, not stiped, not beaked, 10-12 by 9-12 mm, drying blackish to brownish with yellowish-whitish sutures, sparsely hairy, not fleshy; septae and column (sparsely) sericeous, mostly along margins. Seeds 6-8.5 by 6-8 by 3-4 mm.

    T h a i l a n dPENINSULAR: Trang (Ko Chang), Songkhla (Khao Nam Kang), Pattani (Ban Bacho), Narathiwat (Bala-Hala).

 

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nNicobar Islands, Thailand, Malay Peninsula (type), Sumatra, Borneo.

    E c o l o g yPrimary, secondary, logged over, cleared, or open forest, wet kerangas, or margins of swamp forest; in flat to low undulating land; on roadsides, hillsides, hill ridges, steep or gentle slopes; soil: sandy or sandstone with clay, brown to black. Altitude: 5-600 m.

    V e r n a c u l a rKrom khao (รม) (Nakhon Si Thammarat).

 

12. Aporosa octandra (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Vickery, Enum. Fl. Pl. Nepal 3: 193. 1982; Chakrab. & Gangop., J. Econ. Tax. Bot. 17: 166. 1993; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 259, map 10.25. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 95. 2005 Myrica? octandra Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, Prod. Fl. Nepal: 56. 1825 Aporosa roxburghii Baill., Étud. Gén. Euph.: 645. 1858 Alnus dioica Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 2, 3: 580. 1832 Scepa stipulacea Lindl., Nat. Syst. ed.2: 441. 1836 Aporosa lindleyana (Wight) Baill. var. macrostachya Müll.Arg., Flora 47: 519. 1847Aporosa oblonga Wall. ex Müll.Arg., Linnaea 32: 78. 1863Aporosa dioica (Roxb.) Müll.Arg. in DC., Prod. 15, 2: 472. 1866; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 215. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 60. 1973Aporosa villosula Kurz, J. As. Soc. Beng. 42.2, 4: 239. 1873 Aporosa clellandii Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 348. 1887 Aporosa sp. nov.: Craib, Contr. Fl. Siam.: 188. 1912 ?Aporosa obovata Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv: 100. 1922 Aporosa microcalyx (Hassk.) Hassk. var. intermedia Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv: 102. 1922Aporosa wallichii Hook.f. var. ambigua Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 35: 384. 1980.

 

Shrubs to trees, up to 15 m high; young branches sparsely tomentose. Stipules (narrowly) ovate, 6-9 by 3-5 mm, caducous. Leaves: petiole terete, lowly ribbed, 7-23 mm long, pulvini distinct; blade ovate to elliptic, 5-23.5 by 2-8 cm; length/width ratio 1.5-2.9, papery to coriaceous, drying grey-brown or green-brown above, greenish or brownish beneath, base rounded to cuneate, basal glands small, margin slightly undulate to crenulate or serrate, marginal glands regular, apex acuminate to cuspidate, very sparsely puberulous, especially on midrib and nerves beneath, disc-like glands regular, within marginal arches; venation especially raised beneath, nerves 8-11 pairs. Inflorescences axillary. Staminate inflorescences 1-5 together, 16-46 by 1.5-2.5 mm, puberulous; peduncle absent; bracts triangular, c. 0.5 mm long; glomerules with 6-8 laxly set flowers, continuously spaced along rachis. Staminate flowers 0.7-1 mm long, sessile; sepals 4, obovate, 0.7-1 mm long; stamens 2, slightly exserted, 0.5-1.2 mm long; anthers 0.2-0.3 mm long; pistillode indistinct. Pistillate inflorescences 1-3 together, 3-11 mm long, (red) puberulous, flowers up to 11, densely arranged along rachis; bracts triangular, 0.6-0.9 mm long. Pistillate flowers 3-5 mm long, sessile; sepals 4, ovate, patent, 0.7-1 mm long; staminodes occasionally 2; ovary stiped, 2(3)-locular, (sparsely) sericeous; stigmas slightly raised, 0.8-2 mm long, bifid to near base. Fruits ovoid to ellipsoid (to globose), young ones slightly stiped, slightly beaked, 9-13 by 6-10 mm, drying (dark) brown to black, sparsely hairy, not fleshy; septae and column sparsely sericeous. Seeds 7-8 by 5-6 by 3-4 mm.

    T h a i l a n dSee under varieties.

    D i s t r i b u t i o nFrom Pakistan, North India, and Nepal (type) to South China, South-east Asia, West Malesia and Sulawesi.

