Collecting localities



Biographical data

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Junghuhn, Franz Wilhelm


(Source: Flora Malesiana ser. 1, 1: Cyclopaedia of collectors)

(Source: Flora Malesiana ser. 1, 1: Cyclopaedia of collectors, Addenda & Corrigenda)


Born: 1809, Mansfeld, Germany. Died: 1864, Lembang, Java.



Surgeon who, after some adventurous years, entered the D.E. Indian Army in 1835. Under the protection of his superior, Dr A.E. Fritze, he was soon permitted to devote himself entirely to the study of nature. In May 1839 his protector died, and when Junghuhn’s temporary appointment as a member of the ‘Natuurkundige Commissie’ (from about 1838-39) was not continued, he decided to ask for his transfer to Sumatra. In 1840 he was instructed to make political, statistical, and biological investigations in the Batak Lands; the results were laid down in a book.7 In 1842 he returned to Java; in 1845 he was honourably dismissed and appointed member of the ‘Natuurkundige Commissie’ (Commission for Natural Sciences); from Aug. 27, 1848-July 18, 1855 on furlough in Europe. In the latter year he returned to Java with the title of Inspector for Natural Science investigations; since 1857 put in charge of the direction of Cinchona culture, settling at Lembang.

He is the author of numerous books on the flora, climate and geology of Java.1

He is commemorated in several plant names.


Collecting localities:















Java. 1835-40.2 Arriving at Batavia (Oct. 10, 1835);3 sailing by boat (Febr. 18, 1836) to Centr. Java: Semarang; when learning his appointment at Djokja, he travelled thither via Oengarang, Ambarawa, Medona, Mondillang; making Djokja the centre of his excursions,4 visiting G. Gambing, S. coast near the mouth of the Opak River and G. Mandjinnang, Imogiri, ruins of Brambanan, hills near Brambanan and Blitaran; mountains near Rankop ( = Rongkap) (May 20-26), G. Seboe (Duizendgebergte), etc.; G. Merapi (from the S. side, Sept. 5-8); G. Merapi (from the N. side, Nov. 2 starting from Sello); G. Merbaboe (from Sello, starting Nov. 6; descending to Salatiga); forests on the S. slope of G. Merapi and G. Plawangan (Apr. 1837).-Travels with Dr Fritze. W. Java: via Buitenzorg and Tjiandjoer to Wijnkoopsbaai (July 11-16, 1837); from Tjiandjoer to G. Kendang, Telaga Patengan and G. Patoeha (18-22); Tjisondari-G. Tangkoeban Prahoe (with Ass. Res. Nagel, 23-26); Bandoeng-G. Goentoer (with Nagel, see there; 28-29); Tjiseroepan-G. Papandajan (30-31); Telaga Bodas (Aug. 1-4); G. Galoengoeng (5-6); Tasikmalaja-G. Tjeremai (7-16); returning to Weltevreden (17-23).-From Batavia (Apr. 12, 1838), via Megamendoeng, Tjiandjoer (14), Bandoeng, Cheribon (18); Centr. Java: Tegal, Pekalongan, Oengarang (23), G. Oengarang (24), to Semarang; E. slope G. Merbaboe (May 2); E. Java: ascending G. Lawoe via Balong (May 10-14); 2nd ascent of G. Lawoe (May 19) with Fritze and Johnston, to the east via Toempak, W. side of the Lawu; Centr. Java: Magelang; G. Soembing (June 1-2); G. Sindoro (3); G. Merapi (June 5-8, starting from Magelang); E. Java: to Madioen (13); G. Wilis (June 17, via Ponorogo and Telaga Ngebel); via Kediri to Soerabaja; mudwells near Kalang-anjer and Poeloengang, Pasoeroean, Besoeki (July 1); G. Ringgit (2); G. Lamongan and Ranau Lamongan (4-5); G. Tengger via Soekapoera, Wonosari, Zandzee (6); from Soerabaja to Centr. Java: Pati, Semarang, Pekalongan and via Batoer (July 28) to G. Diëng (till Aug. 5); G. Slamat (starting Aug. 7 from Banjoemas via Serajoe; back at Aug. 10). W. Java: G. Salak (Oct. 1838).5-1839. Visiting the following localities in W. Java: Tapos (March), Megamendoeng, Telaga Warna; G. Gedeh-Pangrango (with E.A. Forsten, see there, Apr. 1-4; with A. Kinder, July 24-Aug. 3 ; with Graaf van Bentheim and Mr Vermeulen, Nov. 9-11, by way of Soekaboemi); Palaboean Ratoe (early in Oct.); via Tjiandjoer and Bandoeng (Oct. 17) to G. Malabar, G. Wajang (23) and G. Tiloe (24).6-1840. Centr. Java: Dieng Plateau (March 1-Apr. 4); G. Sindoro (Apr. 5).-N. Sumatra, Tapanoeli: Batak Lands (Sept. 1840-March 1842).7-W. Java: G. Gedeh (July 1842, 10 days).-1844.8 W. Java: Bantam (July-Aug.), starting from Batavia (July 27) and visiting Tangerang, Serang, Anjer and Tjiriengien.9 Via Tjiandjoer and Bandoeng (Aug. 9-10), Tjitjalenka, Lelles, Garoet, G. Goentoer (11) via G. Poetri; G. Tjikorai (12-13); Wanakarta, Pawenang, Soemedang (l6); Tampomas, Cheribon (17); Centr. Java: Tegal, Pekalongan (19), Semarang (20-21), Solo; E. Java: Ngawi (Sept. 11), Blitar, G. Kloet (16-17), Blitar; G. Kawi (19-21); Malang; G. Smeroe (24-27);10 G. Tengger (Sept. 28-Oct. 5); Loemadjang, Poeger, Djember, Bondowoso; G. Raun (10-12); G. Ringgit; Banjoewangi; lava field of G. Baloeran; vicinity G. Idjen and crater, returning via Ongop Ongop (Oct. 18) to Banjoewangi; Bondowoso; G. Jang (Oct. 30-Nov. 2); Poeger (4), Lumadjang (5), Probolinggo (6); G. Lamongan (6); G. Ardjoeno (13-15); Ngantang; Kediri; Centr. Java: via Solo to Sel(l)o (pass Merapi-Merbaboe; Nov. 22), staying till Jan. 1845.-1845. Centr. Java: Selo (Jan.); G. Oengaran and environs; limestone hills near Bodja; Selokaton, Plantoengan, G. Prahoe; Diëng Plateau (Oct.-Nov.).-1846. W. Java: G. Kendeng (Koeningan, Cheribon Res.); Oedjoeng Koelon; Centr. Java: G. Sindoro (Apr. 5).-1847. W. Java: G. Wajang (Apr.), G. Patoeha (Apr.), Pengalengan (May); Centr. Java: Noesa Kambangan (May); G. Slamat (June 19-23); W. Java: Pengalengan (Dec.). -1848. W. Java: G. Tangkoeban Prahoe (June 17-19).-1859. G. Malabar.

Other localities in Java, on which no further data are known to me are: Depok, G. Telemojo. In the H.B. series,, Herb. Bog. [BO]: 1 no from Banka; possibly collected on the way to, or from, Sumatra.

Lam11 cites a specimen collected in Celebes pr. Sadeng (in Herb. Leiden [L]); this is certainly not collected by Junghuhn himself.



