Collecting localities



Biographical data


Reinwardt, Caspar Georg Carl


(Source: Flora Malesiana ser. 1, 1: Cyclopaedia of collectors)

(Source: Flora Malesiana ser. 1, 8: Cyclopaedia of collectors, Supplement II)


Born: 1773, Lüttringhausen near Remscheid, Rhine Prov., Germany. Died: 1854, Leiden, Z.H., Holland.



Was educated in Holland, and was appointed Professor of Natural History at Harderwijk in 1800; in 1808 Director of the Menagerie of Louis Napoleon and in 1810 Professor of Chemistry, Pharmacy and Natural History at Amsterdam. In 1815 he went to the D.E.I. in charge of the organization of Education, Medical Service, Agriculture, Industry, and Scientific investigation. He was the founder (May 18, 1817) and first Director of the Botanic Gardens at Buitenzorg. In 1822 he returned to Europe and was appointed professor in the University of Leiden.1

His scientific inheritance was edited by de Vriese; during his lifetime he published a few papers on Java.2

He is commemorated in the genus Reinwardtia and in several other plant species.


Collecting localities:








1816. W. Java: Arrival at Batavia (Apr. 27). Till May 1817 staying at Batavia and Buitenzorg, making few small trips.-1817. On G. Salak (May 5); from June-Nov. making a journey through Java and Madoera,3 visiting Megamendoeng in W. Java (July), returning to Buitenzorg in Nov.-1818. W. Java: G. Goentoer (Oct. 29).4 -1819. Tour in the Priangan Regencies,5 W. Java: W. foot of G. Salak, S. slope G. Gedeh and ascent from that side (Apt. 18), Tjihea Distr., Rongo and Koppo to Parangsirop, G. Patoeha (Randja Gedeh etc.), Tombak-Poeijong, G. Tiloe, G. Malabar, Sumbong, Gadja, G. Goentoer, the Talaja (= Telaga)-Bodas. The trip was originally planned as follows: Tjampie and Sading, G. Salak, G. Gedeh, mountains SE to Limbangan, Noesa Kambangan and back to Buitenzorg via G. Tangkoeban Prahoe, Boerangrang, etc.;6 it is not known whether this plan was carried out. According to Junghuhn7 he visited G. Papandajan.-In the years till 1820 he probably made still other trips, data on these are lacking, however. He is said to have been in P. Saleier about 1820 (cf. Meyer & Wiglesworth in Birds of Celebes, 1898).