    E c o l o g yPrimary, secondary, subtropical, evergreen, or (mixed) deciduous forest, savannah, or belukar, moist to rather dry; in shaded understorey or (partly) open places; on hills, (steep) slopes, forest edges, roadsides, plains, thickets, and along streams; soil: sandy, sandstone, granitic sand, limestone, clay, rocky, or rocky loam; granite or sandstone bedrock. Altitude: 0-1500 m.

    U s e sWood used for house posts and fuel. Leaves used to dye cloth black. Bark chewed as a kind of Betel by Karin Hill tribe (Thailand).

    N o t eAn extremely variable species in leaf size and indumentum, especially in Thailand, where the different varieties co-occur, together with almost every thinkable intermediate form. Intermediate forms with especially A. villosa, but also with A. wallichii and A. yunnanensis exist. The species has been subdivided into four varieties, three of which occur in Thailand [var. chinensis (Champ. ex Benth.) Schot occurs just outside Thailand]. The definition of the varieties malesiana and yunnanensis should be strictly used, all other material can be referred to var. octandra.

 

Key to the varieties

1a.

Branchlets (sparsely) puberulous. Leaves (sparsely) puberulous. Pistillate flower: ovary sparsely puberulous, glabrescent towards the apex. --- India, Thailand, Indochina to South China.

1. var. octandra

1b.

Branchlets tomentose. Leaves (sparsely) puberulous above, (sparsely) tomentose beneath, venation tomentose. Pistillate flower: ovary tomentose. --- Malesia or North Thailand and Indochina to Yunnan.

2

2a.

Leaves thinnish, margin rather distinctly serrulate.

2. var. malesiana

2b.

Leaves thickish, margin at most slightly serrulate.

3. var. yunnanensis

 

1. var. octandra: Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 262. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 96. 2005.

 

For nomenclature and description see under species.

 

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     T h a i l a n d NORHTERN: Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Nan, Phrae, Lampang, Sukhothai, Phitsanulok, Nakhon Sawan; NORTH-EASTERN: Loei, Nong Khai, Nakhon Phanom; EASTERN: Chaiyaphum, Nakhon Ratchasima; SOUTH-WESTERN: Uthai Thani, Kanchanaburi, Phetchaburi; SOUTH-EASTERN: Chon Buri, Rayong, Chanthaburi, Trat; PENINSULAR: Trang, Songkhla, Yala.

 

l = var. octandra; q = var. chinensis; u = var. malesiana; « = var. yunnanensis

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o n From Pakistan, North India, and Nepal (type) to South China and South-east Asia (Thailand).

    V e r n a c u l a r Som kung yai (้งญ่) (Ratchaburi); khon ta chang (้าง) (Chumphon); khrop bai yai (ญ่) (Trang); nuan sian (นาลี้) (Surat Thani).

 

2. var. malesiana Schot, Blumea 40 (1995) 452; Blumea Suppl. 17: 263, fig. 3.5a, 3.6b. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 96. 2005Scepa aurita Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat. 3me sér., 15: 254. 1851 Tetractinostigma microcalyx Hassk., Hort. Bogor. Descr.: 55. 1858 Aporosa aurita (Tul.) Baill., Étud. Gén. Euph.: 645. 1858 Aporosa cumingiana Baill., Étud. Gén. Euph.: 645. 1858, nomen Aporosa microcalyx (Hassk.) Hassk., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 6: 714. 1859.

 

 

Young branches tomentose. Leaves: petiole sparsely puberulous; blade margin usually serrulate, thin, slightly shiny; sparsely puberulous, midrib and nerves puberulous beneath, marginal arches distinct. Pistillate flowers: ovary tomentose.

    T h a i l a n dSOUTH-WESTERN: Kanchanaburi; PENINSULAR: Chumphon, Ranong, Surat Thani, Phangnga, Trang, Satun, Songkhla, Narathiwat.

 

l = var. octandra; q = var. chinensis; u = var. malesiana; « = var. yunnanensis

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nThailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, West Java, Borneo, the Philippines (type), Sulawesi.

    V e r n a c u l a rKaem on (้น), khi on (ี้้น), krom (รม), krom bai yai (รมญ่), som () (Peninsular), saka () (Malay).

    N o t eThe large variability of A. octandra stops at about the Isthmus of Kra (North Peninsula); southwards the species is quite uniform in the form of A. octandra var. malesiana.

