Collecting localities



Biographical data


Wallace, Alfred Russel


(Source: Flora Malesiana ser. 1, 1: Cyclopaedia of collectors)


Born: 1823, Usk, Wales, England. Died: 1913, Broadstone near Wimborne, England.



A self-made man who from his childhood had a lively interest in natural history and collected British plants. From 1848-52 he travelled in Brazil, from 1854-62 in the Malay Archipelago,1 accumulating mainly large zoological collections. In 1881 he was granted a Civil List Pension.

Author of several famous zoogeographical studies2 in which he pointed to the so-called ‘line of Wallace’, a demarcation proved untenable by later researches.

He is commemorated in the genus Wallaceodendron Koord. and in several other plant names.


Collecting localities:1











Malay Peninsula (July-Oct. 1854):3 Malacca (a fortnight at Gading; at Ayer Panas for nearly a month), Mt Ophir, Singapore; NW. Borneo, Sarawak (Nov. 1, 1854-Jan. 24, 1856):4 visiting various parts of the Sarawak River from Santubong to Bow and Bedeé (Nov. 1854-Febr. 1855); Simunjon River (March 14, 1855, remaining nearly 9 months); he was kept a prisoner in the house the whole of July and part of August by a severe inflamed ulcer; after he could get out again he made a trip to a branch of the Simunjon River to Semabang (I week), and another branch of the river to Menyille; journey into the interior up to the sources of the Sadong River (Nov. 1855-Jan. 1856): Gudong (Nov. 28), Jahi, Tabokan, Borotoi, Senankan, Sénna, Sarawak (early in Dec.), Peninjauh (with Sir J. Brooke and Sp. St John); return to Singapore (end of Jan.).-Bali: Boeleleng (June 13, 1856, 2 days’ stay); Lombok (June-Aug. 29): Ampenan, Labuang Tring (= Laboehan Tereng); SW. Celebes: Macassar (Sept.-Dec. 12, making many excursions into the country); on board a proa (Dec. 13); via the Ké (= Kei or Kai Islands) (Jan. 1-5, 1857), staying at Har (Noehoetjoet); to the Aru Islands:11 P. Wamar, residing at Do(b)bo (Jan. 8-March 12), paying a visit to P. Wokan (= Wokam) (Febr. 5); residence in the interior of the mainland (March 13-May 9); Watelai, Wanumbai (6 weeks); 2nd stay at Dob(b)o (May 10-July 1); July 2 departing to SW. Celebes: Macassar (July 11, staying about a month); Maros, visiting the falls of the Maros River (Bantimoeroeng, 4 days’ stay); Macassar (early in Nov.) and setting out to the Moluccas, touching at Timor-Coupang (Lesser Sunda Isls) (1 day in Dec.) and Banda (probably Bandaneira) (Dec.) on his way to Amboina (= Ambon) (staying from Dec. 1857-Jan. 3, 1858, of which 3 weeks in the interior, returning on Christmas Eve to the town of Amboyna); Ternate (from Jan. 8, 1858 onwards), obtaining a house which he retained for 3 years as a place to return to after his voyages to various islands; Island of Gilolo (= Halmaheira) (March): Sedingole (= Sidangoli) (2 day’s stay), Dodinga; Ternate (March), setting out (25) on a voyage to Dutch N. New Guinea: P. Mansinam (= Mansiman) (Apr. 11); Dorey (= Doré, Apr. 11-July 28), his zoological collectors staying for a month at Amberkaki; Ternate (arriving mid-Aug.); Island of Gilolo Halmaheira) (Sept.): Dj(a)ilolo and Sahoe; Ternate, from where sailing on Oct. 9; Tidore (10), via P. Mare(h) and Moti(r) to P. Makian (12); Kaioa (= Kajoa) Islands (14-19); Batchian (= Batjan) (Oct. 21, 1858-Apr. 12, 1859): town of Batchian (probably Laboeha), kp. Sirani, paying a visit to Kasserota and Langundi (March 22-31, these places according to Wallace on different islands, the former probably on P. Kasiroeta), and making a trip in the island of Batjan; P. Makian, Ternate; Banda (May); Timor (May, staying a fortnight), visiting P. Semaoe (4 days at Oeassa); N. Celebes, Minahassa: Manado (June 10-21); Lotta, Plateau of Tondano, Tomohon (22); Rurukan (arriving on the 23rd, staying a fortnight, making trips to Tondano Fall etc.); Tondano, crossing Lake Tondano by boat, Kakas, Lango(w)an (visiting hot springs and mud volcanoes); Panghu (3 weeks); return to Manado, staying a fortnight; Lempias (10 days), Likoepang (= Likoepang) (camping for 6 days on a 20 miles distant beach, in the large bay between the islands of Limbé = Lembeh, and Banta); return to Manado (Sept.); Amboina (end of Sept.-Oct. 28); S. Ceram: Hatosua (Oct. 31, staying some days), Elpaputi, Bay of Amahai at (A)Waija; journey from Makariki i (Dec 18) in the direction of Sawai Bland. on the N. coast; back at (A)Waija; Amboina (Jan.-Febr. 1860), staying at Paso; S. Ceram, Febr. 24 starting by boat along the S. coast: Hoja, Teluli (March 3-5), Tobo, Kissa-laut (4 weeks); Goram group (= Gorong Islands): Manowolko (= P. Manawoka) (Apr. 8-12); Matabello (= Watoebela) Islands: Kissiwoi (= ? Kasioei) (15), Uta (15-17), Matabello (= Watoebela) (18-24); Goram group: Manowolko (25), Ondor (P. Goram = P. Gorong) (Apr. 26-May 26); P. Kilwaru (or Kiliwara, near Ceram) (May 29-30); N. Ceram: Warus-warus (= Waroe) (June 1-9), Wahai (15-17); probably staying on one of the Jef Doif Islands (23-25); Waigiou (= Waigeo): Muka on the south coast (July 4-Aug.), Be(s)sir (P. Gam) (Aug.-Sept., staying 6 weeks); Waigiou (till Sept. 28); P. Gag(ie) (Oct. 3); Gilolo (= Halmaheira), southern point (7-20), visiting Ganidiluar (11) and Gani (= probably Ganedidalem) (18-20); village of Kaioa (on P. Kajoa) (26-31); Ternate (Nov. 5, staying until departure to Timor); Port. Timor: Delli (= Dilly) (from Jan. 12, 1861, leaving end of April), paying a visit to Baliba (I week in Febr.); Bouru (= Boeroe) (May-June): Cajeli (= Kajeli) (May 4-c. 18), making minor excursions up the river to Wayapo, etc.; Waypoti (= Waepoetih) (May 19-June); Cajeli (some days, packing up his collections); Ternate (2 days); crossing over to Manado (N. Celebes), and touching at Macassar (SW. Celebes) on his way to Java (staying July 18-Oct. 31); partly in E. Java: Sourabaya (arriving July 18, staying a fortnight); making a tour, stopping at Modjokerto, Modjopa(h)it and Modjoagoeng on his way to Wonosalem, on the lower slopes of the Arjuna (= G. Ardjoeno) (1 week stay); Djap(p)anan (3 weeks); return to Sourabaya and by steamer to W. Java: Batavia, Buitenzorg, Megamendoeng (a fortnight), climbing G. Gede-Pangrango; after return to Toego(e) moving to a coffee-plantation some miles to the north; Batavia, leaving by steamer (Nov. 1) for Banta (= Banka) (Muntok, staying a day or two) and S. Sumatra (Nov. 1861-Jan. 1862): Palembang (Nov. 8, staying a week); Lorok (few days); in 3 days reaching Moearadoea (staying a fortnight); Lobo Raman (1 month); return to Palembang by water.