Herb. Leiden [L];12 including at least 669 nos from the second period (1855 onwards) and 49 nos of Cinchona material; cf. also sub entry ‘Houtsoorten Gedeh’. But few dupl., numbered in the H.B. series, in Herb. Bog. [BO]; Herb. Utrecht [U]: dupl. Java plants; in Herb. Brit. Mus. [BM]: 236 dupl. from Java; other duplicates in Herb. Acad. Sci. St Petersb. (= Leningrad [LE]) (with Herb. Nees), Gray Herb. [GH], Herb. Arn. Arbor. [A]; Kew [K]: Java plants (pres. 1909); Vienna (with Herb. Reichenbach) [W]: orchids from Java; Breslau [WRSL]; Manila [PNH] (pres. 1911-12); Herb. Martius (= Brussels [BR]); Senckenb. Herb. (= now Univ.) Frankfurt [FR]: vascular cryptogams; Herb. Decand. (Geneva [G]); Herb. Linn. Soc. Lond. [LINN]: Java ferns (pres. by de Vriese); authentic specimens of the Plantae Junghuhnianae were presented to the Herb. Nederl. Overz. Bezitt. of the ‘Ned. Kruidk. Vereeniging’ in 1851 (= Ned. Bot. Vereeniging, Leiden [in L]); Herb. Univ. Amsterdam [AMD]: Malabar plants (coll. 1859), ? type specimens.

Besides in the below-cited papers,13 plants of his were described by Nees von Esenbeck, Dozy, Molkenboer, and Hasskarl.



(1) Viz: ‘Bijdragen tot de geschiedenis der vulkanen in den Indischen Archipel tot 1842’ (Tijdschr. Neêrl. Ind. 51, 1843, p. 97-133, 185-227, 257-280, 613-626, 745-763; continued in Ind. Magazijn lste twaalftal, 1844, p. 41-83, 84-100, 163-176, 287-315); ‘Physiognomie van de flora der toppen van Javasche bergen, benevens plantenbeschrijvingen’ (Nat. en Geneesk. Arch. N.I. 2, 1845, p. 20-34; cf. also Flora 6, 1848, p. 584); ‘Terugreis van Java naar Europa’ (Zaltbommel 1851); ‘Java, zijne gedaante, zijn plantentooi en inwendige bouw’ (1850-54, 4 vols + atlas); transl. by Hasskarl: ‘Java, seine Gestalt, Pflanzendecke and innere Bauart’ (1852-54, 3 vols); ‘Licht-en Schaduwbeelden uit de binnenlandenvan Java’ (Amsterdam 1854, and many other editions).

Papers published in Tijdschr. Neêrl. Ind. 4, 1841, Tijdschr. Nat. Gesch. & Physiol. 7, 1840, and elsewhere; many of them cited below; cf. also bibliography in ‘Gedenkboek Franz Junghuhn’ (‘s-Gravenhage 1910) p. 313-344.

(2) cf. Fr.W. Junghuhn: ‘Topographische and naturwissenschaftliche Reisen durch Java’ (Magdeburg 1845, + atlas) (digest in Flora N.F. 5, 1847, p. 479-495, 498, 517).

(3) cf. extract from a letter in Flora 192, 1836, p. 743-746.

(4) cf. ditto in l.c. p. 747-752.

(5) cf. Tijdschr. Neêrl. Ind. 12, 1838, p. 486-507, or Flora 232, 1840, p. 449-460, 465-477.

(6) F. Junghuhn: ‘Uitstapje naar de bosschen van de gebergten Malabar, Wayang en Tilu op Java’ (Tijdschr. Nat. Gesch. & Physiol. 8, 1841, p. 349-412); ‘Beklimming G. Tiloe en andere Preangerbergen bij Pengalengan’ (Nat. Tijdschr. N.I. 21, 860, p. 221-245). 1

(7) F. Junghuhn: ‘Die Battaländer auf Sumatra’ (Berlin 1847).

(8) F. Junghuhn: ‘Schetsen, ontworpen op eene nieuwe reis over Java, voor topographische en natuurkundige navorschingen, aan het einde van het jaar 1844’ (Tijdschr. Neêrl. Ind. 71, 1845, p. 71-92, 123-203, 163-174 (plants), 184-203 (plants), 317-350; ditto in l.c. 72, 1845, p. 1-38, 203-250, 371-380); ‘Reizen door Java, voornamelijk door bet oostelijk gedeelte van dit eiland, opgenomen en beschreven in 1844’ (Amsterdam 1852, 2 vols).

(9) cf. ‘Brieven over Java, 1ste serie’ (Tijdschr. Neêrl. Ind. 71, 1845, p. 205-240, 351-396).