 

3. var. yunnanensis (Pax & K.Hoffm.) Schot, Blumea 40: 452. 1995; Blumea Suppl. 17: 264. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 96. 2005 Aporosa microcalyx (Hassk.) Hassk. var. yunnanensis Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv: 102. 1922Aporosa dioica (Roxb.) Müll.Arg. var. yunnanensis (Pax & K.Hoffm.) H.S.Qiu, Guihaia 11: 17. 1991.

 

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Young branches tomentose. Leaves: thickish, rather shiny, (sparsely) tomentose, venation tomentose. Pistillate flowers: ovary tomentose.

    T h a i l a n dNORTHERN: Chiang Mai (Ban Maewin, Doi Chiang Dao, Doi Inthanon, Doi Suthep, Huai Bohng, Pang Bo); SOUTH-WESTERN: Phetchaburi (Kaeng Krachan); EASTERN: Chaiyaphum (Phu Khieo, Tungkamang); SOUTH-EASTERN: Chon Buri (Khao Chichan).

 

l = var. octandra; q = var. chinensis; u = var. malesiana; « = var. yunnanensis

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nChina (type), Thailand, Indochina.

    V e r n a c u l a rMueat lot (หมลด) (Northern).

    U s e sBark and wood are medicinally used (dried, grinded, fresh or chewed).

    N o t eBecause of the tomentose indumentum, the distinction with this variety and A. villosa is very difficult to make. The broad-based leaves (rounded to cordate) should be identified as A. villosa, and the more cuneate ones as var. yunnanensis. In addition, A. octandra var. yunnanensis has a more distinct glandular-serrate margin, which is less well developed in A. villosa. In case of doubt, a specimen is best identified as A. villosa.

 

13. Aporosa penangensis (Ridl.) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23: 3. 1969; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 61. 1973; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 344, fig. 3.8n; map 10.65. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 97, fig. 16h, Plate II: 3. 2005Aporosa maingayi Hook.f. var. penangensis Ridl., Fl. Malay Pen. 3: 242. 1924.

 

   

 

Trees, up to 21 m high; young branches (sparsely) hirsute. Stipules narrowly ovate, 5-11 by 1.5-4 mm, caducous. Leaves: petiole reniform, 6-13 mm long, (sparsely) hirsute, pulvini distinct; blade elliptic, 7-20 by 2-7 cm, length/width ratio 2.9-3.5, papery, drying greyish (to blackish brown) above, light brownish beneath, base obtuse to slightly attenuate, basal glands absent, margin slightly undulate to crenulate, marginal glands indistinct, apex acuminate to cuspidate, midrib at base sparsely hirsute above, venation sparsely hirsute beneath, disc-like glands absent; venation especially raised beneath, nerves 7-9 pairs. Inflorescences axillary. Staminate inflorescences 1-4 together, 9-18 by 0.7-0.9 mm, tomentose; peduncle 0.5-1.5 mm long; bracts triangular, 0.8-1 mm long; glomerules with less than 10 flowers, spaced at 1-2 mm at base of rachis to touching at apex. Staminate flowers 0.5-1 mm long; pedicel minute; sepals 4, narrowly obovate, ridged, 1-1.5 mm long; stamens 3, slightly exserted, 0.6-0.8 mm long; anthers 0.2-0.3 mm long; pistillode minute. Pistillate inflorescences 1-4 together, 5-11 mm long, tomentose; flowers up to 9, rather densely set along the rachis; bracts triangular, 0.8-1.2 mm long. Pistillate flowers 2.5-3 mm long; pedicel minute, tomentose; sepals 4, ovate, subequal, patent, 1-1.5 mm long; ovary 2-locular, (sparsely) sericeous; stigmas 2, sessile, 1-1.2 mm long, bifid to near base. Fruits ellipsoid, young ones slightly stiped, not beaked, 10-15 by 6-10 mm, sparsely puberulous, not fleshy, yellowish to light brown; septae and column glabrous. Seeds 7-10 by 5-6 by 3-4 mm; aril orange.

    T h a i l a n dPENINSULAR: Ranong (Khao Tehin), Phatthalung (Khao Pu-Khao Ya National Park, Tamote Falls National Park), Trang (Khao Chong), Songkhla (Boripat Falls).

 

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nThailand, Malay Peninsula (type).

    E c o l o g yPrimary or logged, evergreen forest, or seraya; in lowland, on hillsides, gentle slopes, ridges, or flat land, near rivers, or along roads; soil: sandstone, granitic bedrock. Altitude: 50-780 m.

    V e r n a c u l a rTakhop nok (ขบ) (Peninsular).

