Collecting localities



Biographical data


Blume, Carl Ludwig


(Source: Flora Malesiana ser. 1, 1: Cyclopaedia of collectors)

(Source: Flora Malesiana ser. 1, 1: Cyclopaedia of collectors, Addenda & Corrigenda)

(Source: Flora Malesiana ser. 1, 5: Cyclopaedia of collectors, Supplement I)

(Source: Flora Malesiana ser. 1, 8: Cyclopaedia of collectors, Supplement II)


Born: 1796, Brunswick, Germany. Died: 1862, Leiden, Holland.



A medical doctor, went to Java in 1818, and was soon appointed Inspector of the Vaccine and at the same, time Assistant Director of the Buitenzorg Botanic Garden; in 1822 Director of this institution until 1826, when the latter situation was discontinued on account of economy. He then went to Holland, where he was appointed Director of the State Herbarium at Leiden (Rijks Herbarium) in 1829 (the first year still at Brussels).1 Together with Ph.Ff. von Siebold he made the project for the foundation of the ‘Kon. Ned. Maatschappij tot aanmoediging van den tuinbouw’ (Roy. Dutch Soc. for the Advancement of Horticulture), which took place in 1842.

He is the author of many important books on the flora of Java.2

He is commemorated in the genus Blumea A.P.DC.


Collecting localities:

W. Java: to Bantam, Tjiboam, Tji Oedjoeng, with Spanoghe and Kent (Dec. 31, 1821-Jan. 3, 1822);3 G. Salak (1822);4 G. Gedeh-Pangrango (Apr. 14, 1823).5-1824. Tour of inspection in Java,6 accompanied by G.H. Nagel, Kent, Latour, and pr. p. Hooper, in W. Java: exploration of the Duizendgebergte (G. Seriboe)7 (from Febr. 26, W of Buitenzorg; ascent on the 28th); departure from Pasir Djierak (March 3); to Romping (= Roempin) (here Hooper joined the party) (March 14-Apr. 1); trip to Koeripan7 and G. Dapoer; Romping (Apr. 14-18); Tangerang and environs of Batavia (till June 28); Krawang (according to Blume June 22, this date does not agree with the account of Nagel); Tjikao (July 5-13); G. Parang (14); back to Tjikao (Aug. 12); Wanyassa (13); G. Boerangrang (Aug. 17-Sept. 5); Tjiratjas; Wanyassa (= Wanajasa) (15); via Soebang to Indramajoe (18), Pamanoekan (21-22) and Kandang-Auer (= Kandanghaoer) (22); via Indramajoe to Cheribon and Tegal (no collecting was done here) and back; base of G. Tjeremai (Oct. 8)8 and Ling(g)a (D)Jati (8-12); ascent of the Tjeremai via Tjigerobak (13), reaching the summit on the 18th, leaving the mountain Oct. 24 on account of a forest fire; on the way (Nov. 3) via Tjiamis to Noesa Kambangan9 (stay till Dec. 1) (S of Centr. Java); back at Tjiamis (4), and via Bandoeng (29) and Tjiandjoer (30) returning to Buitenzorg. He is recorded to have ascended G. Tangkoeban Prahoe with Roorda van Eysinga in the same year.10-1825. With Nagel to Rembang (Centr. Java): starting Jan. 13, via Tjiandjoer, Bandoeng, Cheribon, Tegal, Pekalongan and Semarang, reaching Rembang on the 19th. In the same year he climbed G. Parang (Krawang, W. Java) with Nagel.11

Other localities in W. Java: Geger Bintang (spur of Mt Gedeh), G. Pantjar NE of Buitenzorg, Panaroekan (beach), G. Patoeha, Lembang, Megamendoeng, Telaga Warna, between Sadjira and Lebak.