-Voyage to the eastern part of the D.E.I. Archipelago in the ‘Experiment’, 1821-22.8 Sailing from Batavia (Febr. 27, 1821); Soembawa: Bima (March 20-23); P. Sabrao (= Adonara) (27); P. Solor (29); Timor (Apt. 3-18): environs of Koepang, P. Semauw (= Semaoe) (10); from P(a)riti (12) penetrating into the interior, Pasi (14), Goudrivier (15), Babou (= Babaoe) (16) and back to Koepang (17), where taking ship again (19); P. Ombai (= Alor) (29); P. Kisser (= Kisar) (May 9-11); Banda Archipelago (May 18-June 25); Banda-neira, Groot Banda, P. Ai (May 26-27), Papenberg on Neira (June 9), ascent of G. Api (14), Groot-Banda (20-21, G. Bandeira etc.) and sailing (26) for Amboina (staying June 26-July 19): Batoe-gadjah, Batoe-lobang, Soja-di-atas, Hitoelama and Hila (July 12), Ceit and G. Ateti (or Wawani); visiting Haroekoe (July 20-21), Saparoea (22-26), Noesa-laut (27-29), Saparoea (July 30-Aug. 3); back in Amboina again (Aug. 5-12); Ternate (15-27), climbing the Peak (22-24); Tidore (Aug. 28-31), climbing the mountain; for some hours in Halmaheira, opposite Tidore (Sept. 1); Ternate (Sept. 1-4); N. Celebes: Gorontalo (17-19), Lake Limboto (20); from Gorontalo making a trip to the gold-diggings, Pagowat (26), Taloedoejoeng (28), Batoedoelang (29), Pagowat (Oct. 2-3), back to Gorontalo (6) and proceeding to Kotaboena (8); Kema (10); on foot to Menado (Menado) (11-13) and subsequently making a tour through the Minahassa: Lota (14), via G. Empong to Kakaskasan (15), G. Lokon (16), Tomohon (17), G. Roemengan (Roemagang or Mahaboe) (18), Tomohon (19); Tondano (20-23), fall near Tonséa-lama, and Papakelang (22); crossing Lake Tondano to Kakas (24); Lango(w)an(g)-Kamanga-Tompaso (25); G. Sapoetan (= Sopoetan), R. being the first European to climb the mountain (26-27); Tompaso (28), via Kawangkoan-Sonder-Lahendong, back to Tomahon (29), Menado (30); G. Klabat (Nov. 6-8), via Aer Mendidi (= Airmadidi); Menado (9-11); Tan(h)wangko (12); Amoerang (13); E. Java: Besoeki (Dec. 16-19); Kali-tikoes (20); Badjoel-mati and Banjoewangi (21); Banjoewangi-Litjin (23); Ongop-Ongop (24); Kawah ldjen (25); back to Litjin (26); via Matjan-poetih back to Banjoewangi (27); Soemberwaroe (29); Besoeki (Dec. 30-Jan. 2, 1822); G. Tengger (Jan. 3); Pasoeroean (5-6); Malang (7-12); Pasoeroean (13); Soerabaja (Jan. 14-March 2), Reinwardt himself seriously ill, the other participants making a few-day trip to Madoera (Febr. 18-. .); Soerabaja-Gresik (March 3); via the N. coast of Java: Toeban (4), Rembang (5-6) and Semarang (7-10), back to W. Java: Tjiandjoer (16-17) and Buitenzorg (18). After his return no trips were made till his departure from Batavia (June 15) to Bantam: Serang (15), Pandeglang (16), visiting a hot spring (17), back at Serang, Bantam (18), Anjer (19-26), in the latter place embarking for Holland.