 

14. Aporosa planchoniana Baill. ex Müll.Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15, 2: 475. 1866; Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 350. 1887; Gagnep. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 560. 1927; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 217. 1972; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 264, fig. 3.8k, 3.11f; map 10.26. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 98, fig. 16f, g. 2005.

 

 

Shrubs to trees, up to 10 m high; young branches very sparsely puberulous, rest mainly glabrous. Stipules triangular, 2-3 by 1.2-1.5 mm, caducous. Leaves: petiole reniform, 3-8 mm long, pulvini distinct; blade ovate (to elliptic), 5.5-13 by 1.5-3.5 cm, length/width ratio c. 3.7, papery, drying greenish brown to greenish yellow on both sides, base acute to cuneate, basal glands blackish; margin subentire to crenulate, marginal glands few, brownish-black, apex cuspidate, completely glabrous, dots on upper surface dark, densely set, disc-like glands few, within marginal arches; venation (slightly) raised on both sides, nerves 9-11 pairs. Inflorescences axillary. Staminate inflorescences 1-3 together, 12-37 by 1.2-1.8 mm, puberulous, yellow; peduncle absent; bracts triangular, 0.3-0.7 mm long; glomerules with 4-6 densely set flowers, slightly spaced from each other along rachis. Staminate flowers 0.5-1 mm long, sessile, white to yellow; sepals (3)4(-6), obovate, 0.4-0.8 mm long, free; stamens 2, 0.4-0.9 mm long, not to slightly exserted; anthers 0.2-0.3 mm long; pistillode indistinct. Pistillate inflorescences 1 or 2 together, 3-6 mm long, densely red puberulous, flowers up to 9, densely set along rachis; bracts triangular, 0.5-0.8 mm long. Pistillate flowers 3-5 mm long, sessile, yellow-green; sepals 3 or 4, ovate, ascending, 0.4-0.7 mm long; staminodes 0 or 2; ovary 2-locular, 2-3.5 mm long; stigmas slightly raised, 0.5-1 mm long, bifid to c. halfway. Fruits ovoid to ellipsoid, shortly stiped and beaked, 7-11 by 5-7 mm, drying (light) brown, glabrous, not fleshy; septae and column sparsely sericeous. Seeds 5-7.5 by 4-5 by 2-4 mm.

    T h a i l a n dEASTERN: Surin, Ubon Ratchatani; SOUTH-WESTERN: Prachuap Khiri Khan; CENTRAL: Saraburi; SOUTH-EASTERN: Sa Kaeo, Chon Buri, Chanthaburi, Trat; PENINSULAR: Chumphon, Ranong, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi, Trang.

 

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nMyanmar (type), Thailand, Indo China.

    E c o l o g ySecondary and disturbed evergreen or mixed deciduous forest, shaded bamboo forest; in dry, light, open, or shrubby areas; along rivers, roads, by swamps and in clearings; soil: sandy. Altitude: 0-400 m.

    V e r n a c u l a rTa krim (ริม) (Southwestern); phrik thai dong (ริดง), mak thaen (หม่น) (Prachin Buri);  phuang pla krim (ูลาริม) (Chanthaburi); i kim (ิม) (Trat); kim (ิม) (Southeastern); ka krim (ริม), krim (ริม), Ma krim (ริม) (Peninsular).

    N o t e.---Closely resembles A. yunnanensis and to a lesser extent A. wallichii (and of course A. octandra). It differs mainly from A. yunnanensis in the smaller, narrower leaves with short petiole, distinct basal glands, and with dense dots on the upper surface (indistinct or absent in A. yunnanensis), also the staminate inflorescences and fruits are smaller and narrower.

 

15. Aporosa serrata Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 70: 234. 1923; in Lecomte, Fl. Iindo-Chine 5: 557. 1927; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 267, fig. 3.6a, 3.7f, 3.8l; map 10.28. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 98, fig. 20. 2005.