Mainly zoological collections, with his assistant Charles Allen, generally assisted by some Malay servants. During his trips he was much handicapped by illness, and hardly penetrated into the interior. It is certain that he collected plants in Borneo,5 Timor,6 Lombok,7 in Singapore, and on Mt Ophir (Mal. Penins.);8 according to Warburg no botanical collections were made in the Moluccas.9 Sets of Borneo ferns were on sale with Mr S. Stevens.10

In Herb. Kew [K]: Brazil, Indian Archipelago (acq. 1868-74), 97 nos, etc. (evidently including a small collection of grasses from Tumor, mentioned by Forbes);6 Herb. Brit. Mus. [BM]: Borneo ferns (acq. 1863); Herb. Cambridge [CGE]: Borneo ferns; Herb. Vienna [W]: Borneo ferns; Herb. Paris [P]: some dupl. of ferns from Borneo and Singapore.



(1) A.R. Wallace: ‘The Malay Archipelago’ (London 1869, 2nd ed., 2 vols) (transl. into Dutch by P.J. Veth: ‘Insulinde’; also transl. into German); ‘Australasia’ (1879, in Stanford’s Compendium of Geogr. and Travel).

(2) A.R. Wallace: ‘On the zoological geography of the Malay Archipelago’(in Journ. & Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. 3, 1859); ‘The geographical distribution of animals’ (1876).

Also author of: ‘Island Life etc. (London 1880), and some books relating to Darwinism; ‘Narrative of search after Birds of Paradise’ (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1862, p. 153-161); and ‘On some rare and new birds from New Guinea’ (l.c. p. 164-166, pl. XIX-XXI).

(3) cf. Extract of a letter from Wallace in Hook. Journ. Bot. & Kew Gard. Misc. 7, 1855, p. 200-209.

(4) cf. Extract of a letter on the Bamboo and Durian of Borneo in l.c. 8, 1856, p. 225-230.

(5) Several Borneo ferns mentioned by M. Kuhn in Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 4, 1868/69, p. 276 seq.

A Bauhinia mentioned in Merr., Bibliogr. Enum. Born. Pl., 1921, p. 297.

(6) cf. H.O. Forbes, Wanderings etc., p. 498.

(7) cf. Valckenier Suringar, Het geslacht Cyperus, 1898, p. 123; Kew Bull. 1932, p. 290; Blumea 1, 1935, p. 413.

(8) cf. Ridley in ‘The flora of Mt Ophir’ (Journ. Str. Br. Roy. As. Soc. no 35, 1901, p. 1-28); ferns.

(9) In Rumphius Gedenkboek 1902, p. 69.

(10) cf. Hook. Journ. Bot. & Kew Gard. Misc. 9, 1857, p. 189-190; Hook. Icon. Plant. 37, 1886-87, t. 1650.

(11) A.R. Wallace: ‘On the natural history of the Aru Islands’ (Ann. & Magaz. Nat. Hist. Lond. 20, 1857, p. 473-485).


biographical data:

A.R. Wallace: ‘My life. A record of events and opinions’ (London 1905, 2 vols, w. portrs); Who’s who 1913; Journ. Bot. 52, 1914, p. 15-18; Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 126. sess., 1914, p. 63-65; Encyclop. N.I. 4, 1921; Biogr. Index Britten & Boulger, 2nd ed. by Rendle, 1931; Backer, Verkl. Woordenb., 1936.