Flora of Thailand



13. Blachia


K. Phattarahirankanok & K. Chayamarit


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Genus description

Identification key

Species descriptions




Baill., Ιtude Euphorb. 385. 1858, nom. cons.; Hook.f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 402. 1887; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.iii: 36. 1911; Gagnep. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 410. 1926; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23: 121. 1969; Kew Bull. 26: 223. 1972; Whitmore, Tree Fl. Mal. 2: 68. 1973; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 4: 57. 1975; G.L.Webster, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 81: 107. 1994; Philcox in Dassan & Fosberg, Rev. handb. Fl. Ceylon 11: 105. 1997; Radcl.-Sm., Gen. Euphorbiacearum: 304. 2001; Phattar. & Chayam. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 126. 2005; Thin, Taxon. Euphorb. Vietnam: 260. 2007; G.L.Webster in Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 11: 176. 2014; Welzen, Blumea 59 (2015) 163. — Bruxalnellia Dennst. ex Kostel., Allg. Med.-Pharm. Fl. 5: 2002. 1830, nom. rej.


Shrubs to shrubby trees, mainly monoecious; without latex.  Indumentum simple hairs or absent. Stipules absent (Thailand). Leaves spiral; petiole short, not or hardly pulvinate; blade with entire margin, lower surface glabrous. Inflorescences terminal, umbellate or cymose; usually bisexual with staminate flowers above and pistillate flowers below; bracts absent. Staminate flowers pedicellate; sepals 5(6), imbricate, membranous, margin entire; petals 5(6), free, shorter than sepals, membranous; disc glands 5(6); stamens 14–24 (Thailand), filaments free, anthers opening latrorsely with longitudinal slits; pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers pedicellate; sepals 4–6, triangular, persistent, often accrescent in fruit (not in Thailand); petals absent; disc annular, 5- or 6-lobed; ovary (2)3-locular (Thailand), ovules single per locule; stigmas free, bifid. Fruits capsules, lobed or rather globose, > 3 cm diameter; septicidally dehiscent into 2-valved cocci; columella persistent. Seeds brown; ecarunculate.

    Twelve species in tropical asia from India to China (Hainan), Philippines and Borneo. Two species in Thailand. Classification: Subfam. Crotonoideae, tribe Codiaeae.


Key to the species



Petioles glabrous. Leaf blade basally without glands or stipellae

1. B. andamanica


Petioles usually pubescent. Leaf blade basally with two glands or stipellae

2.  B. siamensis


1. Blachia andamanica (Kurz) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5: 403. 1887; Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV.147.iii: 36. 1911; Gagnep. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 416. 1926; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 23: 121. 1969; Kew Bull. 26: 223. 1972; Kew Bull. 37: 9. 1982; Phattar. & Chayam. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 127, fig. 27, plate VII: 1. 2005; Welzen, Blumea 59 (2015) 164, fig 1hCodiaeum andamanicum Kurz, For. Fl. Brit. Burm. 2: 405. 1877.— Dimorphocalyx andamanicus (Kurz) Benth. in Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 3: 302. 1880.


        Blacanda-female.gif (71414 bytes)


Shrubs or shrubby trees, up to 5 m; bark smooth, grey.  Leaves: petiole 0.5–1 cm long; glabrous; blade obovate-oblong to obovate; 10–22 by 3–9 cm, rather coriaceous, base cuneate or rounded, without glands or stipellae, margin glabrous, apex obtuse to acuminate, glabrous on both surfaces, nerves 6 or 7 pairs, midrib prominent on both sides.  Inflorescences cymose or umbellate, glabrous; staminate inflorescences c. 3.5 cm long, peduncle 2–2.3 cm long; pistillate inflorescences subsessile. Staminate flowers 2–5 mm in diameter, pedicel 5–6 mm long; sepals orbicular, pale green; petals orbicular, white to light yellow; disc glands oblong, c. 1 by 0.5; mm stamens 17–24, filament 3–3.5 mm long, slender, anthers c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm. Pistillate flowers 1.5–4 mm in diameter; pedicel 2–5 mm long; sepals 5, ovate, c. 1 by 0.5 mm, green, margin glabrous, caducous; disc glands c. 1 by 0.5 mm; ovary 2- or 3-locular, subglobose, glabrous (rarely pubescent); stigmas filiform, 2–3 mm long.  Fruits subglobose, 0.8–1.5 cm in diameter, green, glabrous.  Seeds ovoid, c. 6 by 4 mm long.