 

 

Shrubs to trees, up to 12 m high, mainly hirsute. Stipules ovate, 5-7 by 3-4 mm, caducous. Leaves: petiole 9-17 by 1.5-2.5 mm, terete, pulvini rather indistinct; blade elliptic, 9-19 by 4-8.5 cm, length/width ratio 2.2-2.5, coriaceous, drying mainly brownish to also somewhat greenish above, base obtuse to cuneate, basal glands present, hairy; margin serrate to dentate, flat, marginal glands in teeth hairy; apex acuminate, hairy on venation above, densely hirsute on venation underneath, disc-like glands few, within marginal arches, indistinct; venation bullate, nerves 8 or 9 pairs. Inflorescences axillary. Staminate inflorescences 2-5 together, 9-18 mm long, hirsute; peduncle absent; bracts triangular, 0.8-1.2 mm long; glomerules variably distinct, with 6-12 densely set flowers, spaced at 0-0.1 mm along rachis. Staminate flowers 0.8-1.2 mm long, yellow; pedicel minute, sepals 4 or 5, obovate, 0.5-0.8 mm long, almost free; stamens 2 (or 4), 0.5-1 mm long, slightly exserted; anthers 0.3-0.4 mm long; pistillode minute. Pistillate inflorescences 1-3 together, 2-4 mm long, hirsute; flowers up to 7, densely set along rachis; bracts triangular, 0.8-1 mm long. Pistillate flowers 2-3.5 mm long, sessile, yellow; sepals 4 (or 5), ovate, 0.8-1 mm long; ovary 2-locular, hirsute; stigmas 0.5-1 mm long, almost completely divided. Fruits ellipsoid, not stiped, not beaked, 8-9 by 5.5-6 mm, drying dark brown, subhirsute, not fleshy; septae and column hairy. Seeds not seen.

    T h a i l a n dNORTHERN: Phitsanulok (Ban Maeo, Thung Salang Luang); NORTH-EASTERN: Phetchabun (Lom Sak Kao), Loei (Chiang Khan, Wang Sapung).

 

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nThailand, Laos, Cambodia (type), Peninsular Malaysia.

    E c o l o g yEvergreen or mixed deciduous forest, evergreen scrub, often moist areas. Altitude: 200-300 m.

    V e r n a c u l a rMueat ton (หม้น) (Northeastern).

    N o t eSee note under A. ficifolia.

 

16. Aporosa stellifera Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 352. 1887; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 60. 1973; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 232, fig. 3.5f, 3.6g; map 10.10. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 100, fig. 21a, b. 2005.

 

 

Trees, up to 20 m high; young branches glabrous. Stipules caducous. Leaves: petiole slightly reniform, 9-33 by 0.8-2.5 mm, pulvini distinct; blade ovate to elliptic, 11-33 by 3.5-13 cm, length/width ratio 2.4-3.1, chartaceous, drying yellowish green to greyish green on both sides, base rounded to cuneate, basal glands absent, margin subentire, marginal glands indistinct, apex acuminate to cuspidate, completely glabrous, disc-like glands absent to seldom along margin; venation (slightly) raised on both sides, nerves 8-14 pairs. Inflorescences axillary to ramiflorous. Staminate inflorescences 1-10 together, 7-44 by 1.-2.5 mm, subglabrous to sparsely tomentose; peduncle 1-3 mm long; bracts triangular, 0.3-1.2 mm long; glomerules with 7-10 densely set flowers, spaced (0.5-1 mm) at base of rachis to touching at apex. Staminate flowers 0.3-0.9 mm long; pedicel 0-0.2 mm long; sepals 3 or 4, obovate, 0.4-0.8 mm long; stamens 2, not to slightly exserted, 0.3-0.9 mm long; anthers 0.1-0.2 mm long; pistillode absent to present. Pistillate inflorescences 2-6 together, 4-7 mm long, very sparsely puberulous; flowers up to 7, at apical end of rachis; bracts ovate, 0.4-0.8 mm long. Pistillate flowers 3-4.5 mm long; pedicel 1-3(-7 in fruit) mm long; sepals 5 or 6, ovate, reflexed, 0.7-1.2 mm long; ovary 3(4)-locular, glabrous; stigmas sessile, 1-1.5 mm long, bifid to almost completely divided. Fruits ovoid to ellipsoid, not stiped, not beaked, 14-21 by 11-18 mm, glabrous, fleshy, pericarp up to 3 mm thick; septae and column glabrous. Seeds 6.5-10.5 by 5.5-10 by 3-5 mm.

    T h a i l a n dPENINSULAR: Yala (Than To), Narathiwat (Nikom Waeng).

 

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nThailand, Malay Peninsula (type), Sumatra.

    E c o l o g yPrimary (evergreen), disturbed, or riverine forest, bamboo forest, belukar or seasonally swampy areas; along ridges, river banks and roads, Evergreen forest, on hillsides; soil: granite. Altitude: 30-400 m.

    V e r n a c u l a rMueat kliang (หมลี้) (Peninsular).