A plant of his is cited from Purmerend (island in the bay of Batavia) (cf. de Vriese l.c. sub 8, p. 108).



Herb. Leiden [L] (bequeathed in 1854). On the voyage out to the East Indies he collected 52 nos of plants ont he Island of St Jago. No collections of the year 1816 are known to compiler; several consignments of herbarium material in the years 1817-19 were lost by shipwreck.10 From Ambon he brought the new genus and species Bikkia grandiflora.

In Herb. Martius (= Brussels [BR]): 300 plants;11 in Herb. Reichenbach (= Vienna [W]): orchids from Java; dupl. from Leiden in Herb. Utrecht [U]; in Herb. Munich [M] (with Herb. Zuccarini etc.); Herb. Breslau [WRSL]; Herb. Bot. Gard. St Petersb. (= Leningrad [LE]): Java ferns (with Herb. Schrader); Herb. Copenhagen [C]; Herb. State Mus. Stockholm [S].



(1) His inaugural address was: ‘Over de aanwinsten welke de natuurlijke geschiedenis had verkregen door het onderzoek van Indië’ (De augmentis quae historiae naturali ex Indiae investigatione accesserunt) (cf. abstr. in Alg. Konst- en Letterb. no 29, 1823).

(2) C.G.C. Reinwardt: ‘Over de hoogte en verdere natuurlijke gesteldheid van eenige bergen, in de Preanger Regentschappen’ (Verb. Bat. Gen. K. & W. 92, 1823, p. 1-37; incl. the 1st description of G. Patoeha, cf. also fragment in de Vriese l.c. sub 8, p. 205-220); ‘Over de natuurlijke vruchtbaarheid van den grond der Oost-Indische eilanden, vooral van het eiland Java en over de waarschijnlijke oorzaken daarvan’ (Versl. 6e Openb. Verg. d. lste Kl. etc. Nieuwe Verb. v. h. Kolon. Inst. 1, 1827; cf. also de Vriese l.c. sub 8, p. 99-118); ‘Over den aard en den oorsprong der eetbare vogelnestjes op Java’ (Ber. d. Werkzaamh. etc., van de Nieuwe Verh. Kolon. Inst. 7, 1838, p. xxx).

(3) cf. van Hoëvell in Tijdschr. Neêrl. Ind. 22, 1839, p. 78; and de Vriese l.c. sub 8, p. 53-55.

(4) cf. de Vriese l.c. sub 8, p. 77-83.

(5) cf. Alg. Konst- en Letterbode 18192, p. 401; l.c. 18201, p. 113-120; on the Goentoer cf. l.c. 18201, p. 215-218.

(6) cf. de Vriese l.c. sub 8, p. 84; and van der Boon-Mesch: ‘Disp. Geol. de incendiis montium igni ardentium Ins. Javae eorumque lapidibus’ (Lugd. Bat. 1826).

(7) cf. ‘Java’ 2, 1854, p. 133.

(8) W.H. de Vriese: ‘Reis naar het Oostelijk gedeelte van den Indischen Archipel in 1821; door C.G.C. Reinward’ (Amsterdam 1858).

cf. also J.Th. Bik in Tijdschr. Ind. Taal-, Landen Volkenk. 14, 1864, p. 125-183.

The dates of the two cited papers sometimes differ slightly; for the itinerary those of Reinward were followed.

(9) Partly in W.H. de Vriese: ‘Plantae indiae batavae orientalis quas, in itinere per insulis archipelagi indici Javam, Amboinam, Celebem, Ternatam, aliasque annis 1815-21, exploravit Casp. Georg. Carol. Reinward’ (Lugd. Bat. 1856-57, p. 1-160, t. 1-8); cf. also in de Vriese, Tuinbouwflora, 3, 1856, p. 351-352.

cf. also C.L. Blume: ‘Enumeratio plantarum Javae et Insularum adjacentium ex herbariis Reinwardtii, Hasseltii, Kuhlii, Blumei, etc.’ (Lugd. Bat. 1827-28, 2 vols).

MSS notes of Reinward on Indonesian plants in Herb. Leiden.

For particulars on the drawings of Plant. Ind. Bat. see Cl. Nissen, ‘Die botanische Buchillustration’ 1951, vol. 2, p. 193.

(10) cf. de Vriese l.c. sub 8, p. 223-246; Alg. Konst- en Letterbode 1819 and 1820.

(11) cf. Lasègue, Mus. Bot. Deless., 1845, p. 377; and Eichler, Das Herbarium Martii, 1869, p. 10.


biographical data:

‘Ueber Reinward’s and Blume’s Entdeckungen auf Java’ (Bot. Zeit. 18232, p. 713); Flora 1823, p. 125-126 and l.c. 37 (N.R. 12), 1854, p. 175-176; Bot. Zeitung 12, 1854, p. 783; Maatsch. d. Ned. Letteren Leiden 1854; Hook. Journ. Bot. & Kew Gard. Misc. 7, 1855, p. 21-23; Album der Natuur 1858, p. 312-314; in de Vriese, Reis naar het Oostelijk gedeelte van den Ind. Arch. etc., 1858, n. 4-98 en Bijlagen p. 249-303; P.J. Veth, Ontdekkers en onderzoekers, Leiden 1884, p. 95-149; Sirks, Ind. Nat. Onderzoek, Amsterdam 1915, p. 87-97, w. portr.; Encyclop. N.1. 3, 1919; Backer, Verkl. Woordenb., 1936; Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 50, 1940, p. 199; l.c. 51, 1941, p. 365-366; l.c. 52, 1942, p. 403.