    T h a i l a n dNORTHERN: Chiang Mai (Doi Chiang Dao), Nan (Tham Phatup Forest Park); NORTH-EASTERN: Loei (Wang Sapung); SOUTH-WESTERN: Uthai Thani (Khao Pla Ra), Prachup Khiri Khan (Huai Yang Waterfalls); PENINSULAR: Phuket, Satun (Tarutao National Park).

    D i s t r i b u t i o nAssam, Andamans (type), Myanmar, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Philippines, Celebes, Moluccas, Lesser Sunda Islands..

    E c o l o g yCommon in open dry evergreen forest and bare granite boulders, or on limestone. Altitude: up to 300 m. Flowering September-February; fruiting February.

    V e r n a c u l a rKra liang phan (กระเลียงฟาน) (Peninsular).


2. Blachia siamensis Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 620. 1924; in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine 5: 415. 1926; Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26: 223. 1972; Phattar. & Chayam. in Chayam. & Welzen, Fl. Thailand 8, 1: 127, fig. 28, plate VII: 2. 2005Blachia jatrophifolia Pax var. siamensis Craib, Bull. Misc. Inf. Kew: 98. 1924.




Shrubs to shrubby trees, up to 5m high; bark fissured, brown to grey.  Leaves: petiole 0.3–1 cm long, usually pubescent; blade rhomboid-obovate, (2–)4–4.5 by (1–)2–3 cm, chartaceous, pubescent or almost glabrous, base cuneate, with 2 small stipellae or glands, margin ciliate, apex obtuse or acute; nerves 5–9 pairs, midrib prominent on both sides.  Inflorescences umbellate, pubescent; staminate inflorescences c. 2 cm long, peduncles 0.1–0.5(–1) cm long; pistillate inflorescences 1.5–2 cm long, peduncles 0.1–0.7 mm long. Staminate flowers 4–5 mm in diameter, pedicel 1.2–1.4 cm long, sepals 5 or 6, orbicular, 1.5–1.7 by 1–1.2 mm, , revolute, membranous, pale green; petals orbicular, 1.5–1.7 by 1–1.2 mm, membranous, pale yellow-green; disc glands c. 0.8 x 0.4 mm; stamens 14–21, filaments c. 3 mm long, anthers c. 0.5 by 0.5 mm long. Pistillate flowers 1–3.5 mm in diameter; pedicel 5–13(–23) mm long; sepals 5 or 6, ovate to slightly triangular, 2.5–4 by 1–1.3 mm, margin ciliate; disc glands c. 0.8 by 0.4 mm; ovary subglobose, 1.5–1.7 ΄ 0.3–1 mm, pubescent, stigmas filiform, 5–6 mm long, green.  Fruits subglobose, 0.8–1 cm in diameter, pubescent; calyx persistentSeeds oblong to subglobose, c. 6 by 4 mm.

    T h a i l a n dSOUTH-WESTERN: Phetchaburi, Prachuap Khiri Khan (Huai Yang Waterfalls); SOUTH-EASTERN: Chon Buri (Sattahip, Ko Pai).

    D i s t r i b u t i o n.— S. China (Hainan).

    E c o l o g y.— Common in open dry evergreen forest, between bare granite boulders, frequently along streams. Altitude: sea level up to 100 m. Flowering March; fruiting March-July.

    V e r n a c u l a rKra chit (กระชิด), khi rat (ขี้แรด) (Prachuap Khiri Khan).