    N o t e Four collections, three in fruit from Peninsular Malaysia (KEP-FRI 18380 & 19189; KLU 3401), and one with staminate inflorescences from Peninsular Thailand (Larsen & Larsen 33022) are intermediate between A. frutescens and A. stellifera. The leaves are reminiscent of a glabrous A. frutescens, but the fruits are like those of A. sarawakensis, and the staminate inflorescences fit somewhere between A. frutescens and A. stellifera. The four collections are probably young or poor specimens of this A. stellifera (the Thai specimen is treated as such).

 

17. Aporosa symplocoides (Hook.f.) Gage (var. symplocoides), Rec. Bot. Surv. India 9: 229. 1922; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 218. 1971; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Malaya 2: 60. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 41. 1975, excl. var. chondroneura; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 234, fig. 3.6t; map 10.11. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 100, fig. 21c. 2005 ?Baccaurea symplocoides Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 376. 1887.

 

 

Shrubs to trees, up to 24 m high; young branches glabrous. Stipules caducous. Leaves: petiole reniform, 12-26 mm long, pulvini distinct; blades ovate to elliptic, 6-17 by 2.5-7 cm, length/width ratio c. 2.4, papery, drying (dark) grey-green (to yellowish green), base rounded to slightly attenuate, basal glands absent, black, margin somewhat undulate to crenulate, marginal glands few, apex acuminate to cuspidate, glabrous, disc-like glands along the margin, irregularly present; venation (slightly) raised on both sides, nerves 6-9 pairs. Inflorescences axillary. Staminate inflorescences 1-10 together, 12-62(-98) by 0.8-1.2 mm, subglabrous; peduncle 1.5-3 mm long; bracts triangular, 0.5-0.8 mm long; glomerules with 4-8 flowers, spaced at 0.5-3(-7) mm along rachis. Staminate flowers 0.5-0.9 mm long; pedicel minute; sepals 4, obovate, 0.5-0.9 mm long; stamens 2, not or slightly exserted, 0.3-0.7 mm long; anthers 0.1-0.2 mm long; pistillode indistinct. Pistillate inflorescences 1-3 together, 7-33 mm long, sparsely puberulous at base; flowers up to 11, laxly arranged along rachis; bracts triangular, 0.5-0.8 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1.5-3 mm long; pedicel 1-4 mm long; sepals 3 or 4, ovate, subequal, 0.5-1 mm long; ovary 2- or 3-locular, glabrous; stigmas 0.2-1 mm long, slightly raised, apically bifid to near base. Fruits ellipsoid to ovoid, not (to lowly) stiped, sometimes beaked, 9-19 by 6.5-11 mm, glabrous, not fleshy; septae and column glabrous. Seeds 6-9 by 4-7 by 2-4 mm.

    T h a i l a n dPENINSULAR: Pattani (Betong), Narathiwat (Khao Ai Kapo).

 

  l = var. symplocoides; « = var. chalocarpa

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nThailand, Malay Peninsula (type), Sumatra, Borneo.

    E c o l o g yPrimary, somewhat disturbed or logged over, evergreen forest, along roadsides, or by streams, in open, dense, or (partly) shaded areas, sometimes in seasonal swamps; soil: granitic or sandy, rich, black. Altitude: low to 500 m.

    V e r n a c u l a r Mueat khlai (หมลา) (Peninsular).

 

18. Aporosa villosa (Wall. ex Lindl.) Baill., Étud. Gén. Euph.: 645. 1858; Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 345. 1887; Gagnep. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 559. 1927; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 218. 1972; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 271, map 10.31. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 102, fig. 22, plate II: 4. 2005 Scepa villosa Wall. ex Lindl., Nat. Syst. ed.2: 441. 1836Aporosa glabrifolia Kurz, J. Bot. 13: 330. 1875 Aporosa sphaerosperma Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 70: 234. 1923 Aporosa sphaerosperma Gagnep. var. cordata Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 70: 234. 1923.