(10) cf. Tijdschr. Neêrl. Ind. 63, 1844, p. 164 and Tijdschr. Ned. Ind. 111, 1849, p. 112-138.

(11) In ‘The Verbenaceae of the Malay Archipelago’ (Dr’s Thesis, Utrecht/Groningen 1919) p. 90.

(12) S.H. Koorders: ‘Kritische opmerkingen over de etiketteering van Junghuhn’s botanische collectees in ’s Rijks Herbarium’ (in Gedenkboek Franz Junghuhn 1809-1909, ’s-Gravenhage 1910, p. 229-240, 3 fig.). The collection was sold to the Dutch Government (cf. Bot. Zeitung 8, 1850, p. 175).

(13) W.H. de Vriese: ‘Ueber eine auf Sumatra von Dr F. Junghuhn entdeckte Casuarina’ (Flora N.R. 2, 1844, p. 537-539); also Sumatra plants in Nat. en Geneesk. Arch. 4, 1847, p. 17-23; Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 1, 1848, p. 1-19 etc.; and in ‘Plantae Indiae Batavae’.

F.A.W. MIQUEL c.s.: ‘Plantae Junghuhnianae. Enumeratio plantarum quas in insulis Java et Sumatra etc. (Lugd. Bat., Lipsiae, 1851-57; only l vol., published in 5 parts: See publication dates in Flora Malesiana Bull. no 2, Nov. 1947, p.50); cf. also F.G. Wiltshear: ‘Miquel’s Plantae Junghuhnianae’ (Journ. Bot. 52, 1914, p. 44-45).

C.A.J.A. Oudemans: ‘Annotationes criticae in Cupuliferas nonnullas Javanicas’ (Amstelodami 1865, 40, 29 pp., 12 pl.; mostly collected by Junghuhn).

S.H. Koorders: ‘Plantae Junghuhnianae ineditae’ I-IV (Versl. gew. verg. Wis- en Natuurk. afd. Kon. Akad. Wet. A’dam 1908, p. 156-160; l.c. 1909, p. 780-782, 948-955; in ‘Gedenkboek Franz Junghuhn’ 1910, p. 153-198).


biographical data:

De Dageraad 18, 1864, p. 415-462; Flora N.R. 22, 1864, p. 474-480; Nat. Tijdschr. N.I. 28, 1865, p. 342-356; Tijdschr. Ned. Ind. 41, 1866, p. 207-216; in Junghuhn, Licht- en Schaduwbeelden etc. (l.c. lit. 1) ed. 1867, p. 1-61; Tijdschr. K.N.A.G. 1908, p. 1409 (birthday), l.c. 1909, p. 1026, and l.c. 1910, p. 261, 863; ‘Biographische Beiträge etc.’ by M.C.P. Schmidt (Leipzig 1909); ‘Gedenkboek Franz Junghuhn 1809-1909’ (‘s-Gravenhage 1910, incl. bibliogr. + portr.); Verh. Naturw. Ver. Preuss. Rheinl. u. Westfal. 66, 1910, p. 277-326; Sirks, Ind. Nat. Onderz., Amsterdam 1915, p. 141-153 + portr.; Encyclop. N.I. 2, 1918; Trop. Nederl. 7, 1934, p. 315-317, 331-353; Mooi Bandoeng 2, 1934, p. 66-68; Onze Aarde 1935, p. 122-128; Tijdschr. K.N.A.G. 1935, p. 162-164, 313-318; Backer, Verkl. Woordenb., 1936; Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 49, 1939, p. 444; l.c. 50, 1940, p. 193; l.c. 51, 1941, p. 355-356; l.c. 52, 1942, p. 392; l.c. 53, 1943, p. 243; Dr C.W. Wormser: ‘Franz Junghuhn’ (Deventer 1943, 244 pp.).


photo gallery:


Tijdschr. K.N.A.G. 52 (1835)

De Boekerij 8, 1 (2003)

Tijdschr. K.N.A.G. 52 (1835)