Collecting localities



Biographical data


Wichura, Max Ernst


(Source: Flora Malesiana ser. 1, 1: Cyclopaedia of collectors)

(Source: Flora Malesiana ser. 1, 5: Cyclopaedia of collectors, Supplement I)


Born: 1817, Neisse, Silesia, Germany. Died: Febr. 24/25, 1866, Berlin, Germany.



Jurist-botanist, educated at Breslau and Bonn; from 1859 till his death ‘Regierungsrat’ at Breslau. In 1856 he made a journey to Lapland. From 1859-62 First Botanist of the ‘Preussische Expedition nach Ostasien’ (see below). In November 1865 he got the oppertunity to go to Berlin for the study of his collections, but an unfortunate accident caused his premature death.

Besides of an itinerary of the expedition (in letters),1 he is the author of some papers in German periodicals on hybridization in European plants; he had a lively interest in plant geography too.

He is commemorated in many plant names.


Collecting localities:

Prussian Expedition to East Asia, 1859-62.1 cf. also sub E. von Martens, O. Schottmüller, and F. von Richthofen. The scientific members embarked on the ‘Thetis’ and sailed from Danzig (Oct. 2, 1859); leaving Spithead (March 15, 1860); Madeira; Rio de Janeiro; W. Java: Anjer (July 24-25); Singapore (July 30-Aug. 11); Japan; China (1861); Siam; leaving Shanghai (March) for Hongkong; Philippines (May 2-June 19, 1861), in Luzon: Manila (May 2-8), Pasig River; Laguna del Bay (14-17): Bunang Onang, St. Cruz, Mahahai; St. Paulo (18), Tanauan (19); Laguna de Taal (19), ascending the volcano (20), Tanauan (21-22, at least Wichura), Calamba (23-27); Manila (May 28-June 1): in Mindanao: Samboanga (= Zamboanga) (June 13-18), making trips in the vicinity; SW. Celebes: Makassar (July 9-17), visiting Maros and Bantimoeroeng (10-12); E. Java: Pasoeroean (arrival 21), making trips to Malang, and Griseh (= Grissee); by land via Modjokerto (c. 30), Kediri (31), Modjun (= Madioen) (Aug. 1), and on horseback (3-6) across the mountains to Solo in Centr. Java, viz via Karambandan (slope G. Lawn), Djokja (7), Magelang (8), Ambarawa (9), Semarang (10), Pekalongan (12), Cheribon in W. Java (13), Sumadang (14-15); excursion to crater of Mt Papandajan from Bandoeng (17-18) via Tjisurupan; via Tjiandjur to Tjipan(n)as (19-20, visit to Ploem!); via Makmendon (= Megamendoeng) to Buitenzorg (20), Botanic Gardens (21); Batavia (Aug. 21-Sept. 24); Wichura decided to stay behind in Java for the study of tropical nature; Buitenzorg (Sept. 25-Nov. 9), at first ill with malaria, later spending much time in the Gardens; Tjipanas, Sindanglaja (10), Tjiandjur (12), Bandung (13-14); Pengalengan (15 or 16-18), making trips to G. Tiga (17, not on the summit), and G. Malabar; Gedong-Banteng on G. Malabar (19-21), climbing the mountain on the 20th; Bandung (22-24); thrice visiting G. Tangkuban Prahu from Lembang (25-27); Bandung (28-30), Sindanglaja and Tjipanas (Dec. 1-2); Tjibodas (3), trips to Tjibeureum, Kedung Badak, G. Gedeh (4), and Pangrango (5); Sindanglaja (6); Buitenzorg (7, on the way thither visiting lake near Puntjak); leaving (10) for Batavia (11-14); embarking (15) for Singapore (19), sailing via Muntok (Ban(g)ka, 17), Riouw (18); travelling by land via Ceylon and Calcutta to Europe, leaving Singapore on Jan. 9, 1862. The expedition in the meanwhile visited: Banka, Muntok (Sept. 12, 1861); Singapore (Sept. 15-Nov. 5); Bangkok; Singapore (Febr. 17-March 15, 1862), and subsequently returned to Europe, while E. von Martens (see there) set out alone on a voyage in the Malay Archipelago.



Herb. Berl. [B]. Part of his Java plants are numbered upwards of 2300; Herb. Bot. Gard. St Petersb. (= Leningrad [LE]): 28 mosses Mal. Arch. Also Wichura plants (perhaps not from the expedition) in Herb. Schles. Ges. Breslau [WRSL], Bot. Gard. Breslau, and Herb. Fritze in Rybnik.2

They were partly elaborated in Warburg, Monsunia (1900).



(1) ‘Die Preussische Expedition nach Ost-Asien’ (Berlin 1864-73, 7 vols + atlas; containing 4 vols Itinerary, 2 vols Zoology by E. von Martens, and 1 vol. Botany (Algae) by G. von Martens).

M. Wichura: ‘Aus 4 Welttheilen. Fin Reise-Tagebuch in Briefen’ (Breslau 1868).

In geographic names the German ‘u’ instead of the Dutch ‘oe’ is used.

(2) cf. Sydow, Deutscher Botaniker Kalender für 1899, p. 187.


biographical data:

Verb. Bot. Ver. Prov. Brandenburg 7, 1865, p. xix-xxii; Bot. Zeitung 24, 1866, p. 111-112; in Wichura, Aus vier Welttheilen, 1868, p. 452-456 + portr.; Engler in Rübezahl Schles. Prov. Bl. 13, 1874, Heft 8, 9 pp.+ portr. (non vidi); Bretschneider, Hist. Bot. Disc. China 1898, p. 941-942; Backer, Verkl. Woordenb., 1936.