 

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Shrubs to trees, up to 15 m high; young branches densely tomentose. Stipules ovate, 4-6 by 2-3 mm, caducous. Leaves: petiole terete, 9-25 mm long, pulvini indistinct; blades ovate to elliptic, 8.5-30 by 6-12.5 cm, length/width ratio 1.4-2.4, coriaceous, drying greyish brown to greenish brown (to bluish green) above, reddish brown beneath, base slightly cordate to rounded, basal glands small, hairy, margin subentire, marginal glands distinct, apex acute to acuminate, sparsely tomentose above, tomentose underneath, disc-like glands few, scattered within marginal arches; venation (usually slightly) raised on both sides, nerves 8-11 pairs. Inflorescences axillary. Staminate inflorescences 2-6 together, 10-57 by 2-3 mm, tomentose; peduncle absent; bracts triangular, 1.2-2.2 mm long; glomerules with 5-7 laxly set flowers, set continuously along rachis. Staminate flowers 1.2-1.8 mm long; pedicel absent (or minute); sepals 4, obovate, 1-1.5 mm long; stamens 2 or 3, slightly exserted, 1.2-1.8 mm long; anthers 0.3-0.5 mm long; pistillode absent or a minute hair tuft. Pistillate inflorescences 1-4 together, 2-4 mm long, tomentose, flowers up to 7, densely set along rachis; bracts triangular, 1-1.5 mm long. Pistillate flowers 2.5-4.5 mm long, sessile; sepals 4, ovate, subequal, patent, 1-1.5 mm long; ovary 2-locular, densely tomentose; stigmas slightly raised, 0.8-1.5 mm long. Fruits ovoid to ellipsoid, not stiped, not beaked, 10-11 by 7-9 mm, drying reddish to light brown, sparsely tomentose, not fleshy; septae and column sparsely sericeous. Seeds 7-9 by 5-6.5 by 4-5 mm.

    T h a i l a n dNORTHERN: Mae Hong Son, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Lampang, Sukhothai; NORTH-EASTERN: Phetchabun, Loei, Udon Thani, Nakhon Phanom, Mukdahan, Khon Kaen; EASTERN: Chaiyaphum, Surin, Si Sa Ket, Ubon Ratchathani; SOUTH-WESTERN: Uthai Thani, Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi; SOUTH-EASTERN: Prachin Buri.

 

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nMyanmar (type?), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam.

    E c o l o g yEvergreen, (mixed) deciduous, secondary, disturbed, or seasonal forest; dry or partly swampy; in open country, on planes, forest edges, or along roads; soil: (poor) sandy, limestone, or silt; bedrock granite. Altitude: 300-1500 m.

    V e r n a c u l a rMueat khon (หม) (General); mueat luang (หม) (Chiang Mai); dang (ด่าง), daeng phong (ด่งพ) (Sukhothai); pradong kho (ดง) (Phichit); mueat khwai (หม), mueat miang (หมี่), mueat top (หม)  (Northern); mueat som (หม) (Northeastern).

    U s e sWood is used for house construction. The fruit is edible (though not so nice).

    N o t eDistinct from A. octandra var. yunnanensis only by the shape of the leaves (see note under latter). Intermediates are possible.

 

19. Aporosa wallichii Hook.f., Fl. Br. India 5: 350. 1887; Gagnep. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 562. 1927; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 218. 1972; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 273, map 10.32. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 104. 2005.

 

(Small) trees, up to 15 m high; young branches very sparsely puberulous. Stipules narrowly ovate, 5-7 by 1.5-2.8 mm, caducous. Leaves: petiole terete, 6-19 mm long, pulvini distinct; blade (seldom few ovate to) elliptic, 9-17.5 by 3.5-6.5 cm, length/width ratio 2.6-2.7, papery, drying bright to yellowish green (reddish green) above, greenish (or brownish) beneath, base obtuse to acute, basal glands small, margin slightly undulate to crenulate, marginal glands black, apex acuminate to cuspidate, glabrous, disc-like glands regular to many, within marginal arches; venation mainly raised beneath, nerves 8-10 pairs. Inflorescences axillary. Staminate inflorescences 2-5 together, 18-43 by 2-2.5 mm, puberulous; peduncle absent; bracts triangular, 0.7-1.5 mm long; glomerules with less than 10 laxly set flowers, continuously set along the rachis. Staminate flowers 1.2-2 mm long, sessile; sepals 3 or 4, obovate, 0.7-1.3 mm long; stamens 2 (or 3), slightly exserted, 1-2.5 mm long; anthers 0.3-0.5 mm long; pistillode present. Pistillate inflorescences 1 or 2 together, 3-9 mm long, puberulous, flowers up to 11, densely arranged along rachis; bracts triangular, 0.8-1.2 mm long. Pistillate flowers 3-4.5 mm long, sessile; sepals 3, ovate, ascending, 1-1.4 mm long; ovary 2-locular, subglabrous; stigmas raised, 2-3 mm long, apically bifid to less than halfway. Fruits (narrowly) ovoid, young ones stiped, often beaked, 9-11 by 6-9 mm, drying (dark) brown to black, glabrous, not fleshy; septae and column sparsely hairy, glabrescent. Seeds 7-7.5 by 5-6 by 2-3 mm.