Herb. Leiden [L] (also material in spirits)12; dupl. in Herb. Berl. [B] (284 nos from 1823­26), Herb. Bog. [BO] (in H.B. series), Brit. Mus. [BM] (by exch. 355 nos of Blume and others), Utrecht [U], Florence [FI] (recorded from Java and Celebes; this cannot be correct as Blume never collected outside Java),13 Paris [P], Vienna [W] (also Orch. from Java with Herb. Reichenbach; the Sumatra orchids cannot possibly be from Blume), Herb. Decand. (Geneva [G]), Herb. Deless. (Geneva [G]), N.Y. Bot. Gard. [NY] (acc. to Merrill in litt.), Herb. Bot. Gard St Petersb. (= Leningrad [LE]) (106 from Java), Herb. Sydney [NSW] (acq. in 1908), Herb. Kiel [KIEL] (Java); Herb. Senckenb. (= Univ.) Frankfurt [FR] (cryptogams only); Herb. Munich [M]; Herb. Breslau [WRSL], Cambridge [CGE] (with Herb. Lindley); Nat. Hist. Mus. Oldenburg [OLD]; Herb. Madrid [MA] (400, certainly mixed with plants collected by others in Sumatra, Moluccas, etc.); Herb. Copenhagen [C]; Herb. State Mus. Stockholm [S]. Also dupl. in Herb. Ličge [LG].4 Dupl. from Ambon (certainly not collected by himself) and Java in Herb. Edinb. [E].

The records of duplicates in foreign herbaria are certainly in several cases untrustworthy, as Blume sent duplicates from various collectors; these acquisitions were occasionally later labelled and listed under his name.

When he left Java, he took with him the greater part of the herbaria of Reinwardt, Kuhl, and van Hasselt; Blume issued a list concerning those herbaria.14

As to his own collections, it was always supposed that he took all of them to Europe. Only recently it was found that numerous duplicates had been left behind in the interest of the study of natural science in the Buitenzorg Botanic Gardens. These, and part of the collection which had mysteriously disappeared before his departure from Java, together with other plants, were offered for sale to the Dutch Government by G.J.A. Kollmann (see there) in 1836. The specimens which had been collected at Government expense (viz Blume and Zippel plants) were selected and kept at the Leiden Herbarium.15

It would be certainly worthwhile if a work as Merrill, Species Blancoanae, could be accomplished for Blume’s type specimens, as these authorized specimens are very welcome to the critical phytographer.

In 1833 J. Frank of The Hague, acting as a Lambert’s agent, sent him a parcel of Blume’s plants from Java (cf. Taxon 19, 1970, p. 515). This lot was later bought by Pamplin at the sale of L.’s herbarium; subsequent history unknown.



(1) cf. Alg. Konst- en Letterbode 18291, p. 227.

(2) e.g. ‘Catalogus van . . . ’s Lands Plantentuin’ (1823); ‘Tabellen en platen voor de Javaansche Orchideën’ (1825) (cf. Fedde Repert. 39, 1936, p. 318); ‘Bijdragen tot de Flora van Ned. Indië’ (Batavia 1825-27); ‘Flora Javae’ (1828) (for dates of publication cf. Blumea 3, 1939, p. 203-211); ‘Rumphia’ (1835-48); ‘Museum botaniqum Lugduno-Batavum’ (1849-56) ; ‘Mélanges botaniques’ (1855).

For publication dates of the ‘Bijdragen etc. and the ‘Flora Javae’ see respectively in Flora Malesiana Bull. no 4, Sept. 1948, p. 96-97; and l.c. no 2, Nov. 1947, p. 49, and no 5, July 1949, p. 138-141.

For particulars on the drawings of his publications see Cl. Nissen, ‘Die botanische Buchillustration’ 1951, vol. 2, p. 17. 

(3) C.L. Blume: ‘Bijdrage tot de kennis van het landschap Bantam etc.’ (Cybele no 6, 1827, p. 1-36); ‘Gedachten op eene reis door het zuidoostelijk gedeelte der residentie Bantam’ (Ind. Magaz. 2e twaalftal, nos 3-4, 1845, p. 1-36).