    T h a i l a n dNORTHERN: Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Lampang, Nan, Tak, Sukhothai, Phitsanulok; NORTH-EASTERN: Loei; EASTERN: Chaiyaphum; SOUTH-WESTERN: Kanchanaburi, Phetchaburi; CENTRAL: Saraburi; SOUTH-EASTERN: Chon Buri; PENINSULAR: Ranong.

 

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nNorth India (type), Myanmar, Thailand.

    E c o l o g y(Dry) evergreen or (mixed) deciduous forest, Quercus-dipterocarp forest, dry or open, on slopes, or along edge of forest; soil: granite bedrock. Altitude: 100-1300 m.

    V e r n a c u l a rMueat won (หม) (Northern, South-western).

    N o t eIntermediates with A. octandra exist, e.g., specimens with green, but hairy leaves, or specimens with brown, glabrous leaves. Specimens with hairy, green leaves and hairy ovaries are A. octandra, while those with glabrous, brown leaves and glabrous ovaries are A. wallichii.

 

20. Aporosa yunnanensis (Pax & K.Hoffm.) F.P.Metcalf, Lingnan Sci. J. 10: 486. 1931; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 218. 1972; Schot, Blumea Suppl. 17: 274, fig. 3.5b, 3.6d, 3.7e; map 10.33. 2004; Schot & Welzen in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 104, plate 21d, f. 2005 Aporosa wallichii Hook.f. var. yunnanensis Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.xv: 90. 1922.

 

 

Shrubs to trees, up to 8 m high; young branches glabrous. Stipules narrowly triangular, 2-4 by c. 1 mm, caducous. Leaves: petiole terete, 5-16 mm long, pulvini distinct; blade ovate (to elliptic), 7.5-17 by 2-5.5 cm, length/width ratio 3.1-3.8, papery, drying light greenish brownish above and beneath, base acute to slightly attenuate, basal glands present, margin slightly undulate to crenulate, marginal glands regular, apex cuspidate, completely glabrous, disc-like glands occasionally within marginal arches; venation especially raised beneath, nerves 7-10 pairs. Inflorescences axillary. Staminate inflorescences 1-3 together, 18-41 by 1.8-2.5 mm, sericeous; peduncle absent; bracts triangular, 1-1.2 mm long; glomerules with c. 5 laxly set flowers, continuously set along rachis. Staminate flowers 1.2-2 mm long, sessile, yellowish; sepals 4 (or 5), obovate, 0.8-1.2 mm long; stamens 2, exserted, 1-2.2 mm long; anthers 0.3-0.4 mm long; pistillode indistinct. Pistillate inflorescences single (or 2 together), 2-5 mm long, sericeous, flowers up to 5, densely set along rachis; bracts triangular, 0.8-1.2 mm long. Pistillate flowers 4-6.5 mm long, sessile; sepals 3 or 4, ovate, subequal, ascending, 0.6-1.1 mm long; staminodes occasionally 1; ovary 2-locular, glabrous; stigmas raised, 1.5-2.5 mm long, apically bifid to near base. Fruits ovoid to ellipsoid, not stiped, beaked, 10-13 by 7-9 mm, reddish, drying light to reddish brown, glabrous, not fleshy; septae and column sparsely hairy. Seeds 7.5-9 by 5-6 by 4-4.5 mm.

    T h a i l a n dNORTHERN: Chiang Rai (Doi Tung), Nan (Doi Tin); EASTERN: Nakhon Ratchasima (Bo Rai, Khao Lem, Khao Yai National Park); SOUTH-WESTERN: Kanchanaburi (Sangkhla); SOUTH-EASTERN: Chanthaburi (Khao Soi Dao, Pong Nam Ron); PENINSULAR: Phangnga (Khao Katakuam, Khao Po Ta Luang Kaeo).

 

 

    D i s t r i b u t i o nSouth China (type), Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina.

    E c o l o g yIn evergreen forest; in wet or dry, shaded or open, or high areas; on gentle slopes, along edge of forest, stream, or road; soil: sandy or dry clayey, granite bedrock. Altitude: 600-1300 m.

    V e r n a c u l a rMueat bai leam (หมบแ) (Northern); nam phueng khao (น้้ง) (Trang).

    N o t eThe papery leaves of A. yunnanensis with cuspidate apex and greenish-grey colour with lighter venation distinguishes it from the A. octandra-complex.