Also in ‘Mengelingen’ column in Bataviasche Courant 1822, nos 7, 8, 10, 13, 27, 28, 29, 32, 48.

(4) C.L. BBlume: ‘Beschrijving van eenige gewassen, waargenomen op eenen toght naar den Salakh in den jare 1822’(Verh. Bat. Gen. K. & W. 9, 1823, p. 129-202).

Review in Flora 81, 1825, p. 150-156.

Cf. Fr. Crépin, Guide de botaniste en Belgique, 1878, p. 301.

(5) cf. Letter in Flora 71, 1824, p. 289-295.

C.L. Blume: ‘Over de gesteldheid van het gebergte Gedeh’ (Verh. Bat. Gen. K. &W. 10, 1825, p. 55-104).

(6) cf. Letters in Flora 82, 1825, p. 577-585; l.c. p. 676-680; l.c. 92, 1826, p. 417-426 and 433-441.

G.H. Nagel: ‘Schetsen uit mijn Javaansche portefeuille’ (Amsterdam 1828).

(7) For the vegetation of G. Seriboe and Koeripan cf. Blume in Nagel, Javaansche tafereelen, Amsterdam 1829, p. 69-75.

(8) C.L. Blume: ‘Bestijging van den berg Tjerimai, gewoonlijk genoemd Tjermé, in de residentie Cheribon’ (Ind. Magaz. 2e twaalftal, nos 3-4, 1845, p. 102-116).

(9) cf. Flora 82, 1825, p. 558.

C.L. Blume: ‘Etwas über die Rhizantheae, eine neue Pflanzenfamilie, and die Gattung Rafflesia ins besondere’ (Flora 82, 1825, p. 609-624); in ‘Flora Javae’ Rhizantheae, 1828, p. 3-4; ‘lets over de Patma van Noesa Kambangan’ (Ind. Magaz. 2e twaalftal nos 3-4, 1845, p. 179-194).

(10) cf. J. Olivier: ‘Tafereelen en merkwaardigheden uit Oost-Indië’ (1836), p. 297.

(11) cf. Nat. Tijdschr. N.I. 31, 1870, p. 198.

(12) cf. Flora 141, 1831, p. 27-28.

(13) cf. Ph. Parlatore: ‘Les collections botaniques du Musée de Phys. et d’Hist. Nat. de Florence’ (1874), p. 52.

(14) ‘Enumeratio plantarum Javae et Insularum adjacentium ex herbariis Reinwardtii, Hasseltii, Kuhlii, Blumei, etc.’ (Lugd. Bat. 1827-28, 2 vols).

C.G. Nees von Esenbeck: ‘Plantae javanicae ineditae’ (Syll. Plant. Nov. Regensb. 1, 1824, p. 91-101) (describing plants collected by Blume).

(15) cf. M.J. van Steenis-Kruseman: ‘Kollmann’s collection of Javan plants’ (Bull. But. Gard. Buit. 3rd ser., vol. 18, in the press).


biographical data:

Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1862 (meeting May 24th), p. xcvi-xcviii; Bot. Zeitung 20, 1862, p. 56; Seemann Journ. Bot. 1, 1863, p. 64; Note by Weigel at the head of the catalogue of the library of Blume, which he offered for sale at Leipsic in 1863; Pritzel, Thes. Lit. Bot., 1872; Baillon, Dict. de Botanique 1, 1876; C. de Vos, Korte schets van de geschiedenis der plantkunde etc., Bolsward 1888, p. 91-92; Sirks, Ind. Nat. Onderzoek, Amsterdam 1915, p. 109-112 + portr.; Encyclop. N.1. 1917; portr. in Med.’s Rijksherb. 62a; cf. also l.c. 62b; Backer, Verkl. Woordenb., 1936; Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 51, 1941, p. 343.